Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 165

Search results for: Chinese idiom

165 OCIRS: An Ontology-based Chinese Idioms Retrieval System

Authors: Hu Haibo, Tu Chunmei, Fu Chunlei, Fu Li, Mao Fan, Ma Yuan

Abstract:

Chinese Idioms are a type of traditional Chinese idiomatic expressions with specific meanings and stereotypes structure which are widely used in classical Chinese and are still common in vernacular written and spoken Chinese today. Currently, Chinese Idioms are retrieved in glossary with key character or key word in morphology or pronunciation index that can not meet the need of searching semantically. OCIRS is proposed to search the desired idiom in the case of users only knowing its meaning without any key character or key word. The user-s request in a sentence or phrase will be grammatically analyzed in advance by word segmentation, key word extraction and semantic similarity computation, thus can be mapped to the idiom domain ontology which is constructed to provide ample semantic relations and to facilitate description logics-based reasoning for idiom retrieval. The experimental evaluation shows that OCIRS realizes the function of searching idioms via semantics, obtaining preliminary achievement as requested by the users.

Keywords: Chinese idiom, idiom retrieval, semantic searching, ontology, semantics similarity.

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164 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

Abstract:

This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the Pictogram Chinese Characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary representation to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution or transition. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assist the learner to learn Chinese as second language (CSL) in Chinese language learning, specifically on memorizing Chinese characters. Commonly, the CSL will give up and frustrate easily while memorizing the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation helps on memorizing the Chinese character by visual storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of the CSL.

Keywords: Chinese E-learning, Innovative Chinese character representation.

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163 Language Learning Strategies of Chinese Students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand

Authors: G. Anugkakul, S. Yordchim

Abstract:

The objectives were to study language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by Chinese students, and the frequency of LLSs they used, and examine the relationship between the use of LLSs and gender. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford was administered to thirty-six Chinese students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Three useful findings were found on the use of LLSs reported by Chinese students. First, Chinese students used overall LLSs at a high level. Second, among the six strategy groups, Chinese students employed compensation strategy most frequently and memory strategy least frequently. Third, the research results also revealed that gender had significant effect on Chinese Student’s use of overall LLSs.

Keywords: English language, Language Learning Strategy, Chinese Students, Gender.

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162 Comparative Study of Affricate Initial Consonants in Chinese and Slovak

Authors: Maria Istvanova

Abstract:

The purpose of the comparative study of the affricate consonants in Chinese and Slovak is to increase the awareness of the main distinguishing features between these two languages taking into consideration this particular group of consonants. We determine the main difficulties of the Slovak learners in the process of acquiring correct pronunciation of affricate initial consonants in Chinese based on the understanding of the distinguishing features of Chinese and Slovak affricates in combination with the experimental measuring of voice onset time (VOT) values. The software tool Praat is used for the analysis of the recorded language samples. The language samples contain recordings of a Chinese native speaker and Slovak students of Chinese with different language proficiency levels. Based on the results of the analysis in Praat, we identify erroneous pronunciation and provide clarification of its cause.

Keywords: Chinese, comparative study, initial consonants, pronunciation, Slovak

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161 Stop Consonants in Chinese and Slovak: Contrastive Analysis by Using Praat

Authors: Maria Istvanova

Abstract:

The acquisition of the correct pronunciation in Chinese is closely linked to the initial phase of the study. Based on the contrastive analysis, we determine the differences in the pronunciation of stop consonants in Chinese and Slovak taking into consideration the place and manner of articulation to gain a better understanding of the students' main difficulties in the process of acquiring correct pronunciation of Chinese stop consonants. We employ the software Praat for the analysis of the recorded samples with an emphasis on the pronunciation of the students with a varying command of Chinese. The comparison of the voice onset time (VOT) length for the individual consonants in the students' pronunciation and the pronunciation of the native speaker exposes the differences between the correct pronunciation and the deviant pronunciation of the students.

Keywords: Chinese, contrastive analysis, Praat, pronunciation, Slovak.

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160 The Study of Idiom Translation in Fiction from English into Thai

Authors: Chinchira Bunchutrakun

Abstract:

The purposes of the study are to investigate the problems that the translators encountered when translating English idioms into Thai and study the strategies they applied in solving the problems. The original English version and the Thai translated version of each of two works of fiction were purposively selected for the study. The first was Mr. Maybe, written by Jane Green and translated by Montharat Songphao. The second was The Trials of Tiffany Trott, written by Isabel Wolff and translated by Jitraporn Notoda. Thirty idioms of two translated works of fiction were, then, analyzed. Questionnaires and interviews with the translators of each novel were conducted to obtain the best possible information.

The results indicated that the only type of problem that occurred was cultural problems, and these were solved differently by the two translators

Keywords: Translation, idiom translation, fiction translation, problem-solution strategies.

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159 Chinese Preferences of Hotel Websites: the Differences among Different Regions

Authors: Shanshan Qi, Rob Law, Dimitrios Buhalis

Abstract:

The fast technology and economic growth in China has attracted global attention in its tourism development. This study makes an effort on investigating China-s online tourism market and the Chinese online travelers- perceptions of hotel websites. The findings are expected to better understand Chinese customers- online preference and identified the differences among online travelers from different regions in the country. Empirical findings showed online reservation information is the most important factor to Chinese customers, and tourists from different regions of China have perception difference on user-friendly factor. The findings benefit hoteliers from understanding their websites development and formulating more appropriate online strategies to meet the requirements of Chinese travelers.

Keywords: Chinese online travelers, Hotel websites, Regions of China, Website usefulness

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158 Chinese Tourists’s Behaviors towards Travel and Shopping in Bangkok

Authors: Sasitorn Chetanont

Abstract:

The objectives of this study are to study Chinese tourist’s Behaviors towards travel and shopping in Bangkok. The research methodology was a quantitative research. The sample of this research was 400 Chinese tourists in Bangkok chosen by the accidental sampling and the purposive sampling. Inferential Statistics Analysis by using the Chi-square statistics. As for the results of this study the researcher found that differences between personal, social and cultural information, i.e., gender, age, place of residence, educational level, occupation, income, family, and main objectives of tourism with behaviors of Chinese tourists in Bangkok towards travel and shopping in Bangkok.

Keywords: Tourists’ behavior, Chinese tourists, travelling, expenses in travels.

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157 Manufacturers-Retailers: The New Actor in the U.S. Furniture Industry. Characteristics and Implications for the Chinese Industry

Authors: Lidia Martínez Murillo

Abstract:

Since the 1990s the American furniture industry faces a transition period. Manufacturers, one of its most important actors made its entrance into the retail industry. This shift has had deep consequences not only for the American furniture industry as a whole, but also for other international furniture industries, especially the Chinese. The present work aims to analyze this actor based on the distinction provided by the Global Commodity Chain Theory. It stresses its characteristics, structure, operational way and importance for both the U.S. and the Chinese furniture industries.

Keywords: M&RC, blended strategy, U.S. furniture industry, Chinese furniture industry.

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156 Manufacturers-Retailers: The New Actor in the U.S. Furniture Industry. Characteristics and Implications for the Chinese Furniture Industry

Authors: Lidia Martínez Murillo

Abstract:

Since the 1990s the American furniture industry faces a transition period. Manufacturers, one of its most important actors made its entrance into the retail industry. This shift has had deep consequences not only for the American furniture industry as a whole, but also for other international furniture industries, especially the Chinese. The present work aims to analyze this actor based on the distinction provided by the Global Commodity Chain Theory. It stresses its characteristics, structure, operational way and importance for both the U.S. and the Chinese furniture industries.

Keywords: M&RC, blended strategy, U.S. furniture industry, Chinese furniture industry.

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155 Interactive Chinese Character Learning System though Pictograph Evolution

Authors: J.H. Low, C.O. Wong, E.J. Han, K.R Kim K.C. Jung, H.K. Yang

Abstract:

This paper proposes an Interactive Chinese Character Learning System (ICCLS) based on pictorial evolution as an edutainment concept in computer-based learning of language. The advantage of the language origination itself is taken as a learning platform due to the complexity in Chinese language as compared to other types of languages. Users especially children enjoy more by utilize this learning system because they are able to memories the Chinese Character easily and understand more of the origin of the Chinese character under pleasurable learning environment, compares to traditional approach which children need to rote learning Chinese Character under un-pleasurable environment. Skeletonization is used as the representation of Chinese character and object with an animated pictograph evolution to facilitate the learning of the language. Shortest skeleton path matching technique is employed for fast and accurate matching in our implementation. User is required to either write a word or draw a simple 2D object in the input panel and the matched word and object will be displayed as well as the pictograph evolution to instill learning. The target of computer-based learning system is for pre-school children between 4 to 6 years old to learn Chinese characters in a flexible and entertaining manner besides utilizing visual and mind mapping strategy as learning methodology.

Keywords: Computer-based learning, Chinese character, pictograph evolution, skeletonization.

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154 Migration Aspect in the Realization of the Chinese “Going Out Policy” Strategy

Authors: Nazira B. Boldurukova

Abstract:

The article examines the potential of the Chinese diaspora abroad. Investigate the influence of the highest in the People's Republic of foreign economic strategy of "Going to the outside" on the investment activity of Chinese enterprises abroad, the export of labor.

Keywords: China, migrants, reform, economic strategy, migration policy, huaqiao.

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153 Breast Motion and Discomfort of Chinese Women in Three Breast Support Conditions

Authors: X.N. Chen, J.P. Wang, D. Jiang, S.M. Shen, Y.K. Yang

Abstract:

Breast motion and discomfort has been studied in Australia, Britain and the United States, while little information was known about the breast motion conditions of Chinese women. The aim of this paper was to study the breast motion and discomfort of Chinese women in no bra condition, daily bra condition and sports bra condition. Breast motion and discomfort of 8 participants was assessed during walking at 5km h-1 and running at 10km h-1. Statistical methods were used to analyze the difference and relationship between breast displacement, perceived breast motion and breast discomfort. Three indexes were developed to evaluate the functions of bras on reducing objective breast motion, subjective breast motion and breast discomfort. The result showed that breast motion of Chinese women was smaller than previous research, which may be resulted from smaller breast size in Asian women.

Keywords: Breast discomfort, breast motion, breast support conditions, Chinese women.

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152 Deciphering Chinese Calligraphy as the Architectural Essence of Tao Fong Shan Christian Center in Hong Kong

Authors: Chak Kwong Lau

Abstract:

Many buildings in Hong Kong are graced with enchanting works of Chinese calligraphy. An excellent example is Tao Fong Shan Christian Center founded by a Norwegian missionary, Karl Ludvig Reichelt (1877-1952) in 1930. Adorned with many inspiring works of Chinese calligraphy, the center functions as a place for the study of Christianity where people of different religions can meet to have religious discussions and intellectual exchanges. This paper examines the pivotal role played by Chinese calligraphy in creating a significant context for the center to fulfill her visions and missions. The methodology of this research involves stylistic and textual analyses of works of calligraphy, in particular through an examination and interpretation of their extended meanings in terms of architectural symbology and social and cultural contexts. Findings showed that Chinese calligraphy was effectively used as a powerful vehicle for a purposeful development of contextual Christian spirituality in Hong Kong.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, Hong Kong architecture, Hong Kong calligraphy, Johannes Prip-Møller, Karl Ludvig Reichelt, Norwegian missionary, Tao Fong Shan Christian Center, traditional Chinese architecture, contextual Christian spirituality, Chinese arts and culture.

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151 Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language: Immersion Teaching

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Kiu Su Na

Abstract:

This paper discusses the Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language by focusing on Immersion Teaching. Researchers used narrative literature review to describe the current states of both art and science in focused areas of inquiry. Immersion teaching comes with a standard that teachers must reliably meet. Chinese language-immersion instruction consists of language and content lessons, including functional usage of the language, academic language, authentic language, and correct Chinese sociocultural language. Researchers used narrative literature reviews to build a scientific knowledge base. Researchers collected all the important points of discussion, and put them here with reference to the specific field where this paper is originally based on. The findings show that Chinese Language in immersion teaching is not like standard foreign language classroom; immersion setting provides more opportunities to teach students colloquial language than academic. Immersion techniques also introduce a language’s cultural and social contexts in a meaningful and memorable way. It is particularly important that immersion teachers connect classwork with real-life experiences. Immersion also includes more elements of discovery and inquiry based learning than do other kinds of instructional practices. Students are always and consistently interpreted the conclusions and context clues.

Keywords: A second language, Chinese language teaching, immersion teaching, instructional strategies.

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150 Betel Nut Beauty in Taiwan: Chinese Tourists- Perspective

Authors: Shwu-Huey Wang, Hsiu-Yuan Wang

Abstract:

Tourists- eyes will often be attracted by the unique phenomenon of the roadsides: betel nut beauties (pronounced as binlang xishi in Mandarin), if they drive on the roads of Taiwan. Sitting in the neon-lit glass stalls with attractive dress on the roadsides, betel nut beauties usually sell betel nuts to the passing truckers or car drivers with much of their efforts. Moreover, in order to attract peoples- eyesight and increase the sales volume, the young girls are in skimpy clothing to promote betel nuts or beverages to their customers. Therefore, when the Chinese tourists come to Taiwan, to see the unique betel nut beauty phenomenon has become one of their greatly interested things or even a “must see". This paper describes betel but beauties in Taiwan, explained why the Chinese tourists like to see them in Taiwan and proposed propositions for examination.

Keywords: Betel nut, betel nut beauty, Chinese tourists, tourism.

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149 Legal Awareness of Surakarta Local Government Officer to Law Number 12 Year 2006 on Citizenship in Vanishing Civic Discrimination to Chinese Indonesians

Authors: Triyanto

Abstract:

The purposes of the paper are to know and improve the legal awareness of Surakarta local government officer to Law No.12/2006 on Citizenship in vanishing civic discrimination to Chinese Indonesians. Some issues of the Chinese Indonesian are the definitions of Indonesian citizens and native Indonesian people or “warga negara Indonesia (WNI) asli" and their obligation to show Indonesian Citizenship Certificate (SBKRI) in processing civil documents. Legal awareness of Surakarta local government officer can be categorized as “legal knowledge" only. They know the laws but they do not implement it yet. Nevertheless, at least this research has given the new awareness in citizenship law for the officers.

Keywords: Legal Awareness, Government Officer, Civic Discrimination, Chinese Indonesians

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148 School Homework and its Relationship with Student Academic Achievement in Malaysia

Authors: F. P., Chew, M. H., Teong, Z. Ishak

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School homework has been synonymous with students- life in Chinese national type primary schools in Malaysia. Although many reports in the press claimed that students were burdened with too much of it, homework continues to be a common practice in national type schools that is believed to contribute to academic achievement. This study is conducted to identify the relationship between the burden of school homework and academic achievement among pupils in Chinese National Type Primary School in the state of Perak, Malaysia. A total of 284 students (142 from urban and 142 from rural) respectively were chosen as participants in this study. Variables of gender and location (urban/rural areas) has shown significant difference in student academic achievement. Female Chinese student from rural areas showed a higher mean score than males from urban area. Therefore, the Chinese language teachers should give appropriate and relevant homework to primary school students to achieve good academic performance.

Keywords: homework, academic achievement, Chinese National Type Primary Schools

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147 “Context” Thinking of Contemporary Urban History Space under the Basis of Enlightenment of Chinese Traditional Cultural Philology - Taking West Expansion Plan of Tianyi Pavilion as an Example

Authors: Wei Yan, Wei Dong

Abstract:

Facing the understanding problem of update and preservation of urban history space under background of rapid Chinese urbanization, so at first there is a need to dig the philosophic principles of “antithesis” and “unification” which are contained in the traditional Chinese literature known as “antithesis” and do the job of planning translation by personal understanding in order to form understanding and value systems of dialectical urban history space under the foundation of “antithesis”. Then we could put forward a “context” concept for urban history space under the foregoing basis. After that, we will take the update and preservation of Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion’s historical district as an example to discuss problems related to understanding of urban history area under the basis of Chinese tradition culture, improvement of value system, construction of urban trait space and Chinese “localization” of planning theory.

Keywords: Antithesis, traditional values, City renewal and conservation, the “context” of city history space.

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146 Machine Translation Analysis of Chinese Dish Names

Authors: Xinyu Zhang, Olga Torres-Hostench

Abstract:

This article presents a comparative study evaluating and comparing the quality of machine translation (MT) output of Chinese gastronomy nomenclature. Chinese gastronomic culture is experiencing an increased international acknowledgment nowadays. The nomenclature of Chinese gastronomy not only reflects a specific aspect of culture, but it is related to other areas of society such as philosophy, traditional medicine, etc. Chinese dish names are composed of several types of cultural references, such as ingredients, colors, flavors, culinary techniques, cooking utensils, toponyms, anthroponyms, metaphors, historical tales, among others. These cultural references act as one of the biggest difficulties in translation, in which the use of translation techniques is usually required. Regarding the lack of Chinese food-related translation studies, especially in Chinese-Spanish translation, and the current massive use of MT, the quality of the MT output of Chinese dish names is questioned. Fifty Chinese dish names with different types of cultural components were selected in order to complete this study. First, all of these dish names were translated by three different MT tools (Google Translate, Baidu Translate and Bing Translator). Second, a questionnaire was designed and completed by 12 Chinese online users (Chinese graduates of a Hispanic Philology major) in order to find out user preferences regarding the collected MT output. Finally, human translation techniques were observed and analyzed to identify what translation techniques would be observed more often in the preferred MT proposals. The result reveals that the MT output of the Chinese gastronomy nomenclature is not of high quality. It would be recommended not to trust the MT in occasions like restaurant menus, TV culinary shows, etc. However, the MT output could be used as an aid for tourists to have a general idea of a dish (the main ingredients, for example). Literal translation turned out to be the most observed technique, followed by borrowing, generalization and adaptation, while amplification, particularization and transposition were infrequently observed. Possibly because that the MT engines at present are limited to relate equivalent terms and offer literal translations without taking into account the whole context meaning of the dish name, which is essential to the application of those less observed techniques. This could give insight into the post-editing of the Chinese dish name translation. By observing and analyzing translation techniques in the proposals of the machine translators, the post-editors could better decide which techniques to apply in each case so as to correct mistakes and improve the quality of the translation.

Keywords: Chinese dish names, cultural references, machine translation, translation techniques.

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145 On the Factors Influencing the Competitiveness of Chinese Service Trade after Entering WTO

Authors: Ying Wang

Abstract:

Service trade is an important force of influencing economic development. A review on the related literatures is done firstly. Then through the construction of a Diamond Model, the main factors which influence the competitiveness of Chinese service trade are determined. With three competitiveness indexes served as the reference series respectively, the influencing factors served as the comparable series, three grey incidence models are then built up to conduct an empirical analysis on the main factors influencing the competitiveness of service trade after China entering WTO. The result indicates that urbanization level, open degree of service industry and foreign direct investment have larger impacts on Chinese service trade competitiveness, followed in turn by GDP in service industry and human capital, while commodity trade has the minimum impact. Further discussion provides train of thought for the upgrade of Chinese service trade competitiveness.

Keywords: Service Trade, Competitiveness, Diamond Model, Grey Incidence Model.

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144 Exploring the Destination Image of Mainland China Tourists to Taiwan by Word-of-Mouth on Web

Authors: Y. R. Li, Y. Y. Wang

Abstract:

After allowing direct flights from Mainland China to Taiwan, Chinese tourists increased according to Tourism Bureaustatistics. There are from 0.19 to 2 million tourists from 2008 to 2011. Mainland China has become the main source of Taiwan developing tourism industry. Taiwanese government should know more about comments from Chinese tourists to Taiwan in order toproperly market Taiwan tourism and enhance the overall quality of tourism. In order to understand Chinese visitors’ comments, this study adopts content analysis to analyze electronic word-of-mouth on Web. This study collects 375 blog articles of Chinese tourists from Ctrip.com as a database during 2009 to 2011. Through the qualitative data analysis the traveling destination imagesis divided into seven dimensions, such as senic spots, shopping, food and beverages, accommodations, transportation, festivals and recreation activities. Finally, this study proposes some practical managerial implication to know both positive and negative images of the seven dimensions from Chinese tourists, providing marketing strategies and suggestions to traveling agency industry.

Keywords: Destination Image, Content Analysis, Electronic Word-of-Mouth.

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143 The Current Status of Middle Class Internet Use in China: An Analysis Based on the Chinese General Social Survey 2015 Data and Semi-Structured Investigation

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

In today's China, the well-educated middle class, with stable jobs and above-average income, are the driving force behind its Internet society. Through the analysis of data from the 2015 Chinese General Social Survey and 50 interviewees, this study investigates the current situation of this group’s specific internet usage. The findings of this study demonstrate that daily life among the members of this socioeconomic group is closely tied to the Internet. For Chinese middle class, the Internet is used to socialize and entertain self and others. It is also used to search for and share information as well as to build their identities. The empirical results of this study will provide a reference, supported by factual data, for enterprises seeking to target the Chinese middle class through online marketing efforts.

Keywords: China, internet use, middle class, network behavior, online marketing.

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142 Measuring the Development Level of Chinese Regional Service Industry: An Empirical Analysis based on Entropy Weight and TOPSIS

Authors: Nan Li, Ying Wang

Abstract:

Using entropy weight and TOPSIS method, a comprehensive evaluation is done on the development level of Chinese regional service industry in this paper. Firstly, based on existing research results, an evaluation index system is constructed from the scale of development, the industrial structure and the economic benefits. An evaluation model is then built up based on entropy weight and TOPSIS, and an empirical analysis is conducted on the development level of service industries in 31 Chinese provinces during 2006 and 2009 from the two dimensions or time series and cross section, which provides new idea for assessing regional service industry. Furthermore, the 31 provinces are classified into four categories based on the evaluation results, and deep analysis is carried out on the evaluation results.

Keywords: Chinese regional service industry, Development level, Entropy weight, TOPSIS Evaluation Method

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141 A New Integer Programming Formulation for the Chinese Postman Problem with Time Dependent Travel Times

Authors: Jinghao Sun, Guozhen Tan, Guangjian Hou

Abstract:

The Chinese Postman Problem (CPP) is one of the classical problems in graph theory and is applicable in a wide range of fields. With the rapid development of hybrid systems and model based testing, Chinese Postman Problem with Time Dependent Travel Times (CPPTDT) becomes more realistic than the classical problems. In the literature, we have proposed the first integer programming formulation for the CPPTDT problem, namely, circuit formulation, based on which some polyhedral results are investigated and a cutting plane algorithm is also designed. However, there exists a main drawback: the circuit formulation is only available for solving the special instances with all circuits passing through the origin. Therefore, this paper proposes a new integer programming formulation for solving all the general instances of CPPTDT. Moreover, the size of the circuit formulation is too large, which is reduced dramatically here. Thus, it is possible to design more efficient algorithm for solving the CPPTDT in the future research.

Keywords: Chinese Postman Problem, Time Dependent, Integer Programming, Upper Bound Analysis.

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140 Learning Mandarin Chinese as a Foreign Language in a Bilingual Context: Adult Learners’ Perceptions of the Use of L1 Maltese and L2 English in Mandarin Chinese Lessons in Malta

Authors: Christiana Gauci-Sciberras

Abstract:

The first language (L1) could be used in foreign language teaching and learning as a pedagogical tool to scaffold new knowledge in the target language (TL) upon linguistic knowledge that the learner already has. In a bilingual context, code-switching between the two languages usually occurs in classrooms. One of the reasons for code-switching is because both languages are used for scaffolding new knowledge. This research paper aims to find out why both the L1 (Maltese) and the L2 (English) are used in the classroom of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the bilingual context of Malta. This research paper also aims to find out the learners’ perceptions of the use of a bilingual medium of instruction. Two research methods were used to collect qualitative data; semi-structured interviews with adult learners of Mandarin Chinese and lesson observations. These two research methods were used so that the data collected in the interviews would be triangulated with data collected in lesson observations. The L1 (Maltese) is the language of instruction mostly used. The teacher and the learners switch to the L2 (English) or to any other foreign language according to the need at a particular instance during the lesson.

Keywords: Chinese, bilingual, pedagogical purpose of L1 and L2, CFL acquisition.

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139 Under the ‘Fourth World’: A Discussion to the Transformation of Character-Settings in Chinese Ethnic Minority Films

Authors: Sicheng Liu

Abstract:

Based on the key issue of the current fourth world studies, the article aims to analyze the features of character-settings in Chinese ethnic minority films. As a generalizable transformation, this feature progresses from a microcosmic representation. It argues that, as the mediation, films note down the current state of people and their surroundings, while the ‘fourth world’ theorization (or the fourth cinema) provides a new perspective to ethnic minority topics in China. Like the ‘fourth cinema’ focusing on the depiction of indigeneity groups, the ethnic minority films portrait the non-Han nationalities in China. Both types possess the motif of returning history-writing to the minority members’ own hand. In this article, the discussion entirely involves three types of cinematic role-settings in Chinese minority themed films, which illustrates that, similar to the creative principle of the fourth film, the themes and narratives of these films are becoming more individualized, with more concern to minority grassroots.

Keywords: Fourth world, Chinese ethnic minority films, ethnicity and culture reflection, mother tongue (muyu), highlighting to individual spirits.

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138 Comparison of Current Chinese and Japanese Design Specification for Bridge Pile in Liquefied Ground

Authors: Baydaa H. Maula, Ling Zhang, Tang Liang, Gao Xia, Xu Peng-Ju, Zhang Yong-Qiang, Kang Jie, Su Lei

Abstract:

Firstly, this study briefly presents the current situation that there exists a vast gap between current Chinese and Japanese seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation in liquefiable and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading ground; The Chinese and Japanese seismic design method and technical detail for bridge pile foundation in liquefying and lateral spreading ground are described and compared systematically and comprehensively, the methods of determining coefficient of subgrade reaction and its reduction factor as well as the computing mode of the applied force on pile foundation due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading soil in Japanese design specification are especially introduced. Subsequently, the comparison indicates that the content of Chinese seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation in liquefiable and liquefaction-induced lateral spreading ground, just presenting some qualitative items, is too general and lacks systematicness and maneuverability. Finally, some defects of seismic design specification in China are summarized, so the improvement and revision of specification in the field turns out to be imperative for China, some key problems of current Chinese specifications are generalized and the corresponding improvement suggestions are proposed.

Keywords: liquefying soil, laterally spreading ground, seismic design specification for bridge pile foundation.

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137 Further Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Students

Authors: Xun Ge

Abstract:

Recently, X. Ge and J. Qian investigated some relations between higher mathematics scores and calculus scores (resp. linear algebra scores, probability statistics scores) for Chinese university students. Based on rough-set theory, they established an information system S = (U,CuD,V, f). In this information system, higher mathematics score was taken as a decision attribute and calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score were taken as condition attributes. They investigated importance of each condition attribute with respective to decision attribute and strength of each condition attribute supporting decision attribute. In this paper, we give further investigations for this issue. Based on the above information system S = (U, CU D, V, f), we analyze the decision rules between condition and decision granules. For each x E U, we obtain support (resp. strength, certainty factor, coverage factor) of the decision rule C —>x D, where C —>x D is the decision rule induced by x in S = (U, CU D, V, f). Results of this paper gives new analysis of on higher mathematics scores for Chinese university students, which can further lead Chinese university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.

Keywords: Rough set, support, strength, certainty factor, coverage factor.

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136 A Study on Bilingual Semantic Processing: Category Effects and Age Effects

Authors: Lai Yi-Hsiu

Abstract:

The present study addressed the nature of bilingual semantic processing in Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min and examined category effects and age effects. Nineteen bilingual adults of Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min, nine monolingual seniors of Mandarin Chinese, and ten monolingual seniors of Southern Min in Taiwan individually completed two semantic tasks: Picture naming and category fluency tasks. The instruments for the naming task were sixty black-and-white pictures, including thirty-five object pictures and twenty-five action pictures. The category fluency task also consisted of two semantic categories – objects (or nouns) and actions (or verbs). The reaction time for each picture/question was additionally calculated and analyzed. Oral productions in Mandarin Chinese and in Southern Min were compared and discussed to examine the category effects and age effects. The results of the category fluency task indicated that the content of information of these seniors was comparatively deteriorated, and thus they produced a smaller number of semantic-lexical items. Significant group differences were also found in the reaction time results. Category effects were significant for both adults and seniors in the semantic fluency task. The findings of the present study will help characterize the nature of the bilingual semantic processing of adults and seniors, and contribute to the fields of contrastive and corpus linguistics.

Keywords: Bilingual semantic processing, aging, Mandarin Chinese, Southern Min.

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