Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30379
Sex Differences in Thyroid Gland Structure of Rabbits

Authors: Parchami A., Fatahian Dehkordi RF.


The aim of the present investigation was to compare sex differences in thyroid gland structure of rabbits. Five adult male and five adult female (3.1-3.5 kg body weight) New Zealand white rabbits were used in the experiment. Results showed that at light microscopic level, there was no sex difference in microscopic appearance of the thyroid glands. At electron microscopic level, however, the mitochondria and the microvilli of the follicular cells are more numerous and the Golgi complex is also more extensive in male rabbits in comparison to females. Results obtained from micrometric measurements showed that the volume density of the follicles is higher in males than in females, but the differences are not statistically significant .The volume density of epithelium and the height of follicular cells are significantly greater in males than in females and reverse is true about the volume density of interstitium (p<0.05). The volume density of colloid is also greater in females (66±6) than in males (60±7) but the differences are not statistically significant .It was concluded that sex has limited effects on histomorphometric properties of thyroid gland in rabbits.

Keywords: Thyroid Gland, rabbit, Sex difference, Electron microscope

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1997


[1] I. Assenmacher, D. Maurel, and M. Jallageas, "Thyroid-gonadal interrelationships as factors regulating reproductive and molting cycles. In: J. Boissin (ed.) Endocrine Regulations as Adaptive Mechanisms to the Environment," Paris, CNRS., pp. 363-369, 1986.
[2] S. K. Banu, P. Govindarajulu, and M.M. Aruldhas, "Testosterone and estradiol differentially regulate the proliferation of thyrocytes in immature and adult Wistar rats," Steroids, vol. 67, pp. 573-579, 2002a.
[3] S.K. Banu, P. Govindarajulu, and M.M. Aruldhas, "Testosterone and estradiol modulate TSH-binding in the thyrocytes of Wistar rats: influence of age and sex," J. Steroid. Biochem. Molecu. Biol., vol. 78, pp. 329-42, 2001.
[4] S. K. Banu, P. Govindarajulu, and M.M. Aruldhas, "Testosterone and estradiol up-regulate androgen and estrogen receptors in immature and adult rat thyroid glands in vivo," Steroids, vol. 67, pp. 1007-1014, 2002b.
[5] M. J. Burris, R. Bogart, and H. Krueger, "Alternation of activity of thyroid gland of beef cattle with testosterone," Proceedings Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 84, pp. 181-183, 1953.
[6] H. J. Chen, "Age and sex difference in serum and pituitary thyrotropin concentrations in the rat: influence by pituitary adenoma," Exp. Gerontol., vol. 19, pp. 1-6, 1984.
[7] A. D'Angelo, "A comparative study of TSH and FSH secretion in rat and guinea pig. Effects of Gonadectomy and goitrogens," Endocrinology, vol. 78, pp. 1230-1237, 1966.
[8] R. N. Doris, "Effect of Gonadectomy on the follicular cell and inclusions in mitochondria of rabbit thyroid gland," Am. J. Pathol., vol. 91, pp. 137-148, 1978.
[9] R. A. Fatahian, and A. Parchami, "Effect of orchidectomy and chronic androgen administration on thyroid gland in adult male dogs: a light and electron microscopic study," World App. Sci. J., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 289- 294, 2010.
[10] G. H. Greeley, M. A. Lipton, and J. S. Kizer, "Serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and TSH levels and TSH release after TRH in aging male and female rats," End. Res. Communi., vol. 9, pp. 169-177, 1983.
[11] R. Hampl, J. Nemec, J. Jeresova, I. Kimlova, and L. Starka, "Estrogen receptors in human goitrous and neoplastic thyroid," Endocrinol. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 227-230, 1985.
[12] P. Kumaresan, and C. W. Turner, "Effect of testosterone propionate on the thyroid hormone secretion rate in adult male rats," Endocrinology, vol. 81, pp. 656-658, 1967.
[13] V. A. Livolsi, "Pathology, in: L. E. Braverman, R. D. Utiger, (Eds.)," The Thyroid, VII ed., Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA, 1996, pp. 497-520.
[14] L. K. Malendowicz, and J. Bednarek, "Sex dimorphism in the thyroid gland," Acta Anat., vol. 127, pp. 115-118, 1986.
[15] L. K. Malendowicz, and M. Majchrzak, "Sex dimorphism in the thyroid gland. III. Morphometric studies on rat thyroid gland in the course of postnatal ontogenesis," Endocrinology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 297-302, 1981.
[16] H. Miki, K. Oshimo, H. Inoue, T. Morimoto, and Y. Moden, "Sex hormone receptors in human thyroid tissue," Cancer, vol. 66, pp. 1759- 1762, 1990.
[17] D. G. Moreira, M. P. Marassi, V. M. Corrêa da Costa, D. P. Carvalho, and D. Rosenthal, "Effects of ageing and pharmacological hypothyroidism onpituitary-thyroid axis of Dutch-Miranda and Wistar rats," Exp. Gerontol., vol. 40, pp. 330-334, 2005.
[18] M. Mori, M. Naito, H. Watanabe, N. Takeichi, K. Dohi, and A. Ito, "Effects of sex difference, Gonadectomy, and estrogen on N-Methyl-Nnitrosourea induced rat thyroid tumors," Cancer Reasearch, vol. 50, pp. 7662-7667, 1990.
[19] D. O. Norris, "Vertebrate endocrinology," 4th ed. Academic Press., 2007, pp. 221-222.
[20] D. A. Samuelson, "Textbook of veterinary histology," Saunders Co., 2007, p. 407.
[21] P. J. Sheridan, H.C. McGill, J. Jean, C. Lissitzky, and P.M. Martin, "The primate thyroid gland contains receptors for androgens. Endocrinology," vol. 115, pp. 2690-2693, 1984.
[22] L.W. Sloan, "On the origin, characteristics, and behavior of thyroid cancer," J. CIin. Endocrinol., vol. 14, 1309-1335, 1954.
[23] B. ┼áo┼íić-Jurjević, B. Filipović, V. Milo┼íević, N. Nestorović, N. Negić, and M. Sekulić, "Effects of ovariectomy and chronic estradiol administration on pituitary-thyroid axis in adult rats," Life Sciences, vol. 79, pp. 890-897, 2006.
[24] L. Stefaneanu, K. Kovacs, E. Horvath, R.V. Lloyd, M. Buchfelder, R. Fahlbusch, and H. Smyth, "In situ hybridization study of estrogen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in human adenohypophysial cells and pituitary adenomas," J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabol., vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 83-88, 1994.
[25] A. Thiruvengadam, "Gender specific promotion of N nitrosodiisopropanolamine (DHPN)-induced thyroid tumors by testosterone and oestradiol in Wistar rats," PhD Thesis, University of Madras, Chennai, India, 1998.
[26] M. P. J. Vanderpump, W. Michael, and G. Tinbridge, "The epidemiology of thyroid diseases, in: L. E. Braverman, R. D. Utiger (Eds.)," The Thyroid, VII ed., Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, PA, 1996, pp. 474-482.
[27] G. P. Van Rees, E.L. Noach, and J.A. van Dieten, "Influence of testosterone on the secretion of thyrotrophin in the rat," Acta Endocrin., vol. 50, pp. 155-160, 1965.