Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: V. Ravi

35 Effect of Recombinant Human Follicle Stimulating Hormone on Meiotic Competence of In Vitro Grown Nili Ravi Buffalo Oocytes

Authors: Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Samina Jalali, Beenish Shahid, S. A. Shami, Muhammad Ikramullah

Abstract:

In the present study, the response of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes to recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) (Organon) on meiotic maturation in vitro was examined. Oocytes were matured in vitro in medium containing either 0 or 0.05 IU/ ml rhFSH and the stage of nuclear maturation recorded after 24 hours. The percentage of oocytes in the control group undergoing germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) observed after 24 hours of culture was 29 % whereas as in rhFSH group the percentage was 10 % were at this stage (P< 0.001).Thus in the presence of rhFSH, a significantly greater number of oocytes had progressed to the more advanced stages of nuclear maturation. Indeed, the maturation of GV (Germinal Vesicle) stage oocytes to the metaphase II (M II) stage after 24 hours was significantly (P< 0.0001) increased by the addition of rhFSH (82 % VS 47 %). The percentage of degenerated oocytes after 24 hours of culture was 24 % in control group, whereas in rhFSH group the percentage was 8 % after 24 hours. Degeneration of the oocytes after 24 hours was not significantly (P = 0. 9361) decreased.

Keywords: Buffalo, in vitro, oocytes, recombinant FSH.

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34 Survey on Jamming Wireless Networks: Attacks and Prevention Strategies

Authors: S. Raja Ratna, R. Ravi

Abstract:

Wireless networks are built upon the open shared medium which makes easy for attackers to conduct malicious activities. Jamming is one of the most serious security threats to information economy and it must be dealt efficiently. Jammer prevents legitimate data to reach the receiver side and also it seriously degrades the network performance. The objective of this paper is to provide a general overview of jamming in wireless network. It covers relevant works, different jamming techniques, various types of jammers and typical prevention techniques. Challenges associated with comparing several anti-jamming techniques are also highlighted.

Keywords: Channel, Cryptography, Frequency, Jamming, Legitimate, Security, Wavelength.

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33 Tolerance of Heavy Metals by Gram Positive Soil Bacteria

Authors: I. V. N. Rathnayake, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Nanthi Bolan, Ravi Naidu

Abstract:

With the intention of screening for heavy metal tolerance, a number of bacteria were isolated and characterized from a pristine soil. Two Gram positive isolates were identified as Paenibacillus sp. and Bacillus thuringeinsis. Tolerance of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ by these bacteria was studied and found that both bacteria were highly sensitive to Cu2+ compared to other two metals. Both bacteria showed the same pattern of metal tolerance in the order Zn+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+. When the metal tolerance in both bacteria was compared, Paenibacillus sp. showed the highest sensitivity to Cu2+ where as B. thuringiensis showed highest sensitivity to Cd2+ and Zn2+ .These findings revealed the potential of Paenibacillus sp. in developing a biosensor to detect Cu2+ in environmental samples.

Keywords: Heavy metals, bacteria, soil, tolerance.

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32 Estimation of Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) for Bhavnagar District, Gujarat, India

Authors: Ravi Shah, V. L. Manekar, R. A. Christian, N. J. Mistry

Abstract:

There are two types of drought as conceptual drought and operational drought. The three parameters as the beginning, the end and the degree of severity of the drought can be identifying in operational drought by average precipitation in the whole region. One of the methods classified to measure drought is Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Evapotranspiration is calculated using Penman-Monteith method by analyzing thirty nine years prolong climatic data. The evapotranspiration is then utilized in RDI to classify normalized and standardized RDI. These RDI classifications led to what kind of drought faced in Bhavnagar region on 12 month time scale basis. The comparison between actual drought conditions and RDI method used to find out drought are also illustrated. It can be concluded that the index results of drought in a particular year are same in both methods but having different index values where as severity remain same.

Keywords: Drought, Drought index, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Precipitation.

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31 Zero Dimensional Simulation of Combustion Process of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Biofuels

Authors: Donepudi Jagadish, Ravi Kumar Puli, K. Madhu Murthy

Abstract:

A zero dimensional model has been used to investigate the combustion performance of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by biofuels with options like supercharging and exhaust gas recirculation. The numerical simulation was performed at constant speed. The indicated pressure, temperature diagrams are plotted and compared for different fuels. The emissions of soot and nitrous oxide are computed with phenomenological models. The experimental work was also carried out with biodiesel (palm stearin methyl ester) diesel blends, ethanol diesel blends to validate simulation results with experimental results, and observed that the present model is successful in predicting the engine performance with biofuels.

Keywords: Biofuels Zero Dimensional Modeling, EnginePerformance, Engine Emissions

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30 Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks with Optimized Cluster Head Selection

Authors: D. Naga Ravi Kiran, C. G. Dethe

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing is complex due to its dynamic nature, computational overhead, limited battery life, non-conventional addressing scheme, self-organization, and sensor nodes limited transmission range. An energy efficient routing protocol is a major concern in WSN. LEACH is a hierarchical WSN routing protocol to increase network life. It performs self-organizing and re-clustering functions for each round. This study proposes a better sensor networks cluster head selection for efficient data aggregation. The algorithm is based on Tabu search.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), LEACH, Clustering, Tabu Search.

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29 CFD Predictions of Dense Slurry Flow in Centrifugal Pump Casings

Authors: Krishnan V. Pagalthivarthi, Pankaj K. Gupta, Vipin Tyagi, M. R. Ravi

Abstract:

Dense slurry flow through centrifugal pump casing has been modeled using the Eulerian-Eulerian approach with Eulerian multiphase model in FLUENT 6.1®. First order upwinding is considered for the discretization of momentum, k and ε terms. SIMPLE algorithm has been applied for dealing with pressurevelocity coupling. A mixture property based k-ε turbulence model has been used for modeling turbulence. Results are validated first against mesh independence and experiments for a particular set of operational and geometric conditions. Parametric analysis is then performed to determine the effect on important physical quantities viz. solid velocities, solid concentration and solid stresses near the wall with various operational geometric conditions of the pump.

Keywords: Centrifugal pump casing, Dense slurry, Solidsconcentration, Wall shear stress, Pump geometric parameters.

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28 Fault-Tolerant Optimal Broadcast Algorithm for the Hypercube Topology

Authors: Lokendra Singh Umrao, Ravi Shankar Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents an optimal broadcast algorithm for the hypercube networks. The main focus of the paper is the effectiveness of the algorithm in the presence of many node faults. For the optimal solution, our algorithm builds with spanning tree connecting the all nodes of the networks, through which messages are propagated from source node to remaining nodes. At any given time, maximum n − 1 nodes may fail due to crashing. We show that the hypercube networks are strongly fault-tolerant. Simulation results analyze to accomplish algorithm characteristics under many node faults. We have compared our simulation results between our proposed method and the Fu’s method. Fu’s approach cannot tolerate n − 1 faulty nodes in the worst case, but our approach can tolerate n − 1 faulty nodes.

Keywords: Fault tolerance, hypercube, broadcasting, link/node faults, routing.

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27 A Comparative Study of Page Ranking Algorithms for Information Retrieval

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Ravi Kumar P

Abstract:

This paper gives an introduction to Web mining, then describes Web Structure mining in detail, and explores the data structure used by the Web. This paper also explores different Page Rank algorithms and compare those algorithms used for Information Retrieval. In Web Mining, the basics of Web mining and the Web mining categories are explained. Different Page Rank based algorithms like PageRank (PR), WPR (Weighted PageRank), HITS (Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search), DistanceRank and DirichletRank algorithms are discussed and compared. PageRanks are calculated for PageRank and Weighted PageRank algorithms for a given hyperlink structure. Simulation Program is developed for PageRank algorithm because PageRank is the only ranking algorithm implemented in the search engine (Google). The outputs are shown in a table and chart format.

Keywords: Web Mining, Web Structure, Web Graph, LinkAnalysis, PageRank, Weighted PageRank, HITS, DistanceRank, DirichletRank,

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26 Modeling and Simulation Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink

Authors: Jamuna Konda, Umamaheswara Reddy Karumuri, Sriramya Muthugi, Varun Pishati, Ravi Shakya,

Abstract:

This paper investigates the challenges involved in mathematical modeling of plant simulation models ensuring the performance of the plant models much closer to the real time physical model. The paper includes the analysis performed and investigation on different methods of modeling, design and development for plant model. Issues which impact the design time, model accuracy as real time model, tool dependence are analyzed. The real time hardware plant would be a combination of multiple physical models. It is more challenging to test the complete system with all possible test scenarios. There are possibilities of failure or damage of the system due to any unwanted test execution on real time.

Keywords: Model Based Design, MATLAB, Simulink, Stateflow, plant model, real time model, real-time workshop, target language compiler.

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25 An Investigation of New Phase Diagram of Ag2SO4 - CaSO4

Authors: Ravi V. Joat, Pravin S. Bodke, Shradha S. Binani, S. S. Wasnik

Abstract:

A phase diagram of the Ag2SO4 - CaSO4 (Silver sulphate – Calcium Sulphate) binaries system using conductivity, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction Technique) and DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) data is constructed. The eutectic reaction (liquid -» a-Ag2SO4 + CaSO4) is observed at 10 mole% CaSO4 and 645°C. Room temperature solid solubility limit up to 5.27 mole % of Ca 2+ in Ag2SO4 is set using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results. All compositions beyond this limit are two-phase mixtures below and above the transition temperature (≈ 416°C). The bulk conductivity, obtained following complex impedance spectroscopy, is found decreasing with increase in CaSO4 content. Amongst other binary compositions, the 80AgSO4-20CaSO4 gave improved sinterability/packing density.

Keywords: Ag2SO4-CaSO4 (Silver sulphate–Calcium Sulphate) binaries system, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction Technique) and DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis).

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24 Bandwidth Control Using Reconfigurable Antenna Elements

Authors: Sudhina H. K, Ravi M. Yadahalli, N. M. Shetti

Abstract:

Reconfigurable antennas represent a recent innovation in antenna design that changes from classical fixed-form, fixed function antennas to modifiable structures that can be adapted to fit the requirements of a time varying system.

The ability to control the operating band of an antenna system can have many useful applications. Systems that operate in an acquire-and-track configuration would see a benefit from active bandwidth control. In such systems a wide band search mode is first employed to find a desired signal then a narrow band track mode is used to follow only that signal. Utilizing active antenna bandwidth control, a single antenna would function for both the wide band and narrow band configurations providing the rejection of unwanted signals with the antenna hardware. This ability to move a portion of the RF filtering out of the receiver and onto the antenna itself will also aid in reducing the complexity of the often expensive RF processing subsystems.

Keywords: Designing methods, MEMS, stack, reconfigurable elements.

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23 3A Distributed Method Algorithm for Exact Side Load Managing Smart Grid Using LABVIEW

Authors: N. Ravi Kumar, R. Kamalakannan

Abstract:

The advancement of hybrid energy resources such as solar and wind power leading to the emergence of customer owned grid. It provides an opportunity to regulars to obtain low energy costs as well as enabling the power supplier to regulate the utility grid. There is a need to develop smart systems that will automatically submit energy demand schedule and monitors energy price signals in real-time without the prompt of customers. In this paper, a demand side energy management for a grid connected household and also smart preparation of electrical appliance have been presented. It also reduces electricity bill for the consumers in the grid. In addition to this, when production is high, the surplus energy fashioned in the customer owned grid is given to main grid or neighboring micro grids. The simulation of the entire system is presented using LabVIEW software.

Keywords: Distributed renewable energy resource, power storage devices, scheduling, smart meters, smart micro grid, electric vehicle.

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22 Comparison of Zero Voltage Soft Switching and Hard Switching Boost Converter with Maximum Power Point Tracking

Authors: N. Ravi Kumar, R. Kamalakannan

Abstract:

The inherent nature of normal boost converter has more voltage stress across the power electronics switch and ripple. The presented formation of the front end rectifier stage for a photovoltaic (PV) organization is mainly used to give the supply. Further increasing of the solar efficiency is achieved by connecting the zero voltage soft switching boost converter. The zero voltage boost converter is used to convert the low level DC voltage to high level DC voltage. The inherent nature of zero voltage switching boost converter is used to shrink the voltage tension across the power electronics switch and ripple. The input stage allows the determined power point tracking to be used to extract supreme power from the sun when it is available. The hardware setup was implemented by using PIC Micro controller (16F877A).

Keywords: Boost converter, duty cycle, hard switching, MOSFET, maximum power point tracking, photovoltaic, soft switching, zero voltage switching.

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21 Local Mesh Co-Occurrence Pattern for Content Based Image Retrieval

Authors: C. Yesubai Rubavathi, R. Ravi

Abstract:

This paper presents the local mesh co-occurrence patterns (LMCoP) using HSV color space for image retrieval system. HSV color space is used in this method to utilize color, intensity and brightness of images. Local mesh patterns are applied to define the local information of image and gray level co-occurrence is used to obtain the co-occurrence of LMeP pixels. Local mesh co-occurrence pattern extracts the local directional information from local mesh pattern and converts it into a well-mannered feature vector using gray level co-occurrence matrix. The proposed method is tested on three different databases called MIT VisTex, Corel, and STex. Also, this algorithm is compared with existing methods, and results in terms of precision and recall are shown in this paper.

Keywords: Content-based image retrieval system, HSV color space, gray level co-occurrence matrix, local mesh pattern.

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20 Soliton Interaction in Birefringent Fibers with Third-Order Dispersion

Authors: Dowluru Ravi Kumar, Bhima Prabhakara Rao

Abstract:

Propagation of solitons in single-mode birefringent fibers is considered under the presence of third-order dispersion (TOD). The behavior of two neighboring solitons and their interaction is investigated under the presence of third-order dispersion with different group velocity dispersion (GVD) parameters. It is found that third-order dispersion makes the resultant soliton to deviate from its ideal position and increases the interaction between adjacent soliton pulses. It is also observed that this deviation due to third-order dispersion is considerably small when the optical pulse propagates at wavelengths relatively far from the zerodispersion. Modified coupled nonlinear Schrödinger-s equations (CNLSE) representing the propagation of optical pulse in single mode fiber with TOD are solved using split-step Fourier algorithm. The results presented in this paper reveal that the third-order dispersion can substantially increase the interaction between the solitons, but large group velocity dispersion reduces the interaction between neighboring solitons.

Keywords: Birefringence, Group velocity dispersion, Polarization mode dispersion, Soliton interaction, Third order dispersion.

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19 A Novel Fuzzy Logic Based Controller to Adjust the Brightness of the Television Screen with Respect to Surrounding Light

Authors: A. V. Sai Balasubramanian, N. Ravi Shankar, S. Subbaraman, R. Rengaraj

Abstract:

One of the major cause of eye strain and other problems caused while watching television is the relative illumination between the screen and its surrounding. This can be overcome by adjusting the brightness of the screen with respect to the surrounding light. A controller based on fuzzy logic is proposed in this paper. The fuzzy controller takes in the intensity of light surrounding the screen and the present brightness of the screen as input. The output of the fuzzy controller is the grid voltage corresponding to the required brightness. This voltage is given to CRT and brightness is controller dynamically. For the given test system data, different de-fuzzifier methods have been implemented and the results are compared. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a fuzzy controller has been designed by obtaining a test data from a real time system. The simulations are performed in MATLAB and are verified with standard system data. The proposed approach can be implemented for real time applications.

Keywords: Fuzzy controller, Grid voltage

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18 Surface Roughness Optimization in End Milling Operation with Damper Inserted End Milling Cutters

Authors: Krishna Mohana Rao, G. Ravi Kumar, P. Sowmya

Abstract:

This paper presents a study of the Taguchi design application to optimize surface quality in damper inserted end milling operation. Maintaining good surface quality usually involves additional manufacturing cost or loss of productivity. The Taguchi design is an efficient and effective experimental method in which a response variable can be optimized, given various factors, using fewer resources than a factorial design. This Study included spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut as control factors, usage of different tools in the same specification, which introduced tool condition and dimensional variability. An orthogonal array of L9(3^4)was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting surface roughness, and the optimal cutting combination was determined by seeking the best surface roughness (response) and signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, confirmation tests verified that the Taguchi design was successful in optimizing milling parameters for surface roughness.

Keywords: ANOVA, Damper, End Milling, Optimization, Surface roughness, Taguchi design.

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17 Utilization of Kitchen Waste inside Green House Chamber: A Community Level Biogas Programme

Authors: Ravi P. Agrahari

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating kitchen waste as an alternative organic material for biogas production in community level biogas plant. The field study was carried out for one month (January 19, 2012– February 17, 2012) at Centre for Energy Studies, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India.

This study involves the uses of greenhouse canopy to increase the temperature for the production of biogas in winter period. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one month with the retention time of 30 days under batch system. The gas generated from the biogas plant was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant can be efficiently adopted in colder region or in winter season because temperature plays a major role in biogas production. 

Keywords: Biogas, Green house chamber, organic material, solar intensity.

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16 Non-Destructive Evaluation of 2-Mercapto Substituted Pyrimidine Derivatives in Different Concentration and Different Percentages in Dioxane-Water Mixture

Authors: Pravin S. Bodke, Shradha S. Binani, Ravi V. Joat

Abstract:

Science and technology of ultrasonic is widely used in recent years for industrial and medicinal application. The acoustical properties of 2-mercapto substituted pyrimidines viz.,2- Mercapto-4- (2’,4’ –dichloro phenyl) – 6-(2’ – hydroxyl -4’ –methyl-5’ – chlorophenyl) pyrimidine and 2 –Mercapto – 4-(4’ –chloro phenyl) – 6-(2’ – hydroxyl -4’ –methyl-5’ –chlorophenyl) pyrimidine have been investigated from the ultrasonic velocity and density measurements at different concentration and different % in dioxane-water mixture at 305K. The adiabatic compressibility (βs), acoustic impedance (Z), intermolecular free length (Lf), apparent molar volume(ϕv) and relative association (RA) values have been calculated from the experimental data of velocity and density measurement at concentration range of 0.01- 0.000625 mol/lit and 70%,75% and 80% dioxane water mixture. These above parameters are used to discuss the structural and molecular interactions.

Keywords: Acoustical parameters, Density, Dioxane-water mixture, Ultrasonic velocity.

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15 An Extension of the Kratzel Function and Associated Inverse Gaussian Probability Distribution Occurring in Reliability Theory

Authors: R. K. Saxena, Ravi Saxena

Abstract:

In view of their importance and usefulness in reliability theory and probability distributions, several generalizations of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function are investigated in recent years. This has motivated the authors to introduce and study a new generalization of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function associated with a product of a Bessel function of the third kind )(zKQ and a Z - Fox-Wright generalized hyper geometric function introduced in this paper. The introduced function turns out to be a unified gamma-type function. Its incomplete forms are also discussed. Several properties of this gamma-type function are obtained. By means of this generalized function, we introduce a generalization of inverse Gaussian distribution, which is useful in reliability analysis, diffusion processes, and radio techniques etc. The inverse Gaussian distribution thus introduced also provides a generalization of the Krtzel function. Some basic statistical functions associated with this probability density function, such as moments, the Mellin transform, the moment generating function, the hazard rate function, and the mean residue life function are also obtained.KeywordsFox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

Keywords: Fox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

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14 Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Pressure Tube of Indian PHWR at 20 bar Pressure

Authors: Gopal Nandan, P. K. Sahooa, Ravi Kumara, B Chatterjeeb, D. Mukhopadhyayb, H. G. Leleb

Abstract:

In a nuclear reactor Loss of Coolant accident (LOCA) considers wide range of postulated damage or rupture of pipe in the heat transport piping system. In the case of LOCA with/without failure of emergency core cooling system in a Pressurised Heavy water Reactor, the Pressure Tube (PT) temperature could rise significantly due to fuel heat up and gross mismatch of the heat generation and heat removal in the affected channel. The extent and nature of deformation is important from reactor safety point of view. Experimental set-ups have been designed and fabricated to simulate ballooning (radial deformation) of PT for 220 MWe IPHWRs. Experiments have been conducted by covering the CT by ceramic fibers and then by submerging CT in water of voided PTs. In both the experiments, it is observed that ballooning initiates at a temperature around 665´┐¢C and complete contact between PT and Caldaria Tube (CT) occurs at around 700´┐¢C approximately. The strain rate is found to be 0.116% per second. The structural integrity of PT is retained (no breach) for all the experiments. The PT heatup is found to be arrested after the contact between PT and CT, thus establishing moderator acting as an efficient heat sink for IPHWRs.

Keywords: Pressure Tube, Calandria Tube, Thermo-mechanicaldeformation, Boiling heat transfer, Reactor safety

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13 Passive Flow Control in Twin Air-Intakes

Authors: Akshoy R. Paul, Pritanshu Ranjan, Ravi R. Upadhyay, Anuj Jain

Abstract:

Aircraft propulsion systems often use Y-shaped subsonic diffusing ducts as twin air-intakes to supply the ambient air into the engine compressor for thrust generation. Due to space constraint, the diffusers need to be curved, which causes severe flow non-uniformity at the engine face. The present study attempt to control flow in a mild-curved Y-duct diffuser using trapezoidalshaped vortex generators (VG) attached on either both the sidewalls or top and bottom walls of the diffuser at the inflexion plane. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is modified and is used to simulate the effects of SVG in flow of a Y-duct diffuser. A few experiments are conducted for CFD code validation, while the rest are done computationally. The best combination of Yduct diffuser is found with VG-2 arranged in co-rotating sequence and attached to both the sidewalls, which ensures highest static pressure recovery, lowest total pressure loss, minimum flow distortion and less flow separation in Y-duct diffuser. The decrease in VG height while attached to top and bottom walls further improves axial flow uniformity at the diffuser outlet by a great margin as compared to the bare duct.

Keywords: Twin air-intake, Vortex generator (VG), Turbulence model, Pressure recovery, Distortion coefficient

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12 Malicious Route Defending Reliable-Data Transmission Scheme for Multi Path Routing in Wireless Network

Authors: S. Raja Ratna, R. Ravi

Abstract:

Securing the confidential data transferred via wireless network remains a challenging problem. It is paramount to ensure that data are accessible only by the legitimate users rather than by the attackers. One of the most serious threats to organization is jamming, which disrupts the communication between any two pairs of nodes. Therefore, designing an attack-defending scheme without any packet loss in data transmission is an important challenge. In this paper, Dependence based Malicious Route Defending DMRD Scheme has been proposed in multi path routing environment to prevent jamming attack. The key idea is to defend the malicious route to ensure perspicuous transmission. This scheme develops a two layered architecture and it operates in two different steps. In the first step, possible routes are captured and their agent dependence values are marked using triple agents. In the second step, the dependence values are compared by performing comparator filtering to detect malicious route as well as to identify a reliable route for secured data transmission. By simulation studies, it is observed that the proposed scheme significantly identifies malicious route by attaining lower delay time and route discovery time; it also achieves higher throughput.

Keywords: Attacker, Dependence, Jamming, Malicious.

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11 Quad Tree Decomposition Based Analysis of Compressed Image Data Communication for Lossy and Lossless Using WSN

Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi

Abstract:

The Quad Tree Decomposition based performance analysis of compressed image data communication for lossy and lossless through wireless sensor network is presented. Images have considerably higher storage requirement than text. While transmitting a multimedia content there is chance of the packets being dropped due to noise and interference. At the receiver end the packets that carry valuable information might be damaged or lost due to noise, interference and congestion. In order to avoid the valuable information from being dropped various retransmission schemes have been proposed. In this proposed scheme QTD is used. QTD is an image segmentation method that divides the image into homogeneous areas. In this proposed scheme involves analysis of parameters such as compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error, bits per pixel in compressed image and analysis of difficulties during data packet communication in Wireless Sensor Networks. By considering the above, this paper is to use the QTD to improve the compression ratio as well as visual quality and the algorithm in MATLAB 7.1 and NS2 Simulator software tool.

Keywords: Image compression, Compression Ratio, Quad tree decomposition, Wireless sensor networks, NS2 simulator.

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10 Fault and Theft Recognition Using Toro Dial Sensor in Programmable Current Relay for Feeder Security

Authors: R. Kamalakannan, N. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

Feeder protection is important in transmission and distribution side because if any fault occurs in any feeder or transformer, man power is needed to identify the problem and it will take more time. In the existing system, directional overcurrent elements with load further secured by a load encroachment function can be used to provide necessary security and sensitivity for faults on remote points in a circuit. It is validated only in renewable plant collector circuit protection applications over a wide range of operating conditions. In this method, the directional overcurrent feeder protection is developed by using monitoring of feeder section through internet. In this web based monitoring, the fault and power theft are identified by using Toro dial sensor and its information is received by SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and controlled by ARM microcontroller. This web based monitoring is also used to monitor the feeder management, directional current detection, demand side management, overload fault. This monitoring system is capable of monitoring the distribution feeder over a large area depending upon the cost. It is also used to reduce the power theft, time and man power. The simulation is done by MATLAB software.

Keywords: Current sensor, distribution feeder protection, directional overcurrent, power theft, protective relay.

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9 Quality Attributes of Various Spray Dried Pulp Powder Prepared from Low Temperature Stored Calcium Salts Pretreated Guava Fruits

Authors: Renu Rahel, A. S. Chauhan, K. Srinivasulu, R. Ravi, V. B. Kudachikar

Abstract:

The effect of calcium salts on the storage stability and on the quality attributes of both fresh and processed product (guava powder) of white flesh guavas (var ‘Allahabad safeda’) was studied. The pulp behavioral studies of fully ripened guava fruits indicated that fruits pretreated with 3% and 4.5% calcium chloride had the least viscosity. The guava pulp powder using spray drying technique was developed and its storage stability and the moisture sorption studies were carried out for product quality evaluation at normal storage condition (27°C; 65%RH). Results revealed that powder obtained from 3% calcium chloride pretreated guavas was found to be at par with the powder obtained from control guavas after 90 days of normal storage. Studies on microbiological quality of guava pulp powder indicated that among the treatments powder obtained from guava fruit pretreated with 3% calcium chloride to be the most effective through restricting microbial counts of total plate count, yeast, mold, Staphylococcus and E. coli below their permissible limit. Moisture sorption studies of guava powder revealed that foil laminate 12μm PET/9 μm foil/38-40 μm is the most suitable packaging material recommended.

Keywords: White flesh guava, calcium salts, spray drying, powder, storage stability.

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8 Single Phase 13-Level D-STATCOM Inverter with Distributed System

Authors: R. Kamalakannan, N. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

The global energy consumption is increasing persistently and need for distributed power generation through renewable energy is essential. To meet the power requirements for consumers without any voltage fluctuations and losses, modeling and design of multilevel inverter with Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) capability is presented. The presented inverter is provided with 13-level cascaded H-bridge topology of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) connected along with inbuilt Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM). The DSTATCOM device provides control of power factor stability at local feeder lines and the inverter eliminates Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The 13-level inverter utilizes 52 switches of each H-bridge is fed with single DC sources separately and the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used for switching IGBTs. The control strategy implemented for inverter transmits active power to grid as well as it maintains power factor to be stable with achievement of steady state power transmission. Significant outcome of this project is improvement of output voltage quality with steady state power transmission with low THD. Simulation of inverter with DSTATCOM is performed using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The scaled prototype model of proposed inverter is built and its results were validated with simulated results.

Keywords: FACTS devices, distributed-Static synchronous compensators, DSTATCOM, total harmonics elimination, modular multilevel converter.

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7 Dosimetric Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy versus 3D Conformal Radiotherapy in Adult Primary Brain Tumors: Regional Cancer Centre, India

Authors: Ravi Kiran Pothamsetty, Radha Rani Ghosh, Baby Paul Thaliath

Abstract:

Radiation therapy has undergone many advancements and evloved from 2D to 3D. Recently, with rapid pace of drug discoveries, cutting edge technology, and clinical trials has made innovative advancements in computer technology and treatment planning and upgraded to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) which delivers in homogenous dose to tumor and normal tissues. The present study was a hospital-based experience comparing two different conformal radiotherapy techniques for brain tumors. This analytical study design has been conducted at Regional Cancer Centre, India from January 2014 to January 2015. Ten patients have been selected after inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were treated on Artiste Siemens Linac Accelerator. The tolerance level for maximum dose was 6.0 Gyfor lenses and 54.0 Gy for brain stem, optic chiasm and optical nerves as per RTOG criteria. Mean and standard deviation values of PTV98%, PTV 95% and PTV 2% in IMRT were 93.16±2.9, 95.01±3.4 and 103.1±1.1 respectively; for 3DCRT were 91.4±4.7, 94.17±2.6 and 102.7±0.39 respectively. PTV max dose (%) in IMRT and 3D-CRT were 104.7±0.96 and 103.9±1.0 respectively. Maximum dose to the tumor can be delivered with IMRT with acceptable toxicity limits. Variables such as expertise, location of tumor, patient condition, and TPS influence the outcome of the treatment.

Keywords: IMRT, 3D CRT, Brain, tumors, OARs, RTOG.

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6 Simulation Based VLSI Implementation of Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System Using Adjusted Binary Code & Golumb Rice Code

Authors: N. Muthukumaran, R. Ravi

Abstract:

The Simulation based VLSI Implementation of FELICS (Fast Efficient Lossless Image Compression System) Algorithm is proposed to provide the lossless image compression and is implemented in simulation oriented VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated). To analysis the performance of Lossless image compression and to reduce the image without losing image quality and then implemented in VLSI based FELICS algorithm. In FELICS algorithm, which consists of simplified adjusted binary code for Image compression and these compression image is converted in pixel and then implemented in VLSI domain. This parameter is used to achieve high processing speed and minimize the area and power. The simplified adjusted binary code reduces the number of arithmetic operation and achieved high processing speed. The color difference preprocessing is also proposed to improve coding efficiency with simple arithmetic operation. Although VLSI based FELICS Algorithm provides effective solution for hardware architecture design for regular pipelining data flow parallelism with four stages. With two level parallelisms, consecutive pixels can be classified into even and odd samples and the individual hardware engine is dedicated for each one. This method can be further enhanced by multilevel parallelisms.

Keywords: Image compression, Pixel, Compression Ratio, Adjusted Binary code, Golumb Rice code, High Definition display, VLSI Implementation.

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