Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 438

Search results for: Video indexing

438 Lecture Video Indexing and Retrieval Using Topic Keywords

Authors: B. J. Sandesh, Saurabha Jirgi, S. Vidya, Prakash Eljer, Gowri Srinivasa

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a framework to help users to search and retrieve the portions in the lecture video of their interest. This is achieved by temporally segmenting and indexing the lecture video using the topic keywords. We use transcribed text from the video and documents relevant to the video topic extracted from the web for this purpose. The keywords for indexing are found by applying the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) topic modeling techniques on the web documents. Our proposed technique first creates indices on the transcribed documents using the topic keywords, and these are mapped to the video to find the start and end time of the portions of the video for a particular topic. This time information is stored in the index table along with the topic keyword which is used to retrieve the specific portions of the video for the query provided by the users.

Keywords: Video indexing and retrieval, lecture videos, content based video search, multimodal indexing.

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437 Region-Based Segmentation of Generic Video Scenes Indexing

Authors: Aree A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In this work we develop an object extraction method and propose efficient algorithms for object motion characterization. The set of proposed tools serves as a basis for development of objectbased functionalities for manipulation of video content. The estimators by different algorithms are compared in terms of quality and performance and tested on real video sequences. The proposed method will be useful for the latest standards of encoding and description of multimedia content – MPEG4 and MPEG7.

Keywords: Object extraction, Video indexing, Segmentation, Optical flow, Motion estimators.

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436 Video Summarization: Techniques and Applications

Authors: Zaynab Elkhattabi, Youness Tabii, Abdelhamid Benkaddour

Abstract:

Nowadays, huge amount of multimedia repositories make the browsing, retrieval and delivery of video contents very slow and even difficult tasks. Video summarization has been proposed to improve faster browsing of large video collections and more efficient content indexing and access. In this paper, we focus on approaches to video summarization. The video summaries can be generated in many different forms. However, two fundamentals ways to generate summaries are static and dynamic. We present different techniques for each mode in the literature and describe some features used for generating video summaries. We conclude with perspective for further research.

Keywords: Semantic features, static summarization, video skimming, Video summarization.

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435 Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber Shauder DWT and SVD

Authors: Assma Azeroual, Karim Afdel, Mohamed El Hajji, Hassan Douzi

Abstract:

Key frame extraction methods select the most representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures. When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.

Keywords: Key Frame Extraction, Shot detection, FSDWT, Singular Value Decomposition.

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434 Indexing and Searching of Image Data in Multimedia Databases Using Axial Projection

Authors: Khalid A. Kaabneh

Abstract:

This paper introduces and studies new indexing techniques for content-based queries in images databases. Indexing is the key to providing sophisticated, accurate and fast searches for queries in image data. This research describes a new indexing approach, which depends on linear modeling of signals, using bases for modeling. A basis is a set of chosen images, and modeling an image is a least-squares approximation of the image as a linear combination of the basis images. The coefficients of the basis images are taken together to serve as index for that image. The paper describes the implementation of the indexing scheme, and presents the findings of our extensive evaluation that was conducted to optimize (1) the choice of the basis matrix (B), and (2) the size of the index A (N). Furthermore, we compare the performance of our indexing scheme with other schemes. Our results show that our scheme has significantly higher performance.

Keywords: Axial Projection, images, indexing, multimedia database, searching.

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433 Spatio-Temporal Video Slice Edges Analysis for Shot Transition Detection and Classification

Authors: Aissa Saoudi, Hassane Essafi

Abstract:

In this work we will present a new approach for shot transition auto-detection. Our approach is based on the analysis of Spatio-Temporal Video Slice (STVS) edges extracted from videos. The proposed approach is capable to efficiently detect both abrupt shot transitions 'cuts' and gradual ones such as fade-in, fade-out and dissolve. Compared to other techniques, our method is distinguished by its high level of precision and speed. Those performances are obtained due to minimizing the problem of the boundary shot detection to a simple 2D image partitioning problem.

Keywords: Boundary shot detection, Shot transition detection, Video analysis, Video indexing.

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432 Inverse Sets-based Recognition of Video Clips

Authors: Alexei M. Mikhailov

Abstract:

The paper discusses the mathematics of pattern indexing and its applications to recognition of visual patterns that are found in video clips. It is shown that (a) pattern indexes can be represented by collections of inverted patterns, (b) solutions to pattern classification problems can be found as intersections and histograms of inverted patterns and, thus, matching of original patterns avoided.

Keywords: Artificial neural cortex, computational biology, data mining, pattern recognition.

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431 Object-Based Image Indexing and Retrieval in DCT Domain using Clustering Techniques

Authors: Hossein Nezamabadi-pour, Saeid Saryazdi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new and effective image indexing technique that extracts features directly from DCT domain. Our proposed approach is an object-based image indexing. For each block of size 8*8 in DCT domain a feature vector is extracted. Then, feature vectors of all blocks of image using a k-means algorithm is clustered into groups. Each cluster represents a special object of the image. Then we select some clusters that have largest members after clustering. The centroids of the selected clusters are taken as image feature vectors and indexed into the database. Also, we propose an approach for using of proposed image indexing method in automatic image classification. Experimental results on a database of 800 images from 8 semantic groups in automatic image classification are reported.

Keywords: Object-based image retrieval, DCT domain, Image indexing, Image classification.

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430 H.263 Based Video Transceiver for Wireless Camera System

Authors: Won-Ho Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a design of H.263 based wireless video transceiver is presented for wireless camera system. It uses standard WIFI transceiver and the covering area is up to 100m. Furthermore the standard H.263 video encoding technique is used for video compression since wireless video transmitter is unable to transmit high capacity raw data in real time and the implemented system is capable of streaming at speed of less than 1Mbps using NTSC 720x480 video.

Keywords: Digital signal processing, H.263 video encoder, surveillance camera, wireless video transceiver.

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429 Concept Indexing using Ontology and Supervised Machine Learning

Authors: Rossitza M. Setchi, Qiao Tang

Abstract:

Nowadays, ontologies are the only widely accepted paradigm for the management of sharable and reusable knowledge in a way that allows its automatic interpretation. They are collaboratively created across the Web and used to index, search and annotate documents. The vast majority of the ontology based approaches, however, focus on indexing texts at document level. Recently, with the advances in ontological engineering, it became clear that information indexing can largely benefit from the use of general purpose ontologies which aid the indexing of documents at word level. This paper presents a concept indexing algorithm, which adds ontology information to words and phrases and allows full text to be searched, browsed and analyzed at different levels of abstraction. This algorithm uses a general purpose ontology, OntoRo, and an ontologically tagged corpus, OntoCorp, both developed for the purpose of this research. OntoRo and OntoCorp are used in a two-stage supervised machine learning process aimed at generating ontology tagging rules. The first experimental tests show a tagging accuracy of 78.91% which is encouraging in terms of the further improvement of the algorithm.

Keywords: Concepts, indexing, machine learning, ontology, tagging.

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428 Abrupt Scene Change Detection

Authors: Priyadarshinee Adhikari, Neeta Gargote, Jyothi Digge, B.G. Hogade

Abstract:

A number of automated shot-change detection methods for indexing a video sequence to facilitate browsing and retrieval have been proposed in recent years. This paper emphasizes on the simulation of video shot boundary detection using one of the methods of the color histogram wherein scaling of the histogram metrics is an added feature. The difference between the histograms of two consecutive frames is evaluated resulting in the metrics. Further scaling of the metrics is performed to avoid ambiguity and to enable the choice of apt threshold for any type of videos which involves minor error due to flashlight, camera motion, etc. Two sample videos are used here with resolution of 352 X 240 pixels using color histogram approach in the uncompressed media. An attempt is made for the retrieval of color video. The simulation is performed for the abrupt change in video which yields 90% recall and precision value.

Keywords: Abrupt change, color histogram, ground-truthing, precision, recall, scaling, threshold.

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427 Video Mining for Creative Rendering

Authors: Mei Chen

Abstract:

More and more home videos are being generated with the ever growing popularity of digital cameras and camcorders. For many home videos, a photo rendering, whether capturing a moment or a scene within the video, provides a complementary representation to the video. In this paper, a video motion mining framework for creative rendering is presented. The user-s capture intent is derived by analyzing video motions, and respective metadata is generated for each capture type. The metadata can be used in a number of applications, such as creating video thumbnail, generating panorama posters, and producing slideshows of video.

Keywords: Motion mining, semantic abstraction, video mining, video representation.

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426 Enhanced Frame-based Video Coding to Support Content-based Functionalities

Authors: Prabhudev Hosur, Rolando Carrasco

Abstract:

This paper presents the enhanced frame-based video coding scheme. The input source video to the enhanced frame-based video encoder consists of a rectangular-size video and shapes of arbitrarily-shaped objects on video frames. The rectangular frame texture is encoded by the conventional frame-based coding technique and the video object-s shape is encoded using the contour-based vertex coding. It is possible to achieve several useful content-based functionalities by utilizing the shape information in the bitstream at the cost of a very small overhead to the bitrate.

Keywords: Video coding, content-based, hyper video, interactivity, shape coding, polygon.

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425 Semantic Indexing Approach of a Corpora Based On Ontology

Authors: Mohammed Erritali

Abstract:

The growth in the volume of text data such as books and articles in libraries for centuries has imposed to establish effective mechanisms to locate them. Early techniques such as abstraction, indexing and the use of classification categories have marked the birth of a new field of research called "Information Retrieval". Information Retrieval (IR) can be defined as the task of defining models and systems whose purpose is to facilitate access to a set of documents in electronic form (corpus) to allow a user to find the relevant ones for him, that is to say, the contents which matches with the information needs of the user. This paper presents a new semantic indexing approach of a documentary corpus. The indexing process starts first by a term weighting phase to determine the importance of these terms in the documents. Then the use of a thesaurus like Wordnet allows moving to the conceptual level. Each candidate concept is evaluated by determining its level of representation of the document, that is to say, the importance of the concept in relation to other concepts of the document. Finally, the semantic index is constructed by attaching to each concept of the ontology, the documents of the corpus in which these concepts are found.

Keywords: Semantic, indexing, corpora, WordNet, ontology.

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424 Video Quality Assessment Methods: A Bird’s-Eye View

Authors: P. M. Arun Kumar, S. Chandramathi

Abstract:

The proliferation of multimedia technology and services in today’s world provide ample research scope in the frontiers of visual signal processing. Wide spread usage of video based applications in heterogeneous environment needs viable methods of Video Quality Assessment (VQA). The evaluation of video quality not only depends on high QoS requirements but also emphasis the need of novel term ‘QoE’ (Quality of Experience) that perceive video quality as user centric. This paper discusses two vital video quality assessment methods namely, subjective and objective assessment methods. The evolution of various video quality metrics, their classification models and applications are reviewed in this work. The Mean Opinion Score (MOS) based subjective measurements and algorithm based objective metrics are discussed and their challenges are outlined. Further, this paper explores the recent progress of VQA in emerging technologies such as mobile video and 3D video.

Keywords: 3D-Video, no reference metric, quality of experience, video quality assessment, video quality metrics.

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423 Image Indexing Using a Color Similarity Metric based on the Human Visual System

Authors: Angelo Nodari, Ignazio Gallo

Abstract:

The novelty proposed in this study is twofold and consists in the developing of a new color similarity metric based on the human visual system and a new color indexing based on a textual approach. The new color similarity metric proposed is based on the color perception of the human visual system. Consequently the results returned by the indexing system can fulfill as much as possibile the user expectations. We developed a web application to collect the users judgments about the similarities between colors, whose results are used to estimate the metric proposed in this study. In order to index the image's colors, we used a text indexing engine to facilitate the integration of visual features in a database of text documents. The textual signature is build by weighting the image's colors in according to their occurrence in the image. The use of a textual indexing engine, provide us a simple, fast and robust solution to index images. A typical usage of the system proposed in this study, is the development of applications whose data type is both visual and textual. In order to evaluate the proposed method we chose a price comparison engine as a case of study, collecting a series of commercial offers containing the textual description and the image representing a specific commercial offer.

Keywords: Color Extraction, Content-Based Image Retrieval, Indexing

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422 Shot Boundary Detection Using Octagon Square Search Pattern

Authors: J. Kavitha, S. Sowmyayani, P. Arockia Jansi Rani

Abstract:

In this paper, a shot boundary detection method is presented using octagon square search pattern. The color, edge, motion and texture features of each frame are extracted and used in shot boundary detection. The motion feature is extracted using octagon square search pattern. Then, the transition detection method is capable of detecting the shot or non-shot boundaries in the video using the feature weight values. Experimental results are evaluated in TRECVID video test set containing various types of shot transition with lighting effects, object and camera movement within the shots. Further, this paper compares the experimental results of the proposed method with existing methods. It shows that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-art methods for shot boundary detection.

Keywords: Content-based indexing and retrieval, cut transition detection, discrete wavelet transform, shot boundary detection, video source.

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421 Grouping and Indexing Color Features for Efficient Image Retrieval

Authors: M. V. Sudhamani, C. R. Venugopal

Abstract:

Content-based Image Retrieval (CBIR) aims at searching image databases for specific images that are similar to a given query image based on matching of features derived from the image content. This paper focuses on a low-dimensional color based indexing technique for achieving efficient and effective retrieval performance. In our approach, the color features are extracted using the mean shift algorithm, a robust clustering technique. Then the cluster (region) mode is used as representative of the image in 3-D color space. The feature descriptor consists of the representative color of a region and is indexed using a spatial indexing method that uses *R -tree thus avoiding the high-dimensional indexing problems associated with the traditional color histogram. Alternatively, the images in the database are clustered based on region feature similarity using Euclidian distance. Only representative (centroids) features of these clusters are indexed using *R -tree thus improving the efficiency. For similarity retrieval, each representative color in the query image or region is used independently to find regions containing that color. The results of these methods are compared. A JAVA based query engine supporting query-by- example is built to retrieve images by color.

Keywords: Content-based, indexing, cluster, region.

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420 Comparison of Performance between Different SVM Kernels for the Identification of Adult Video

Authors: Hajar Bouirouga, Sanaa El Fkihi , Abdeilah Jilbab, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a method for recognition of adult video based on support vector machine (SVM). Different kernel features are proposed to classify adult videos. SVM has an advantage that it is insensitive to the relative number of training example in positive (adult video) and negative (non adult video) classes. This advantage is illustrated by comparing performance between different SVM kernels for the identification of adult video.

Keywords: Skin detection, Support vector machine, Pornographic videos, Feature extraction, Video filtering, Classification.

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419 Content-based Indoor/Outdoor Video Classification System for a Mobile Platform

Authors: Mitko Veta, Tomislav Kartalov, Zoran Ivanovski

Abstract:

Organization of video databases is becoming difficult task as the amount of video content increases. Video classification based on the content of videos can significantly increase the speed of tasks such as browsing and searching for a particular video in a database. In this paper, a content-based videos classification system for the classes indoor and outdoor is presented. The system is intended to be used on a mobile platform with modest resources. The algorithm makes use of the temporal redundancy in videos, which allows using an uncomplicated classification model while still achieving reasonable accuracy. The training and evaluation was done on a video database of 443 videos downloaded from a video sharing service. A total accuracy of 87.36% was achieved.

Keywords: Indoor/outdoor, video classification, imageclassification

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418 Key Frame Based Video Summarization via Dependency Optimization

Authors: Janya Sainui

Abstract:

As a rapid growth of digital videos and data communications, video summarization that provides a shorter version of the video for fast video browsing and retrieval is necessary. Key frame extraction is one of the mechanisms to generate video summary. In general, the extracted key frames should both represent the entire video content and contain minimum redundancy. However, most of the existing approaches heuristically select key frames; hence, the selected key frames may not be the most different frames and/or not cover the entire content of a video. In this paper, we propose a method of video summarization which provides the reasonable objective functions for selecting key frames. In particular, we apply a statistical dependency measure called quadratic mutual informaion as our objective functions for maximizing the coverage of the entire video content as well as minimizing the redundancy among selected key frames. The proposed key frame extraction algorithm finds key frames as an optimization problem. Through experiments, we demonstrate the success of the proposed video summarization approach that produces video summary with better coverage of the entire video content while less redundancy among key frames comparing to the state-of-the-art approaches.

Keywords: Video summarization, key frame extraction, dependency measure, quadratic mutual information, optimization.

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417 An Optical Flow Based Segmentation Method for Objects Extraction

Authors: C. Lodato, S. Lopes

Abstract:

This paper describes a segmentation algorithm based on the cooperation of an optical flow estimation method with edge detection and region growing procedures. The proposed method has been developed as a pre-processing stage to be used in methodologies and tools for video/image indexing and retrieval by content. The addressed problem consists in extracting whole objects from background for producing images of single complete objects from videos or photos. The extracted images are used for calculating the object visual features necessary for both indexing and retrieval processes. The first task of the algorithm exploits the cues from motion analysis for moving area detection. Objects and background are then refined using respectively edge detection and region growing procedures. These tasks are iteratively performed until objects and background are completely resolved. The developed method has been applied to a variety of indoor and outdoor scenes where objects of different type and shape are represented on variously textured background.

Keywords: Motion Detection, Object Extraction, Optical Flow, Segmentation.

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416 Automated Feature Points Management for Video Mosaic Construction

Authors: Jing Li, Quan Pan, Stan. Z. Li, Tao Yang

Abstract:

A novel algorithm for construct a seamless video mosaic of the entire panorama continuously by automatically analyzing and managing feature points, including management of quantity and quality, from the sequence is presented. Since a video contains significant redundancy, so that not all consecutive video images are required to create a mosaic. Only some key images need to be selected. Meanwhile, feature-based methods for mosaicing rely on correction of feature points? correspondence deeply, and if the key images have large frame interval, the mosaic will often be interrupted by the scarcity of corresponding feature points. A unique character of the method is its ability to handle all the problems above in video mosaicing. Experiments have been performed under various conditions, the results show that our method could achieve fast and accurate video mosaic construction. Keywords?video mosaic, feature points management, homography estimation.

Keywords: Video mosaic, feature points management, homography estimation.

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415 3D Objects Indexing with a Direct and Analytical Method for Calculating the Spherical Harmonics Coefficients

Authors: S. Hellam, Y. Oulahrir, F. El Mounchid, A. Sadiq, S. Mbarki

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method for threedimensional object indexing based on D.A.M.C-S.H.C descriptor (Direct and Analytical Method for Calculating the Spherical Harmonics Coefficients). For this end, we propose a direct calculation of the coefficients of spherical harmonics with perfect precision. The aims of the method are to minimize, the processing time on the 3D objects database and the searching time of similar objects to a request object. Firstly we start by defining the new descriptor using a new division of 3-D object in a sphere. Then we define a new distance which will be tested and prove his efficiency in the search for similar objects in the database in which we have objects with very various and important size.

Keywords: 3D Object indexing, 3D shape descriptor, spherical harmonic, 3D Object similarity.

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414 Techniques for Video Mosaicing

Authors: P.Saravanan, Narayanan .C.K., P.V.S.S Prakash, Prabhakara Rao .G.V

Abstract:

Video Mosaicing is the stitching of selected frames of a video by estimating the camera motion between the frames and thereby registering successive frames of the video to arrive at the mosaic. Different techniques have been proposed in the literature for video mosaicing. Despite of the large number of papers dealing with techniques to generate mosaic, only a few authors have investigated conditions under which these techniques generate good estimate of motion parameters. In this paper, these techniques are studied under different videos, and the reasons for failures are found. We propose algorithms with incorporation of outlier removal algorithms for better estimation of motion parameters.

Keywords: Motion parameters, Outlier removal algorithms, Registering , and Video Mosaicing.

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413 Modeling of Statistically Multiplexed Non Uniform Activity VBR Video

Authors: J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

This paper reports the feasibility of the ARMA model to describe a bursty video source transmitting over a AAL5 ATM link (VBR traffic). The traffic represents the activity of the action movie "Lethal Weapon 3" transmitted over the ATM network using the Fore System AVA-200 ATM video codec with a peak rate of 100 Mbps and a frame rate of 25. The model parameters were estimated for a single video source and independently multiplexed video sources. It was found that the model ARMA (2, 4) is well-suited for the real data in terms of average rate traffic profile, probability density function, autocorrelation function, burstiness measure, and the pole-zero distribution of the filter model.

Keywords: ARMA, ATM networks, burstiness, multimediatraffic, VBR video.

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412 Fast Database Indexing for Large Protein Sequence Collections Using Parallel N-Gram Transformation Algorithm

Authors: Jehad A. H. Hammad, Nur'Aini binti Abdul Rashid

Abstract:

With the rapid development in the field of life sciences and the flooding of genomic information, the need for faster and scalable searching methods has become urgent. One of the approaches that were investigated is indexing. The indexing methods have been categorized into three categories which are the lengthbased index algorithms, transformation-based algorithms and mixed techniques-based algorithms. In this research, we focused on the transformation based methods. We embedded the N-gram method into the transformation-based method to build an inverted index table. We then applied the parallel methods to speed up the index building time and to reduce the overall retrieval time when querying the genomic database. Our experiments show that the use of N-Gram transformation algorithm is an economical solution; it saves time and space too. The result shows that the size of the index is smaller than the size of the dataset when the size of N-Gram is 5 and 6. The parallel N-Gram transformation algorithm-s results indicate that the uses of parallel programming with large dataset are promising which can be improved further.

Keywords: Biological sequence, Database index, N-gram indexing, Parallel computing, Sequence retrieval.

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411 A High Bitrate Information Hiding Algorithm for Video in Video

Authors: Wang Shou-Dao, Xiao Chuang-Bai, Lin Yu

Abstract:

In high bitrate information hiding techniques, 1 bit is embedded within each 4 x 4 Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficient block by means of vector quantization, then the hidden bit can be effectively extracted in terminal end. In this paper high bitrate information hiding algorithms are summarized, and the scheme of video in video is implemented. Experimental result shows that the host video which is embedded numerous auxiliary information have little visually quality decline. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)Y of host video only degrades 0.22dB in average, while the hidden information has a high percentage of survives and keeps a high robustness in H.264/AVC compression, the average Bit Error Rate(BER) of hiding information is 0.015%.

Keywords: Information Hiding, Embed, Quantification, Extract

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410 Compressed Suffix Arrays to Self-Indexes Based on Partitioned Elias-Fano

Authors: Guo Wenyu, Qu Youli

Abstract:

A practical and simple self-indexing data structure, Partitioned Elias-Fano (PEF) - Compressed Suffix Arrays (CSA), is built in linear time for the CSA based on PEF indexes. Moreover, the PEF-CSA is compared with two classical compressed indexing methods, Ferragina and Manzini implementation (FMI) and Sad-CSA on different type and size files in Pizza & Chili. The PEF-CSA performs better on the existing data in terms of the compression ratio, count, and locates time except for the evenly distributed data such as proteins data. The observations of the experiments are that the distribution of the φ is more important than the alphabet size on the compression ratio. Unevenly distributed data φ makes better compression effect, and the larger the size of the hit counts, the longer the count and locate time.

Keywords: Compressed suffix array, self-indexing, partitioned Elias-Fano, PEF-CSA.

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409 An Semantic Algorithm for Text Categoritation

Authors: Xu Zhao

Abstract:

Text categorization techniques are widely used to many Information Retrieval (IR) applications. In this paper, we proposed a simple but efficient method that can automatically find the relationship between any pair of terms and documents, also an indexing matrix is established for text categorization. We call this method Indexing Matrix Categorization Machine (IMCM). Several experiments are conducted to show the efficiency and robust of our algorithm.

Keywords: Text categorization, Sub-space learning, Latent Semantic Space

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