Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 391

Search results for: Conceptual Indexing.

391 Semantic Indexing Approach of a Corpora Based On Ontology

Authors: Mohammed Erritali

Abstract:

The growth in the volume of text data such as books and articles in libraries for centuries has imposed to establish effective mechanisms to locate them. Early techniques such as abstraction, indexing and the use of classification categories have marked the birth of a new field of research called "Information Retrieval". Information Retrieval (IR) can be defined as the task of defining models and systems whose purpose is to facilitate access to a set of documents in electronic form (corpus) to allow a user to find the relevant ones for him, that is to say, the contents which matches with the information needs of the user. This paper presents a new semantic indexing approach of a documentary corpus. The indexing process starts first by a term weighting phase to determine the importance of these terms in the documents. Then the use of a thesaurus like Wordnet allows moving to the conceptual level. Each candidate concept is evaluated by determining its level of representation of the document, that is to say, the importance of the concept in relation to other concepts of the document. Finally, the semantic index is constructed by attaching to each concept of the ontology, the documents of the corpus in which these concepts are found.

Keywords: Semantic, indexing, corpora, WordNet, ontology.

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390 Indexing and Searching of Image Data in Multimedia Databases Using Axial Projection

Authors: Khalid A. Kaabneh

Abstract:

This paper introduces and studies new indexing techniques for content-based queries in images databases. Indexing is the key to providing sophisticated, accurate and fast searches for queries in image data. This research describes a new indexing approach, which depends on linear modeling of signals, using bases for modeling. A basis is a set of chosen images, and modeling an image is a least-squares approximation of the image as a linear combination of the basis images. The coefficients of the basis images are taken together to serve as index for that image. The paper describes the implementation of the indexing scheme, and presents the findings of our extensive evaluation that was conducted to optimize (1) the choice of the basis matrix (B), and (2) the size of the index A (N). Furthermore, we compare the performance of our indexing scheme with other schemes. Our results show that our scheme has significantly higher performance.

Keywords: Axial Projection, images, indexing, multimedia database, searching.

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389 Lecture Video Indexing and Retrieval Using Topic Keywords

Authors: B. J. Sandesh, Saurabha Jirgi, S. Vidya, Prakash Eljer, Gowri Srinivasa

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a framework to help users to search and retrieve the portions in the lecture video of their interest. This is achieved by temporally segmenting and indexing the lecture video using the topic keywords. We use transcribed text from the video and documents relevant to the video topic extracted from the web for this purpose. The keywords for indexing are found by applying the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) topic modeling techniques on the web documents. Our proposed technique first creates indices on the transcribed documents using the topic keywords, and these are mapped to the video to find the start and end time of the portions of the video for a particular topic. This time information is stored in the index table along with the topic keyword which is used to retrieve the specific portions of the video for the query provided by the users.

Keywords: Video indexing and retrieval, lecture videos, content based video search, multimodal indexing.

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388 Object-Based Image Indexing and Retrieval in DCT Domain using Clustering Techniques

Authors: Hossein Nezamabadi-pour, Saeid Saryazdi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new and effective image indexing technique that extracts features directly from DCT domain. Our proposed approach is an object-based image indexing. For each block of size 8*8 in DCT domain a feature vector is extracted. Then, feature vectors of all blocks of image using a k-means algorithm is clustered into groups. Each cluster represents a special object of the image. Then we select some clusters that have largest members after clustering. The centroids of the selected clusters are taken as image feature vectors and indexed into the database. Also, we propose an approach for using of proposed image indexing method in automatic image classification. Experimental results on a database of 800 images from 8 semantic groups in automatic image classification are reported.

Keywords: Object-based image retrieval, DCT domain, Image indexing, Image classification.

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387 Concept Indexing using Ontology and Supervised Machine Learning

Authors: Rossitza M. Setchi, Qiao Tang

Abstract:

Nowadays, ontologies are the only widely accepted paradigm for the management of sharable and reusable knowledge in a way that allows its automatic interpretation. They are collaboratively created across the Web and used to index, search and annotate documents. The vast majority of the ontology based approaches, however, focus on indexing texts at document level. Recently, with the advances in ontological engineering, it became clear that information indexing can largely benefit from the use of general purpose ontologies which aid the indexing of documents at word level. This paper presents a concept indexing algorithm, which adds ontology information to words and phrases and allows full text to be searched, browsed and analyzed at different levels of abstraction. This algorithm uses a general purpose ontology, OntoRo, and an ontologically tagged corpus, OntoCorp, both developed for the purpose of this research. OntoRo and OntoCorp are used in a two-stage supervised machine learning process aimed at generating ontology tagging rules. The first experimental tests show a tagging accuracy of 78.91% which is encouraging in terms of the further improvement of the algorithm.

Keywords: Concepts, indexing, machine learning, ontology, tagging.

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386 Image Indexing Using a Color Similarity Metric based on the Human Visual System

Authors: Angelo Nodari, Ignazio Gallo

Abstract:

The novelty proposed in this study is twofold and consists in the developing of a new color similarity metric based on the human visual system and a new color indexing based on a textual approach. The new color similarity metric proposed is based on the color perception of the human visual system. Consequently the results returned by the indexing system can fulfill as much as possibile the user expectations. We developed a web application to collect the users judgments about the similarities between colors, whose results are used to estimate the metric proposed in this study. In order to index the image's colors, we used a text indexing engine to facilitate the integration of visual features in a database of text documents. The textual signature is build by weighting the image's colors in according to their occurrence in the image. The use of a textual indexing engine, provide us a simple, fast and robust solution to index images. A typical usage of the system proposed in this study, is the development of applications whose data type is both visual and textual. In order to evaluate the proposed method we chose a price comparison engine as a case of study, collecting a series of commercial offers containing the textual description and the image representing a specific commercial offer.

Keywords: Color Extraction, Content-Based Image Retrieval, Indexing

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385 A Methodology for Creating a Conceptual Model Under Uncertainty

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Jiri Bartos, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

This article deals with the conceptual modeling under uncertainty. First, the division of information systems with their definition will be described, focusing on those where the construction of a conceptual model is suitable for the design of future information system database. Furthermore, the disadvantages of the traditional approach in creating a conceptual model and database design will be analyzed. A comprehensive methodology for the creation of a conceptual model based on analysis of client requirements and the selection of a suitable domain model is proposed here. This article presents the expert system used for the construction of a conceptual model and is a suitable tool for database designers to create a conceptual model.

Keywords: Conceptual model, conceptual modeling, database, methodology, uncertainty, information system, entity, attribute, relationship, conceptual domain model, fuzzy.

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384 Grouping and Indexing Color Features for Efficient Image Retrieval

Authors: M. V. Sudhamani, C. R. Venugopal

Abstract:

Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR) aims at searching image databases for specific images that are similar to a given query image based on matching of features derived from the image content. This paper focuses on a low-dimensional color based indexing technique for achieving efficient and effective retrieval performance. In our approach, the color features are extracted using the mean shift algorithm, a robust clustering technique. Then the cluster (region) mode is used as representative of the image in 3-D color space. The feature descriptor consists of the representative color of a region and is indexed using a spatial indexing method that uses *R -tree thus avoiding the high-dimensional indexing problems associated with the traditional color histogram. Alternatively, the images in the database are clustered based on region feature similarity using Euclidian distance. Only representative (centroids) features of these clusters are indexed using *R -tree thus improving the efficiency. For similarity retrieval, each representative color in the query image or region is used independently to find regions containing that color. The results of these methods are compared. A JAVA based query engine supporting query-by- example is built to retrieve images by color.

Keywords: Content-based, indexing, cluster, region.

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383 3D Objects Indexing with a Direct and Analytical Method for Calculating the Spherical Harmonics Coefficients

Authors: S. Hellam, Y. Oulahrir, F. El Mounchid, A. Sadiq, S. Mbarki

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method for threedimensional object indexing based on D.A.M.C-S.H.C descriptor (Direct and Analytical Method for Calculating the Spherical Harmonics Coefficients). For this end, we propose a direct calculation of the coefficients of spherical harmonics with perfect precision. The aims of the method are to minimize, the processing time on the 3D objects database and the searching time of similar objects to a request object. Firstly we start by defining the new descriptor using a new division of 3-D object in a sphere. Then we define a new distance which will be tested and prove his efficiency in the search for similar objects in the database in which we have objects with very various and important size.

Keywords: 3D Object indexing, 3D shape descriptor, spherical harmonic, 3D Object similarity.

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382 Fast Database Indexing for Large Protein Sequence Collections Using Parallel N-Gram Transformation Algorithm

Authors: Jehad A. H. Hammad, Nur'Aini binti Abdul Rashid

Abstract:

With the rapid development in the field of life sciences and the flooding of genomic information, the need for faster and scalable searching methods has become urgent. One of the approaches that were investigated is indexing. The indexing methods have been categorized into three categories which are the lengthbased index algorithms, transformation-based algorithms and mixed techniques-based algorithms. In this research, we focused on the transformation based methods. We embedded the N-gram method into the transformation-based method to build an inverted index table. We then applied the parallel methods to speed up the index building time and to reduce the overall retrieval time when querying the genomic database. Our experiments show that the use of N-Gram transformation algorithm is an economical solution; it saves time and space too. The result shows that the size of the index is smaller than the size of the dataset when the size of N-Gram is 5 and 6. The parallel N-Gram transformation algorithm-s results indicate that the uses of parallel programming with large dataset are promising which can be improved further.

Keywords: Biological sequence, Database index, N-gram indexing, Parallel computing, Sequence retrieval.

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381 Compressed Suffix Arrays to Self-Indexes Based on Partitioned Elias-Fano

Authors: Guo Wenyu, Qu Youli

Abstract:

A practical and simple self-indexing data structure, Partitioned Elias-Fano (PEF) - Compressed Suffix Arrays (CSA), is built in linear time for the CSA based on PEF indexes. Moreover, the PEF-CSA is compared with two classical compressed indexing methods, Ferragina and Manzini implementation (FMI) and Sad-CSA on different type and size files in Pizza & Chili. The PEF-CSA performs better on the existing data in terms of the compression ratio, count, and locates time except for the evenly distributed data such as proteins data. The observations of the experiments are that the distribution of the φ is more important than the alphabet size on the compression ratio. Unevenly distributed data φ makes better compression effect, and the larger the size of the hit counts, the longer the count and locate time.

Keywords: Compressed suffix array, self-indexing, partitioned Elias-Fano, PEF-CSA.

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380 An Semantic Algorithm for Text Categoritation

Authors: Xu Zhao

Abstract:

Text categorization techniques are widely used to many Information Retrieval (IR) applications. In this paper, we proposed a simple but efficient method that can automatically find the relationship between any pair of terms and documents, also an indexing matrix is established for text categorization. We call this method Indexing Matrix Categorization Machine (IMCM). Several experiments are conducted to show the efficiency and robust of our algorithm.

Keywords: Text categorization, Sub-space learning, Latent Semantic Space

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379 Visualization and Indexing of Spectral Databases

Authors: Tibor Kulcsar, Gabor Sarossy, Gabor Bereznai, Robert Auer, Janos Abonyi

Abstract:

On-line (near infrared) spectroscopy is widely used to support the operation of complex process systems. Information extracted from spectral database can be used to estimate unmeasured product properties and monitor the operation of the process. These techniques are based on looking for similar spectra by nearest neighborhood algorithms and distance based searching methods. Search for nearest neighbors in the spectral space is an NP-hard problem, the computational complexity increases by the number of points in the discrete spectrum and the number of samples in the database. To reduce the calculation time some kind of indexing could be used. The main idea presented in this paper is to combine indexing and visualization techniques to reduce the computational requirement of estimation algorithms by providing a two dimensional indexing that can also be used to visualize the structure of the spectral database. This 2D visualization of spectral database does not only support application of distance and similarity based techniques but enables the utilization of advanced clustering and prediction algorithms based on the Delaunay tessellation of the mapped spectral space. This means the prediction has not to use the high dimension space but can be based on the mapped space too. The results illustrate that the proposed method is able to segment (cluster) spectral databases and detect outliers that are not suitable for instance based learning algorithms.

Keywords: indexing high dimensional databases, dimensional reduction, clustering, similarity, k-nn algorithm.

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378 Data Extraction of XML Files using Searching and Indexing Techniques

Authors: Sushma Satpute, Vaishali Katkar, Nilesh Sahare

Abstract:

XML files contain data which is in well formatted manner. By studying the format or semantics of the grammar it will be helpful for fast retrieval of the data. There are many algorithms which describes about searching the data from XML files. There are no. of approaches which uses data structure or are related to the contents of the document. In these cases user must know about the structure of the document and information retrieval techniques using NLPs is related to content of the document. Hence the result may be irrelevant or not so successful and may take more time to search.. This paper presents fast XML retrieval techniques by using new indexing technique and the concept of RXML. When indexing an XML document, the system takes into account both the document content and the document structure and assigns the value to each tag from file. To query the system, a user is not constrained about fixed format of query.

Keywords: XML Retrieval, Indexed Search, Information Retrieval.

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377 NOHIS-Tree: High-Dimensional Index Structure for Similarity Search

Authors: Mounira Taileb, Sami Touati

Abstract:

In Content-Based Image Retrieval systems it is important to use an efficient indexing technique in order to perform and accelerate the search in huge databases. The used indexing technique should also support the high dimensions of image features. In this paper we present the hierarchical index NOHIS-tree (Non Overlapping Hierarchical Index Structure) when we scale up to very large databases. We also present a study of the influence of clustering on search time. The performance test results show that NOHIS-tree performs better than SR-tree. Tests also show that NOHIS-tree keeps its performances in high dimensional spaces. We include the performance test that try to determine the number of clusters in NOHIS-tree to have the best search time.

Keywords: High-dimensional indexing, k-nearest neighborssearch.

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376 UB-Tree Indexing for Semantic Query Optimization of Range Queries

Authors: S. Housseno, A. Simonet, M. Simonet

Abstract:

Semantic query optimization consists in restricting the search space in order to reduce the set of objects of interest for a query. This paper presents an indexing method based on UB-trees and a static analysis of the constraints associated to the views of the database and to any constraint expressed on attributes. The result of the static analysis is a partitioning of the object space into disjoint blocks. Through Space Filling Curve (SFC) techniques, each fragment (block) of the partition is assigned a unique identifier, enabling the efficient indexing of fragments by UB-trees. The search space corresponding to a range query is restricted to a subset of the blocks of the partition. This approach has been developed in the context of a KB-DBMS but it can be applied to any relational system.

Keywords: Index, Range query, UB-tree, Space Filling Curve, Query optimization, Views, Database, Integrity Constraint, Classification.

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375 Choosing R-tree or Quadtree Spatial DataIndexing in One Oracle Spatial Database System to Make Faster Showing Geographical Map in Mobile Geographical Information System Technology

Authors: Maruto Masserie Sardadi, Mohd Shafry bin Mohd Rahim, Zahabidin Jupri, Daut bin Daman

Abstract:

The latest Geographic Information System (GIS) technology makes it possible to administer the spatial components of daily “business object," in the corporate database, and apply suitable geographic analysis efficiently in a desktop-focused application. We can use wireless internet technology for transfer process in spatial data from server to client or vice versa. However, the problem in wireless Internet is system bottlenecks that can make the process of transferring data not efficient. The reason is large amount of spatial data. Optimization in the process of transferring and retrieving data, however, is an essential issue that must be considered. Appropriate decision to choose between R-tree and Quadtree spatial data indexing method can optimize the process. With the rapid proliferation of these databases in the past decade, extensive research has been conducted on the design of efficient data structures to enable fast spatial searching. Commercial database vendors like Oracle have also started implementing these spatial indexing to cater to the large and diverse GIS. This paper focuses on the decisions to choose R-tree and quadtree spatial indexing using Oracle spatial database in mobile GIS application. From our research condition, the result of using Quadtree and R-tree spatial data indexing method in one single spatial database can save the time until 42.5%.

Keywords: Indexing, Mobile GIS, MapViewer, Oracle SpatialDatabase.

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374 Using Interval Trees for Approximate Indexing of Instances

Authors: Khalil el Hindi

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple and effective method for approximate indexing of instances for instance based learning. The method uses an interval tree to determine a good starting search point for the nearest neighbor. The search stops when an early stopping criterion is met. The method proved to be very effective especially when only the first nearest neighbor is required.

Keywords: Instance based learning, interval trees, the knn algorithm, machine learning.

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373 An Efficient Graph Query Algorithm Based on Important Vertices and Decision Features

Authors: Xiantong Li, Jianzhong Li

Abstract:

Graph has become increasingly important in modeling complicated structures and schemaless data such as proteins, chemical compounds, and XML documents. Given a graph query, it is desirable to retrieve graphs quickly from a large database via graph-based indices. Different from the existing methods, our approach, called VFM (Vertex to Frequent Feature Mapping), makes use of vertices and decision features as the basic indexing feature. VFM constructs two mappings between vertices and frequent features to answer graph queries. The VFM approach not only provides an elegant solution to the graph indexing problem, but also demonstrates how database indexing and query processing can benefit from data mining, especially frequent pattern mining. The results show that the proposed method not only avoids the enumeration method of getting subgraphs of query graph, but also effectively reduces the subgraph isomorphism tests between the query graph and graphs in candidate answer set in verification stage.

Keywords: Decision Feature, Frequent Feature, Graph Dataset, Graph Query

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372 Region-Based Segmentation of Generic Video Scenes Indexing

Authors: Aree A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In this work we develop an object extraction method and propose efficient algorithms for object motion characterization. The set of proposed tools serves as a basis for development of objectbased functionalities for manipulation of video content. The estimators by different algorithms are compared in terms of quality and performance and tested on real video sequences. The proposed method will be useful for the latest standards of encoding and description of multimedia content – MPEG4 and MPEG7.

Keywords: Object extraction, Video indexing, Segmentation, Optical flow, Motion estimators.

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371 3D Objects Indexing Using Spherical Harmonic for Optimum Measurement Similarity

Authors: S. Hellam, Y. Oulahrir, F. El Mounchid, A. Sadiq, S. Mbarki

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method for three-dimensional (3-D)-model indexing based on defining a new descriptor, which we call new descriptor using spherical harmonics. The purpose of the method is to minimize, the processing time on the database of objects models and the searching time of similar objects to request object. Firstly we start by defining the new descriptor using a new division of 3-D object in a sphere. Then we define a new distance which will be used in the search for similar objects in the database.

Keywords: 3D indexation, spherical harmonic, similarity of 3D objects.

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370 Quebec Elementary Pre-service Teachers’ Conceptual Representations about Heat and Temperature

Authors: Abdeljalil Métioui

Abstract:

This article identifies the conceptual representations of 128 students enrolled in elementary pre-service teachers’ education in the Province of Quebec, Canada (ages 19-24). To construct their conceptual representations relatively to notions of heat and temperature, we use a qualitative research approach. For that, we distributed them a questionnaire including four questions. The result demonstrates that these students tend to view the temperature as a measure of the hotness of an object or person. They also related the sensation of cold (or warm) to the difference in temperature, and for their majority, the physical change of the matter does not require a constant temperature. These representations are inaccurate relatively to the scientific views, and we will see that they are relevant to the design of teaching strategies based on conceptual conflict.

Keywords: Conceptual representations, heat, temperature, pre-service teachers, elementary school.

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369 Dynamic Inverted Index Maintenance

Authors: Leo Galambos

Abstract:

The majority of today's IR systems base the IR task on two main processes: indexing and searching. There exists a special group of dynamic IR systems where both processes (indexing and searching) happen simultaneously; such a system discards obsolete information, simultaneously dealing with the insertion of new in¬formation, while still answering user queries. In these dynamic, time critical text document databases, it is often important to modify index structures quickly, as documents arrive. This paper presents a method for dynamization which may be used for this task. Experimental results show that the dynamization process is possible and that it guarantees the response time for the query operation and index actualization.

Keywords: Search engine, inverted file, index management.

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368 Enhancing Retrieval Effectiveness of Malay Documents by Exploiting Implicit Semantic Relationship between Words

Authors: Mohd Pouzi Hamzah, Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok

Abstract:

Phrases has a long history in information retrieval, particularly in commercial systems. Implicit semantic relationship between words in a form of BaseNP have shown significant improvement in term of precision in many IR studies. Our research focuses on linguistic phrases which is language dependent. Our results show that using BaseNP can improve performance although above 62% of words formation in Malay Language based on derivational affixes and suffixes.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, Malay Language, Semantic Relationship, Retrieval Effectiveness, Conceptual Indexing.

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367 Advertisement Effectiveness for Print Media: A Conceptual Model

Authors: Prateek Maheshwari, Nitin Seth, Anoop Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The objective of present research paper is to highlight the importance of measuring advertisement effectiveness in print media and to develop a conceptual model for advertisement effectiveness. The developed model is based on dimensions on which advertisement effectiveness depends and on the dimensions which are used to measure the effectiveness. An in-depth and extensive literature review is carried out to understand the concept of advertisement effectiveness and its various determinants in context of print media. Based on the insights gained, a conceptual framework for advertisement effectiveness is presented. The model is an attempt to uncover the relatively less explored area of advertisement effectiveness in Indian advertising scenario. It is believed that present work will encourage scholars and academicians to further explore the area and will offer conceptual assistance and a fresh direction in the domain of advertisement effectiveness.

Keywords: Advertisement Effectiveness, Conceptual Model, Effectiveness Dimensions, Print Media.

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366 Fuzzy C-Means Clustering for Biomedical Documents Using Ontology Based Indexing and Semantic Annotation

Authors: S. Logeswari, K. Premalatha

Abstract:

Search is the most obvious application of information retrieval. The variety of widely obtainable biomedical data is enormous and is expanding fast. This expansion makes the existing techniques are not enough to extract the most interesting patterns from the collection as per the user requirement. Recent researches are concentrating more on semantic based searching than the traditional term based searches. Algorithms for semantic searches are implemented based on the relations exist between the words of the documents. Ontologies are used as domain knowledge for identifying the semantic relations as well as to structure the data for effective information retrieval. Annotation of data with concepts of ontology is one of the wide-ranging practices for clustering the documents. In this paper, indexing based on concept and annotation are proposed for clustering the biomedical documents. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm is used to cluster the documents. The performances of the proposed methods are analyzed with traditional term based clustering for PubMed articles in five different diseases communities. The experimental results show that the proposed methods outperform the term based fuzzy clustering.

Keywords: MeSH Ontology, Concept Indexing, Annotation, semantic relations, Fuzzy c-means.

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365 Distributional Semantics Approach to Thai Word Sense Disambiguation

Authors: Sunee Pongpinigpinyo, Wanchai Rivepiboon

Abstract:

Word sense disambiguation is one of the most important open problems in natural language processing applications such as information retrieval and machine translation. Many approach strategies can be employed to resolve word ambiguity with a reasonable degree of accuracy. These strategies are: knowledgebased, corpus-based, and hybrid-based. This paper pays attention to the corpus-based strategy that employs an unsupervised learning method for disambiguation. We report our investigation of Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), an information retrieval technique and unsupervised learning, to the task of Thai noun and verbal word sense disambiguation. The Latent Semantic Indexing has been shown to be efficient and effective for Information Retrieval. For the purposes of this research, we report experiments on two Thai polysemous words, namely  /hua4/ and /kep1/ that are used as a representative of Thai nouns and verbs respectively. The results of these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and indicate the potential of applying vector-based distributional information measures to semantic disambiguation.

Keywords: Distributional semantics, Latent Semantic Indexing, natural language processing, Polysemous words, unsupervisedlearning, Word Sense Disambiguation.

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364 Testing Database of Information System using Conceptual Modeling

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

This paper focuses on testing database of existing information system. At the beginning we describe the basic problems of implemented databases, such as data redundancy, poor design of database logical structure or inappropriate data types in columns of database tables. These problems are often the result of incorrect understanding of the primary requirements for a database of an information system. Then we propose an algorithm to compare the conceptual model created from vague requirements for a database with a conceptual model reconstructed from implemented database. An algorithm also suggests steps leading to optimization of implemented database. The proposed algorithm is verified by an implemented prototype. The paper also describes a fuzzy system which works with the vague requirements for a database of an information system, procedure for creating conceptual from vague requirements and an algorithm for reconstructing a conceptual model from implemented database.

Keywords: testing, database, relational database, information system, conceptual model, fuzzy, uncertain information, database testing, reconstruction, requirements, optimization

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363 The Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers in Primary School Teachers

Authors: R. M. Kashim

Abstract:

The study investigates the conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number in primary school teachers, specifically, the primary school teachers level of conceptual knowledge about rational number and the primary school teachers level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in Bauchi state of Nigeria. A Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test was used as the instrument for data collection, 54 mathematics teachers in Bauchi primary schools were involved in the study. The collections were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the primary school mathematics teachers in Bauchi metropolis posses a low level of conceptual knowledge of rational number and also possess a high level of Procedural knowledge of rational number. It is therefore recommended that to be effective, teachers teaching mathematics most posses a deep understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge. That way the most knowledgeable teachers in mathematics deliver highly effective rational number instructions. Teachers should not ignore the mathematical concept aspect of rational number teaching. This is because only the procedural aspect of Rational number is highlighted during instructions; this often leads to rote - learning of procedures without understanding the meanings. It is necessary for teachers to learn rational numbers teaching method that focus on both conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge teaching.

Keywords: Conceptual knowledge, primary school teachers, procedural knowledge, rational numbers.

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362 Systematic Functional Analysis Methods for Design Retrieval and Documentation

Authors: L. Zehtaban, D. Roller

Abstract:

Apart from geometry, functionality is one of the most significant hallmarks of a product. The functionality of a product can be considered as the fundamental justification for a product existence. Therefore a functional analysis including a complete and reliable descriptor has a high potential to improve product development process in various fields especially in knowledge-based design. One of the important applications of the functional analysis and indexing is in retrieval and design reuse concept. More than 75% of design activity for a new product development contains reusing earlier and existing design know-how. Thus, analysis and categorization of product functions concluded by functional indexing, influences directly in design optimization. This paper elucidates and evaluates major classes for functional analysis by discussing their major methods. Moreover it is finalized by presenting a noble hybrid approach for functional analysis.

Keywords: Functional analysis, design reuse, functionalindexing and representation.

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