Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: rabbits

20 Assessment of Breeding Soundness by Comparative Radiography and Ultrasonography of Rabbit Testes

Authors: Adenike O. Olatunji-Akioye, Emmanual B Farayola

Abstract:

In order to improve the animal protein recommended daily intake of Nigerians, there is an upsurge in breeding of hitherto shunned food animals one of which is the rabbit. Radiography and ultrasonography are tools for diagnosing disease and evaluating the anatomical architecture of parts of the body non-invasively. As the rabbit is becoming a more important food animal, to achieve improved breeding of these animals, the best of the species form a breeding stock and will usually depend on breeding soundness which may be evaluated by assessment of the male reproductive organs by these tools. Four male intact rabbits weighing between 1.2 to 1.5 kg were acquired and acclimatized for 2 weeks. Dorsoventral views of the testes were acquired using a digital radiographic machine and a 5 MHz portable ultrasound scanner was used to acquire images of the testes in longitudinal, sagittal and transverse planes. Radiographic images acquired revealed soft tissue images of the testes in all rabbits. The testes lie in individual scrotal sacs sides on both sides of the midline at the level of the caudal vertebrae and thus are superimposed by caudal vertebrae and the caudal limits of the pelvic girdle. The ultrasonographic images revealed mostly homogenously hypoechogenic testes and a hyperechogenic mediastinum testis. The dorsal and ventral poles of the testes were heterogeneously hypoechogenic and correspond to the epididymis and spermatic cord. The rabbit is unique in the ability to retract the testes particularly when stressed and so careful and stressless handling during the procedures is of paramount importance. The imaging of rabbit testes can be safely done using both imaging methods but ultrasonography is a better method of assessment and evaluation of soundness for breeding.

Keywords: Breeding soundness, rabbits, radiography, ultrasonography.

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19 ELISA Based hTSH Assessment Using Two Sensitive and Specific Anti-hTSH Polyclonal Antibodies

Authors: Maysam Mard-Soltani, Mohamad Javad Rasaee, Saeed Khalili, Abdol Karim Sheikhi, Mehdi Hedayati

Abstract:

Production of specific antibody responses against hTSH is a cumbersome process due to the high identity between the hTSH and the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family (FSH, LH and HCG) and the high identity between the human hTSH and host animals for antibody production. Therefore, two polyclonal antibodies were purified against two recombinant proteins. Four possible ELISA tests were designed based on these antibodies. These ELISA tests were checked against hTSH and other glycoprotein hormones, and their sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Bioinformatics tools were used to analyze the immunological properties. After the immunogen region selection from hTSH protein, c terminal of B hTSH was selected and applied. Two recombinant genes, with these cut pieces (first: two repeats of C terminal of B hTSH, second: tetanous toxin+B hTSH C terminal), were designed and sub-cloned into the pET32a expression vector. Standard methods were used for protein expression, purification, and verification. Thereafter, immunizations of the white New Zealand rabbits were performed and the serums of them were used for antibody titration, purification and characterization. Then, four ELISA tests based on two antibodies were employed to assess the hTSH and other glycoprotein hormones. The results of these assessments were compared with standard amounts. The obtained results indicated that the desired antigens were successfully designed, sub-cloned, expressed, confirmed and used for in vivo immunization. The raised antibodies were capable of specific and sensitive hTSH detection, while the cross reactivity with the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family was minimum. Among the four designed tests, the test in which the antibody against first protein was used as capture antibody, and the antibody against second protein was used as detector antibody did not show any hook effect up to 50 miu/l. Both proteins have the ability to induce highly sensitive and specific antibody responses against the hTSH. One of the antibody combinations of these antibodies has the highest sensitivity and specificity in hTSH detection.

Keywords: hTSH, bioinformatics, protein expression, cross reactivity.

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18 Nutritional Value of Rabbit Meat after Contamination with 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine

Authors: Balgabay Sadepovich Maikanov, Laura Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva, Seidenova Simbat Polatbekovna

Abstract:

In this article reduced nutritional value of the rabbits’ meat at 1, 1 dimethylhydrazine experimental toxicosis is shown. The assay was performed on liquid chromatograph SHIMADZU LC-20 Prominence (Japan) with fluorometric and spectrophotometric detector. This research has revealed that samples of rabbit meat of the experimental group had significant differences from the control group:in amino acids concentration from 1.2% to 9.1%; vitamin concentration from 11.2% to 60.5%, macro – minerals concentration from 17.4% to 78.1% and saturated fatty acids concentration from 17,1% to 34.5%, respectively. The decrease in the chemical composition of rabbits’ meat at 1,1 dimethylhydrazine toxicosis may be due to changes in the internal processes associated with impaired metabolic homeostasis of animals.

Keywords: 1, 1-dimethylhydrazine, metabolic homeostasis, nutritional value, rabbit meat.

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17 In vitro Effects of Viscum album on the Functionality of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Simona Baldovská, Ľubomír Ondruška, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

This study aimed to assess the in vitro effects of different concentrations of the Viscum album extract on the motility, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by rabbit spermatozoa during different time periods (0, 2, and 8h). Spermatozoa motility was assessed by using the CASA (Computer aided sperm analysis) system. Cell viability was evaluated by using the metabolic activity MTT assay, and the luminol-based luminometry was applied to quantify the ROS formation. The CASA analysis revealed that low Viscum concentrations were able to prevent a rapid decline of spermatozoa motility, especially in the case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 5 µg/mL (P<0.05 with respect to time 8h). At the same time, concentrations ranging between 1 and 100 µg/mL of the extract led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P<0.05 in case of 5, 50 and 100 µg/mL; P<0.01 with respect to 1 and 10 µg/mL, time 8h). 1 and 5 µg/mL of the extract exhibited antioxidant characteristics, translated into a significant reduction of the ROS production, particularly notable at time 8h (P<0.01). The results indicate that the Viscum extract is capable of delaying the damage inflicted to the spermatozoon by the in vitro environment.

Keywords: CASA, mistletoe, mitochondrial activity, motility, reactive oxygen species, rabbits, spermatozoa, Viscum album.

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16 Influence of Dietary Inclusion of Butyric Acids, Calcium Formate, Organic Acids and Its Salts on Rabbits Productive Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality

Authors: V. Viliene, A. Raceviciute-Stupeliene, V. Sasyte, V. Slausgalvis, R. Gruzauskas, J. Al-Saifi

Abstract:

Animal nutritionists and scientists have searched for alternative measures to improve the production. One of such alternative is use of organic acids as feed additive in animal nutrition. The study was conducted to investigate the impact of butyric acids, calcium formate, organic acids, and its salts (BCOS) additives on rabbit’s productive performance, carcass traits and meat quality. The study was conducted with 14 Californian breed rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to two treatment groups (seven rabbits per each treatment group). The dietary treatments were 1) control diet, 2) diet supplemented with a mixture BCOS - 2 kg/t of feed. Growth performance characteristics (body weight, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality) were evaluated. Rabbits were slaughtered; carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated. Samples loin and hind leg meat were analysed to determine carcass characteristics, pH and colour measurements, cholesterol, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in loin and hind leg meat. Differences between treatments were significant for body weight (1.30 vs. 1.36 kg; P<0.05), daily weight gain (16.60 vs. 17.85 g; P<0.05), and daily feed intake (78.25 vs. 80.58 g; P<0.05) for control and experimental group respectively for the entire experimental period (from 28–77 days old). No significant differences were found in feed conversion ratio and mortality. The feed additives insertion in the diets did not significantly influence the carcass yield or the proportions of the various carcass parts and organs. Differences between treatments were significant for pH value after 48h in loin (5.86 vs. 5.74; P<0.05), hind leg meat (6.62 vs. 6.65; P<0.05), more intense colour b* of loin (5.57 vs. 6.06; P<0.05), less intense colour a* (14.99 vs. 13.15; P<0.05) in hind leg meat. Cholesterol content in hind leg meat decreased by 17.67 mg/100g compared to control group (P<0.05). After storage for three months, MDA concentration decreased in loin and hind leg meat by 0.3 μmol/kg and 0.26 μmol/kg respectively compared to that of the control group (P<0.05). The results of this study suggest that BCOS could potentially be used in rabbit nutrition with consequent benefits on the rabbits’ productivity and nutritional quality of rabbit meat for consumers.

Keywords: Butyric acids, calcium formate, meat quality, organic acids salts, rabbits, productivity.

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15 In vitro Effects of Amygdalin on the Functional Competence of Rabbit Spermatozoa

Authors: Marek Halenár, Eva Tvrdá, Tomáš Slanina, Ľubomír Ondruška, Eduard Kolesár, Peter Massányi, Adriana Kolesárová

Abstract:

The present in vitro study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin (AMG) is able to cause changes to the motility, viability and mitochondrial activity of rabbit spermatozoa. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10) aged four months were used in the study. Semen samples were collected from each animal and used for the in vitro incubation. The samples were divided into five equal parts and diluted with saline supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/mL AMG. At times 0h, 3h and 5h spermatozoa motion parameters were assessed using the SpermVision™ computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system, cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, and the eosin-nigrosin staining technique was used to evaluate the viability of rabbit spermatozoa. All AMG concentrations exhibited stimulating effects on the spermatozoa activity, as shown by a significant preservation of the motility (P<0.05 with respect to 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h) and mitochondrial activity (P< 0.05 in case of 0.5 mg/mL AMG; P< 0.01 in case of 1 mg/mL AMG; P < 0.001 with respect to 2.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL AMG; Time 5 h). None of the AMG doses supplemented had any significant impact of the spermatozoa viability. In conclusion, the data revealed that short-term co-incubation of spermatozoa with AMG may result in a higher preservation of the sperm structural integrity and functional activity.

Keywords: Amygdalin, CASA, mitochondrial activity, motility, rabbits, spermatozoa, viability.

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14 Monitoring the Effect of Doxorubicin Liposomal in VX2 Tumor Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Ren-Jy Ben, Jo-Chi Jao, Chiu-Ya Liao, Ya-Ru Tsai, Lain-Chyr Hwang, Po-Chou Chen

Abstract:

Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the studies of pathogenesis, biological characteristics, and therapeutic effects. Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites. Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin liposomal, Lipodox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox) anti-tumor drugs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at left thighs were classified into three groups: control group (untreated), Dox-treated group, and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer scan was performed, three-dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric quantification. Afterwards, two-dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA injection through the ear vein of rabbit. A series of 32 images were acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally. The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first week immediately after the first MRI scan; i.e. 3 days after VX2 tumor implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor model.

Keywords: Doxorubicin, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, lipodox, magnetic resonance imaging, VX2 tumor model.

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13 Measurements of MRI R2* Relaxation Rate in Liver and Muscle: Animal Model

Authors: Chiung-Yun Chang, Po-Chou Chen, Jiun-Shiang Tzeng, Ka-Wai Mac, Chia-Chi Hsiao, Jo-Chi Jao

Abstract:

This study was aimed to measure effective transverse relaxation rates (R2*) in the liver and muscle of normal New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. R2* relaxation rate has been widely used in various hepatic diseases for iron overload by quantifying iron contents in liver. R2* relaxation rate is defined as the reciprocal of T2* relaxation time and mainly depends on the constituents of tissue. Different tissues would have different R2* relaxation rates. The signal intensity decay in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be characterized by R2* relaxation rates. In this study, a 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MR scanner equipped with an 8-channel high resolution knee coil was used to observe R2* values in NZW rabbit’s liver and muscle. Eight healthy NZW rabbits weighted 2 ~ 2.5 kg were recruited. After anesthesia using Zoletil 50 and Rompun 2% mixture, the abdomen of rabbit was landmarked at the center of knee coil to perform 3-plane localizer scan using fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) pulse sequence. Afterwards, multi-planar fast gradient echo (MFGR) scans were performed with 8 various echo times (TEs) to acquire images for R2* measurements. Regions of interest (ROIs) at liver and muscle were measured using Advantage workstation. Finally, the R2* was obtained by a linear regression of ln(sı) on TE. The results showed that the longer the echo time, the smaller the signal intensity. The R2* values of liver and muscle were 44.8 ± 10.9 s-1 and 37.4 ± 9.5 s-1, respectively. It implies that the iron concentration of liver is higher than that of muscle. In conclusion, the more the iron contents in tissue, the higher the R2*. The correlations between R2* and iron content in NZW rabbits might be valuable for further exploration.

Keywords: Liver, MRI, multi-planar fast gradient echo, muscle, R2* relaxation rate.

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12 Gold Nanoparticle: Synthesis, Characterization, Clinico-Pathological, Pathological, and Bio-Distribution Studies in Rabbits

Authors: M. M. Bashandy, A. R. Ahmed, M. El-Gaffary, Sahar S. Abd El-Rahman

Abstract:

This study evaluated the acute toxicity and tissue distribution of intravenously administered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in male rabbits. Rabbits were exposed to single dose of AuNPs (300 μg/ kg). Toxic effects were assessed via general behavior, hematological parameters, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathological examination of various rabbits’ organs. Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine gold concentrations in tissue samples collected at predetermined time intervals. After one week, AuNPs exerted no obvious acute toxicity in rabbits. However, inflammatory reactions were observed in liver, lungs and kidneys accompanied with mild absolute neutrophilia and significant monocytosis. The highest gold levels were found in the spleen and liver followed by lungs, and kidneys. These results indicated that AuNPs could be distributed extensively to various tissues in the body, but primarily in the spleen and liver.

Keywords: Gold nanoparticles, toxicity, pathology, hematology, liver function, kidney function.

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11 Effects of Boron Compounds in Rabbits Fed High Protein and Energy Diet: A Metabolomic and Transcriptomic Approach

Authors: N. Baspinar, A. Basoglu, O. Ozdemir, C. Ozel, F. Terzi, O. Yaman

Abstract:

Current research is targeting new molecular mechanisms that underlie non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated metabolic disorders like non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Forty New Zealand White rabbits have been used and fed a high protein (HP) and energy diet based on grains and containing 11.76 MJ/kg. Boron added to 3 experimental groups’ drinking waters (30 mg boron/L) as boron compounds. Biochemical analysis including boron levels, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics evaluation, and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family was performed. LDLcholesterol concentrations alone were decreased in all the experimental groups. Boron levels in serum and feces were increased. Content of acetate was in about 2x higher for anhydrous borax group, at least 3x higher for boric acid group. PPARα mRNA expression was significantly decreased in boric acid group. Anhydrous borax attenuated mRNA levels of PPARγ, which was further suppressed by boric acid. Boron supplementation decreased the degenerative alterations in hepatocytes. Except borax group other boron groups did not have a pronounced change in tubular epithels of kidney. In conclusion, high protein and energy diet leads hepatocytes’ degenerative changes which can be prevented by boron supplementation. Boric acid seems to be more effective in this situation.

Keywords: High protein and energy diet, boron, metabolomic, transcriptomic.

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10 Oxidative and Hormonal Disruptions Underlie Bisphenol A - Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Rabbits

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Tarek K. Abouzed, Mousa A. Ayoub

Abstract:

The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA), in the environment can cause serious health problems. However, there are controversial opinions. This study investigated the reproductive, metabolic, oxidative and immunologic-disrupting effects of bisphenol A in male rabbits. Rabbits were divided into five groups. The first four rabbit groups were administered oral BPA (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. The fifth group was administered corn oil as the vehicle. BPA significantly decreased serum testosterone, estradiol and the free androgen index (FAI) and significantly increased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) compared with the placebo group. The higher doses of BPA showed a significant decrease in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). A significant increase in blood glucose levels was identified in the BPA groups. The non-significant difference in insulin levels is a novel finding. The cumulative testicular toxicity of BPA was clearly demonstrated by the dose-dependent decrease in absolute testes weight, primary measures of semen quality and a significant increase in testicular malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, BPA significantly decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and significantly increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) at the highest concentration. Our results suggest that BPA, especially at higher doses, is associated with many adverse effects on metabolism, oxidative stress, immunity, sperm quality and markers of androgenic action.

Keywords: Bisphenol A, oxidative stress, rabbits, semen quality, steroidogenesis.

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9 In vivo Histomorphometric and Corrosion Analysis of Ti-Ni-Cr Shape Memory Alloys in Rabbits

Authors: T. Ahmed, Z. Butt, M. Ali, S. Attiq, M. Ali

Abstract:

A series of Ti based shape memory alloys with composition of Ti50Ni49Cr1, Ti50Ni47Cr3 and Ti50Ni45Cr5 were developed by vacuum arc-melting under a purified argon atmosphere. The histometric and corrosion evaluation of Ti-Ni-Cr shape memory alloys have been considered in this research work. The alloys were developed by vacuum arc melting and implanted subcutaneously in rabbits for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Metallic implants were embedded in order to determine the outcome of implantation on histometric and corrosion evaluation of Ti-Ni-Cr metallic strips. Encapsulating membrane formation around the alloys was minimal in the case of all materials. After histomorphometric analyses it was possible to demonstrate that there were no statistically significant differences between the materials. Corrosion rate was also determined in this study which is within acceptable range. The results showed the Ti- Ni-Cr alloy was neither cytotoxic, nor have any systemic reaction on living system in any of the test performed. Implantation shows good compatibility and a potential of being used directly in vivo system.

Keywords: Shape memory alloy, Ti-Ni-Fe, histomorphometric, corrosion.

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8 Preparation Influences of Breed, sex and Sodium Butyrate Supplementation on the Performance, Carcass Traits and Mortality of Fattening Rabbits

Authors: U.E.Mahrous, A. Abd El-Aziz, A.I.El-Shiekh, S.Z. EL-kholya

Abstract:

Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits (12 does and 12 bucks) and twenty four Flanders (12 does and 12 bucks) rabbits, allotted into two feeding regime (6 for each breed, 3 males and 3 females) first one fed commercial ration and second one fed commercial diet plus sodium butyrate (300 g/ton). The obtained results showed that at end of 8th week experimental period New Zealand white rabbits were heavier body weight than Flanders rabbits (1934.55+39.05 vs. 1802.5+30.99 g); significantly high body weight gain during experimental period especially during 8th week (136.1+3.5 vs. 126.8+1.8 g/week); better feed conversion ratio during all weeks of experiment from first week (3.07+0.16 vs. 3.12+0.10) till the 8th week of experiment (5.54+0.16 vs. 5.76+0.07) with significantly high dressing percentages (0.54+0.01 vs. 0.52+0.01). Also all carcass cuts were significantly high in New Zealand white rabbits than Flanders. Females rabbits (at the same age) were lower body weight than males from start of experiment (941.1+39.8 vs.972.1+33.5 g) till the end of experiment (1833.64+37.69 vs. 1903.41+36.93 g); gained less during all weeks of experiment except during 8th week (132.1+2.3 vs. 130.9+3.4 g/week), with lower dressing percentage (0.52+0.01 vs. 0.53+0.01) and lighter carcass cuts than males, however, they had better feed conversion ratio during 1st week, 7th week and 8th week of experiment. Addition of 300g sodium butyrate/ton of rabbit increased the body weight of rabbits at the end of experimental period (1882.71+26.45 vs. 1851.5+49.82 g); improve body weight gain at 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th week of experiment and significantly improve feed conversion ratio during all weeks of the experiment from 1st week (2.85+0.07 vs. 3.30+0.15) till the 8th week of the experiment (5.51+0.12 vs. 5.77+0.12). Also the dressing percentage was higher in Sodium butyrate fed groups than control one (0.53+0.01 vs. 0.52+0.01) and the most important results of feeding sodium butyrate is the reducing of the mortality percentage in rabbits during 8 week experiment to zero percentage as compared with 16% in control group.

Keywords: rabbit, productive performance, carcass quality, sodium byturate

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7 The Key Role of the Steroidal Hormones in the Pattern Distribution of the Epiphyseal Structure in Rabbit

Authors: Fatahian Dehkordi R.F, Parchami A.

Abstract:

Steroidal hormones with the efficient changes on the epiphyseal growth plate may influence tissue structure properties. Presents paper to investigate the effects of gonadectomy in the pattern distribution of the epiphyseal structure. Fifteen adult female New Zealand white rabbits were separated into three groups. One group was intact and others groups were selected for surgical operation. From these two groups, one group carried out steroidal administration. The results obtained showed that there is no statistically difference in the mean diameter of the growth plate cells between all three groups. The maximum value of the cartilage cells were allocated to the gonadectomized group and the minimum number were observed in Hormonal induced group significantly. Growth plate height was significantly greater in gonadectomized group than in two other groups.

Keywords: Steroidal hormones, Ovariectomy, Rabbit, Epiphyseal structure

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6 Gene Expressions Associated with Ultrastructural Changes in Vascular Endothelium of Atherosclerotic Lesion

Authors: M. Maimunah, G.A. Froemming, H. Nawawi, M.I. Nafeeza, O. Effat, M.R. Rohayu Izanwati, M.S. Mohamed Saifulaman

Abstract:

Attachment of the circulating monocytes to the endothelium is the earliest detectable events during formation of atherosclerosis. The adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix proteases genes were identified to be expressed in atherogenesis. Expressions of these genes may influence structural integrity of the luminal endothelium. The aim of this study is to relate changes in the ultrastructural morphology of the aortic luminal surface and gene expressions of the endothelial surface, chemokine and MMP-12 in normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Luminal endothelial surface from rabbit aortic tissue was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using low vacuum mode to ascertain ultrastructural changes in development of atherosclerotic lesion. Gene expression of adhesion molecules, MCP-1 and MMP-12 were studied by Real-time PCR. Ultrastructural observations of the aortic luminal surface exhibited changes from normal regular smooth intact endothelium to irregular luminal surface including marked globular appearance and ruptures of the membrane layer. Real-time PCR demonstrated differentially expressed of studied genes in atherosclerotic tissues. The appearance of ultrastructural changes in aortic tissue of hypercholesterolemic rabbits is suggested to have relation with underlying changes of endothelial surface molecules, chemokine and MMP-12 gene expressions.

Keywords: Ultrastructure of luminal endothelial surface, Macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), Real-time PCR.

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5 Effect of Hormonal Manipulations on the Pattern of the Vaginal Tissue Structure

Authors: Fatahian Dehkordi RF., Parchami A.

Abstract:

Design of experiments made for correlated the hormonal activity of steroids and their effect on the vaginal structure properties. Vaginal wall consists of distinct layers of cells which strongly differ regarding growth in answer to steroid hormones. The presence study carried out for functional evaluation and sustained replacement effect of the reproductive hormones on the vaginal morphometry in the rabbit. Rabbits were maintained control (Co) or ovariectomized (Ovz) and continuously treated with estradiol (Ovz E) and estradiol mixture with testosterone (Ovz ET). Relative to control rabbits with the distinct tissue distribution pattern, ovariectomized animals displayed declined epithelial thickness and atrophy of the muscularis layer that cause the vaginal wall thinning. Estradiol treatment of Orz rabbits inverted these changes to status of the preovariectomy. Histometric measurements in Ovz ET group completely including of thickness of the epithelial and muscular layers was greater in comparison to that of control animals.

Keywords: Vagina, Ovariectomy, Rabbit, Morphometry

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4 Sex Differences in Thyroid Gland Structure of Rabbits

Authors: Parchami A., Fatahian Dehkordi RF.

Abstract:

The aim of the present investigation was to compare sex differences in thyroid gland structure of rabbits. Five adult male and five adult female (3.1-3.5 kg body weight) New Zealand white rabbits were used in the experiment. Results showed that at light microscopic level, there was no sex difference in microscopic appearance of the thyroid glands. At electron microscopic level, however, the mitochondria and the microvilli of the follicular cells are more numerous and the Golgi complex is also more extensive in male rabbits in comparison to females. Results obtained from micrometric measurements showed that the volume density of the follicles is higher in males than in females, but the differences are not statistically significant .The volume density of epithelium and the height of follicular cells are significantly greater in males than in females and reverse is true about the volume density of interstitium (p<0.05). The volume density of colloid is also greater in females (66±6) than in males (60±7) but the differences are not statistically significant .It was concluded that sex has limited effects on histomorphometric properties of thyroid gland in rabbits.

Keywords: Rabbit, Thyroid Gland, Sex difference, Electron microscope

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3 Effects of Intrauterine and Extrauterine Exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-Like Radiofrequency Radiation on Liver Regulatory Enzymes Activities in Infant Female Rabbits

Authors: A. Tomruk, G. Guler, B. Tandogan, E. Ozgur, N.N. Ulusu, N. Seyhan

Abstract:

In the present study, we aimed to design the intrauterine and extrauterine exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation and investigate its possible bio-effects on infant female rabbits. Totally thirty-six New Zealand White female rabbits, onemonth old, were randomly divided into four groups which are composed of 9 rabbits; i. Group I [Intrauterine (IU) exposure(-); Extrauterine (EU) exposure (-)], Group II [IU exposure (-); EU exposure (+)], Group III [IU exposure(+);EU exposure(-)], Group IV [IU exposure (+);EU exposure(+)]. The master regulatory enzymes activities of pentose phosphate pathway (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G-6PD; 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, 6- PGDH) and glutathione-dependent metabolism (glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione Stransferase, GST, thioredoxin reductase, TRx) were analyzed in liver tissues of young female rabbits. Decreased G-6PD, 6-PGD, GSH-Px, GR activities were found in Group III compared to Group I (p<0.05, Mann Whitney). Increased GSH-px and TRx activities were found in Group IV compared to Group I (p<0.05, Mann Whitney). It can be concluded that the intrauterine and extrauterine exposure to GSMlike RF radiation may influence the liver regulatory enzymes activities.

Keywords: Radiofrequency (RF), intrauterine (IU) andextrauterine (EU) exposure, infant female rabbits.

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2 Targeting the Pulmonary Delivery via Optimizing Physicochemical Characteristics of Instilled Liquid and Exploring Distribution of Produced Liquids by Bench-Top Models and Scintigraphy of Rabbits- Lungs

Authors: Mohammad Nasri, Hossein Mirshekarpour

Abstract:

We aimed to investigate how can target and optimize pulmonary delivery distribution by changing physicochemical characteristics of instilled liquid.Therefore, we created a new liquids group: a. eligible for desired distribution within lung because of assorted physicochemical characteristics b. capable of being augmented with a broad range of chemicals inertly c. no interference on respiratory function d. compatible with airway surface liquid We developed forty types of new liquid,were composed of Carboxymethylcellulose sodium,Glycerin and different types of Polysorbates.Viscosity was measured using a Programmable Rheometer and surface tension by KRUSS Tensiometer.We subsequently examined the liquids and delivery protocols by simple and branched glass capillary tube models of airways.Eventually,we explored pulmonary distribution of liquids being augmented with technetium-99m in mechanically ventilated rabbits.We used a single head large field of view gamma camera.Kinematic viscosity between 0.265Stokes and 0.289Stokes,density between 1g/cm3 and 1.5g/cm3 and surface tension between 25dyn/cm and 35dyn/cm were the most acceptable.

Keywords: Pulmonary delivery, Liquid instillation into airway, Physicochemical characteristics, Optimal distribution.

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1 Alcoholic Extract of Terminalia Arjuna Protects Rabbit Heart against Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury: Role of Antioxidant Enzymes and Heat Shock Protein

Authors: K. Gauthaman, T.S. Mohamed Saleem, V. Ravi, Sita Sharan Patel, S. Niranjali Devaraj

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the cardio protective role of chronic oral administration of alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna in in-vivo ischemic reperfusion injury and the induction of HSP72. Rabbits, divided into three groups, and were administered with the alcoholic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna (TAAE) by oral gavage [6.75mg/kg: (T1) and 9.75mg/kg: (T2), 6 days /week for 12 weeks]. In open-chest Ketamine pentobarbitone anaesthetized rabbits, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 15 min of ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In the vehicle-treated group, ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI) was evidenced by depression of global hemodynamic function (MAP, HR, LVEDP, peak LV (+) & (- ) (dP/dt) along with depletion of HEP compounds. Oxidative stress in IRI was evidenced by, raised levels of myocardial TBARS and depletion of endogenous myocardial antioxidants GSH, SOD and catalase. Western blot analysis showed a single band corresponding to 72 kDa in homogenates of hearts from rabbits treated with both the doses. In the alcoholic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna treatment groups, both the doses had better recovery of myocardial hemodynamic function, with significant reduction in TBARS, and rise in SOD, GSH, catalase were observed. The results of the present study suggest that the alcoholic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna in rabbit induces myocardial HSP 72 and augments myocardial endogenous antioxidants, without causing any cellular injury and offered better cardioprotection against oxidative stress associated with myocardial IR injury.

Keywords: Antioxidants, HSP72, Ischemic reperfusion injury, Terminalia arjuna.

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