Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: gradient

90 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: Gravity gradient, accelerometer, gravity gradient sensor, single-axis rotation modulation.

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89 A Refined Nonlocal Strain Gradient Theory for Assessing Scaling-Dependent Vibration Behavior of Microbeams

Authors: Xiaobai Li, Li Li, Yujin Hu, Weiming Deng, Zhe Ding

Abstract:

A size-dependent Euler–Bernoulli beam model, which accounts for nonlocal stress field, strain gradient field and higher order inertia force field, is derived based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory considering velocity gradient effect. The governing equations and boundary conditions are derived both in dimensional and dimensionless form by employed the Hamilton principle. The analytical solutions based on different continuum theories are compared. The effect of higher order inertia terms is extremely significant in high frequency range. It is found that there exists an asymptotic frequency for the proposed beam model, while for the nonlocal strain gradient theory the solutions diverge. The effect of strain gradient field in thickness direction is significant in low frequencies domain and it cannot be neglected when the material strain length scale parameter is considerable with beam thickness. The influence of each of three size effect parameters on the natural frequencies are investigated. The natural frequencies increase with the increasing material strain gradient length scale parameter or decreasing velocity gradient length scale parameter and nonlocal parameter.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli Beams, free vibration, higher order inertia, nonlocal strain gradient theory, velocity gradient.

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88 A New Modification of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Coefficients with Global Convergence Properties

Authors: Ahmad Alhawarat, Mustafa Mamat, Mohd Rivaie, Ismail Mohd

Abstract:

Conjugate gradient method has been enormously used to solve large scale unconstrained optimization problems due to the number of iteration, memory, CPU time, and convergence property, in this paper we find a new class of nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient with global convergence properties proved by exact line search. The numerical results for our new βK give a good result when it compared with well known formulas.

Keywords: Conjugate gradient method, conjugate gradient coefficient, global convergence.

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87 Moving Object Detection Using Histogram of Uniformly Oriented Gradient

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Yu-Siang Su, Pau-Choo Chung, Jar-Ferr Yang

Abstract:

Moving object detection (MOD) is an important issue in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). There are two important moving objects, pedestrians and scooters in ADAS. In real-world systems, there exist two important challenges for MOD, including the computational complexity and the detection accuracy. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features can easily detect the edge of object without invariance to changes in illumination and shadowing. However, to reduce the execution time for real-time systems, the image size should be down sampled which would lead the outlier influence to increase. For this reason, we propose the histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient (HUG) features to get better accurate description of the contour of human body. In the testing phase, the support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel function is involved. Experimental results show the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. With SVM classifiers, the real testing results show the proposed HUG features achieve better than classification performance than the HOG ones.

Keywords: Moving object detection, histogram of oriented gradient histogram of oriented gradient, histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient, linear support vector machine.

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86 Signature Recognition Using Conjugate Gradient Neural Networks

Authors: Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna

Abstract:

There are two common methodologies to verify signatures: the functional approach and the parametric approach. This paper presents a new approach for dynamic handwritten signature verification (HSV) using the Neural Network with verification by the Conjugate Gradient Neural Network (NN). It is yet another avenue in the approach to HSV that is found to produce excellent results when compared with other methods of dynamic. Experimental results show the system is insensitive to the order of base-classifiers and gets a high verification ratio.

Keywords: Signature Verification, MATLAB Software, Conjugate Gradient, Segmentation, Skilled Forgery, and Genuine.

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85 Long Term Stability of an Experimental Insulated-Model Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond

Authors: N. W. K. Jayatissa, R. Attalage, Prabath Hewageegana, P. A. A. Perera, M. A. Punyasena

Abstract:

Per capita energy usage in any country is exponentially increasing with their development. As a result, the country’s dependence on the fossil fuels for energy generation is also increasing tremendously creating economic and environmental concerns. Tropical countries receive considerable amount of solar radiation throughout the year, use of solar energy with different energy storage and conversion methodologies is a viable solution to minimize the ever increasing demand for the depleting fossil fuels. Salinity gradient solar pond is one such solar energy application. This paper reports the characteristics and performance of a thermally insulated, experimental salinity-gradient solar pond, built at the premises of the University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Particular stress is given to the behavior of the evolution of the three layer structure exist at the stable state of a salinity gradient solar pond over a long period of time, under different environmental conditions. The operational procedures required to maintain the long term thermal stability are also reported in this article.

Keywords: Salt-gradient, solar pond, solar radiation, renewable energy.

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84 Bending Gradient Coefficient Correction for I-Beams

Authors: H. R. Kazemi Nia, A. Yeganeh Fallah

Abstract:

Without uncertainty by applying external loads on beams, bending is created. The created bending in I-beams, puts one of the flanges in tension and the other one in compression. With increasing of bending, compression flange buckled and beam in out of its plane direction twisted, this twisting well-known as Lateral Torsional Buckling. Providing bending moment varieties along the beam, the critical moment is greater than the case its under pure bending. In other words, the value of bending gradient coefficient is always greater than unite. In this article by the use of " ANSYS 10.0" software near 80 3-D finite element models developed for the propose of analyzing beams` lateral torsional buckling and surveying influence of slenderness on beams' bending gradient coefficient. Results show that, presented Cb coefficient via AISC is not correct for some of beams and value of this coefficient is smaller than what proposed by AISC. Therefore instead of using a constant Cb for each case of loading , a function with two criterion for calculation of Cb coefficient for some cases is proposed.

Keywords: Beams critical moment, Bending Gradient Coefficient, finite element, Lateral Torsional Buckling

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83 Iris Recognition Based On the Low Order Norms of Gradient Components

Authors: Iman A. Saad, Loay E. George

Abstract:

Iris pattern is an important biological feature of human body; it becomes very hot topic in both research and practical applications. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for iris recognition and a simple, efficient and fast method is introduced to extract a set of discriminatory features using first order gradient operator applied on grayscale images. The gradient based features are robust, up to certain extents, against the variations may occur in contrast or brightness of iris image samples; the variations are mostly occur due lightening differences and camera changes. At first, the iris region is located, after that it is remapped to a rectangular area of size 360x60 pixels. Also, a new method is proposed for detecting eyelash and eyelid points; it depends on making image statistical analysis, to mark the eyelash and eyelid as a noise points. In order to cover the features localization (variation), the rectangular iris image is partitioned into N overlapped sub-images (blocks); then from each block a set of different average directional gradient densities values is calculated to be used as texture features vector. The applied gradient operators are taken along the horizontal, vertical and diagonal directions. The low order norms of gradient components were used to establish the feature vector. Euclidean distance based classifier was used as a matching metric for determining the degree of similarity between the features vector extracted from the tested iris image and template features vectors stored in the database. Experimental tests were performed using 2639 iris images from CASIA V4-Interival database, the attained recognition accuracy has reached up to 99.92%.

Keywords: Iris recognition, contrast stretching, gradient features, texture features, Euclidean metric.

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82 Comparison of Three Versions of Conjugate Gradient Method in Predicting an Unknown Irregular Boundary Profile

Authors: V. Ghadamyari, F. Samadi, F. Kowsary

Abstract:

An inverse geometry problem is solved to predict an unknown irregular boundary profile. The aim is to minimize the objective function, which is the difference between real and computed temperatures, using three different versions of Conjugate Gradient Method. The gradient of the objective function, considered necessary in this method, obtained as a result of solving the adjoint equation. The abilities of three versions of Conjugate Gradient Method in predicting the boundary profile are compared using a numerical algorithm based on the method. The predicted shapes show that due to its convergence rate and accuracy of predicted values, the Powell-Beale version of the method is more effective than the Fletcher-Reeves and Polak –Ribiere versions.

Keywords: Boundary elements, Conjugate Gradient Method, Inverse Geometry Problem, Sensitivity equation.

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81 Research on the Correlation of the Fluctuating Density Gradient of the Compressible Flows

Authors: Yasuo Obikane

Abstract:

This work is to study a roll of the fluctuating density gradient in the compressible flows for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A new anisotropy tensor with the fluctuating density gradient is introduced, and is used for an invariant modeling technique to model the turbulent density gradient correlation equation derived from the continuity equation. The modeling equation is decomposed into three groups: group proportional to the mean velocity, and that proportional to the mean strain rate, and that proportional to the mean density. The characteristics of the correlation in a wake are extracted from the results by the two dimensional direct simulation, and shows the strong correlation with the vorticity in the wake near the body. Thus, it can be concluded that the correlation of the density gradient is a significant parameter to describe the quick generation of the turbulent property in the compressible flows.

Keywords: Turbulence Modeling , Density Gradient Correlation, Compressible

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80 Simulating Gradient Contour and Mesh of a Scalar Field

Authors: Usman Ali Khan, Bismah Tariq, Khalida Raza, Saima Malik, Aoun Muhammad

Abstract:

This research paper is based upon the simulation of gradient of mathematical functions and scalar fields using MATLAB. Scalar fields, their gradient, contours and mesh/surfaces are simulated using different related MATLAB tools and commands for convenient presentation and understanding. Different mathematical functions and scalar fields are examined here by taking their gradient, visualizing results in 3D with different color shadings and using other necessary relevant commands. In this way the outputs of required functions help us to analyze and understand in a better way as compared to just theoretical study of gradient.

Keywords: MATLAB, Gradient, Contour, Scalar Field, Mesh

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79 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho

Abstract:

The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: Beams, Equivalent concrete stress block, Flexural strength, Strain gradient.

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78 Bayesian Inference for Phase Unwrapping Using Conjugate Gradient Method in One and Two Dimensions

Authors: Yohei Saika, Hiroki Sakaematsu, Shota Akiyama

Abstract:

We investigated statistical performance of Bayesian inference using maximum entropy and MAP estimation for several models which approximated wave-fronts in remote sensing using SAR interferometry. Using Monte Carlo simulation for a set of wave-fronts generated by assumed true prior, we found that the method of maximum entropy realized the optimal performance around the Bayes-optimal conditions by using model of the true prior and the likelihood representing optical measurement due to the interferometer. Also, we found that the MAP estimation regarded as a deterministic limit of maximum entropy almost achieved the same performance as the Bayes-optimal solution for the set of wave-fronts. Then, we clarified that the MAP estimation perfectly carried out phase unwrapping without using prior information, and also that the MAP estimation realized accurate phase unwrapping using conjugate gradient (CG) method, if we assumed the model of the true prior appropriately.

Keywords: Bayesian inference using maximum entropy, MAP estimation using conjugate gradient method, SAR interferometry.

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77 An Improved Conjugate Gradient Based Learning Algorithm for Back Propagation Neural Networks

Authors: N. M. Nawi, R. S. Ransing, M. R. Ransing

Abstract:

The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm to yield a computationally efficient algorithm for training multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks (CGFR/AG). The computational efficiency is enhanced by adaptively modifying initial search direction as described in the following steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing a gain variation term in the activation function, (2) Calculation of the gradient descent of error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of a new search direction by using information calculated in step (2). The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing accuracy and computation time with the conjugate gradient algorithm used in MATLAB neural network toolbox. The results show that the computational efficiency of the proposed method was better than the standard conjugate gradient algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive gain variation, back-propagation, activation function, conjugate gradient, search direction.

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76 Accurate Optical Flow Based on Spatiotemporal Gradient Constancy Assumption

Authors: Adam Rabcewicz

Abstract:

Variational methods for optical flow estimation are known for their excellent performance. The method proposed by Brox et al. [5] exemplifies the strength of that framework. It combines several concepts into single energy functional that is then minimized according to clear numerical procedure. In this paper we propose a modification of that algorithm starting from the spatiotemporal gradient constancy assumption. The numerical scheme allows to establish the connection between our model and the CLG(H) method introduced in [18]. Experimental evaluation carried out on synthetic sequences shows the significant superiority of the spatial variant of the proposed method. The comparison between methods for the realworld sequence is also enclosed.

Keywords: optical flow, variational methods, gradient constancy assumption.

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75 Segmentation of Noisy Digital Images with Stochastic Gradient Kernel

Authors: Abhishek Neogi, Jayesh Verma, Pinaki Pratim Acharjya

Abstract:

Image segmentation and edge detection is a fundamental section in image processing. In case of noisy images Edge Detection is very less effective if we use conventional Spatial Filters like Sobel, Prewitt, LOG, Laplacian etc. To overcome this problem we have proposed the use of Stochastic Gradient Mask instead of Spatial Filters for generating gradient images. The present study has shown that the resultant images obtained by applying Stochastic Gradient Masks appear to be much clearer and sharper as per Edge detection is considered.

Keywords: Image segmentation, edge Detection, noisy images, spatialfilters, stochastic gradient kernel.

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74 Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc

Authors: Minto Rattan, Tania Bose, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the effect of linear thermal gradient on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate has been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for discs rotating at linear thermal gradation using von Mises’ yield criterion. The material parameters have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said temperature profile with the disc operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: Creep, isotropic, steady-state, thermal gradient.

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73 Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for the Symmetric Arrowhead Solution of Matrix Equation AXB=C

Authors: Minghui Wang, Luping Xu, Juntao Zhang

Abstract:

Based on the conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm, the constrained matrix equation AXB=C and the associate optimal approximation problem are considered for the symmetric arrowhead matrix solutions in the premise of consistency. The convergence results of the method are presented. At last, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of this method.

Keywords: Iterative method, symmetric arrowhead matrix, conjugate gradient algorithm.

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72 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: Gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulation.

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71 Thermal Cracking Respone of Reinforced Concrete Beam to Gradient Temperature

Authors: L. Dahmani, M.Kouane

Abstract:

In this paper are illustrated the principal aspects connected with the numerical evaluation of thermal stress induced by high gradient temperature in the concrete beam. The reinforced concrete beam has many advantages over steel beam, such as high resistance to high temperature, high resistance to thermal shock, Better resistance to fatigue and buckling, strong resistance against, fire, explosion, etc. The main drawback of the reinforced concrete beam is its poor resistance to tensile stresses. In order to investigate the thermal induced tensile stresses, a numerical model of a transient thermal analysis is presented for the evaluation of thermo-mechanical response of concrete beam to the high temperature, taking into account the temperature dependence of the thermo physical properties of the concrete like thermal conductivity and specific heat.

Keywords: Cracking, Gradient Temperature, Reinforced Concrete beam, Thermo-mechanical analysis.

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70 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Authors: Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff

Abstract:

A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, convertingand storing solar energy as heat. In thispaper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transferbehaviour of salinity gradient solar pond. MATLAB codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results arefound to be in good agreement.

Keywords: Finite Difference method, Salt-gradient solar-pond, Solar energy, Transient heat and mass transfer.

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69 Effect of Adverse Pressure Gradient on a Fluctuating Velocity over the Co-Flow Jet Airfoil

Authors: Morteza Mirhosseini, Amir B. Khoshnevis

Abstract:

The boundary layer separation and new active flow control of a NACA 0025 airfoil were studied experimentally. This new flow control is sometimes known as a co-flow jet (cfj) airfoil. This paper presents the fluctuating velocity in a wall jet over the co-flow jet airfoil subjected to an adverse pressure gradient and a curved surface. In these results, the fluctuating velocity at the inner part increasing by increased the angle of attack up to 12o and this has due to the jet energized, while the angle of attack 20o has different. The airfoil cord based Reynolds number has 105.

Keywords: Adverse pressure gradient, fluctuating velocity, wall jet, co-flow jet airfoil.

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68 Anonymous Editing Prevention Technique Using Gradient Method for High-Quality Video

Authors: Jiwon Lee, Chanho Jung, Si-Hwan Jang, Kyung-Ill Kim, Sanghyun Joo, Wook-Ho Son

Abstract:

Since the advances in digital imaging technologies have led to development of high quality digital devices, there are a lot of illegal copies of copyrighted video content on the Internet. Also, unauthorized editing is occurred frequently. Thus, we propose an editing prevention technique for high-quality (HQ) video that can prevent these illegally edited copies from spreading out. The proposed technique is applied spatial and temporal gradient methods to improve the fidelity and detection performance. Also, the scheme duplicates the embedding signal temporally to alleviate the signal reduction caused by geometric and signal-processing distortions. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than previously proposed schemes and it has high fidelity. The proposed scheme can be used in unauthorized access prevention method of visual communication or traitor tracking applications which need fast detection process to prevent illegally edited video content from spreading out.

Keywords: Editing prevention technique, gradient method, high-quality video, luminance change, visual communication.

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67 An Image Segmentation Algorithm for Gradient Target Based on Mean-Shift and Dictionary Learning

Authors: Yanwen Li, Shuguo Xie

Abstract:

In electromagnetic imaging, because of the diffraction limited system, the pixel values could change slowly near the edge of the image targets and they also change with the location in the same target. Using traditional digital image segmentation methods to segment electromagnetic gradient images could result in lots of errors because of this change in pixel values. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel image segmentation and extraction algorithm based on Mean-Shift and dictionary learning. Firstly, the preliminary segmentation results from adaptive bandwidth Mean-Shift algorithm are expanded, merged and extracted. Then the overlap rate of the extracted image block is detected before determining a segmentation region with a single complete target. Last, the gradient edge of the extracted targets is recovered and reconstructed by using a dictionary-learning algorithm, while the final segmentation results are obtained which are very close to the gradient target in the original image. Both the experimental results and the simulated results show that the segmentation results are very accurate. The Dice coefficients are improved by 70% to 80% compared with the Mean-Shift only method.

Keywords: Gradient image, segmentation and extract, mean-shift algorithm, dictionary learning.

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66 Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case

Authors: A. Selmi, A. Bisharat

Abstract:

Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin's 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green's function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green's function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.

Keywords: Eshelby tensor, Eshelby-like tensor, Green’s function, Mindlin’s 2nd gradient model, Spherical inclusion.

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65 Image Analysis of Fine Structures of Supercavitation in the Symmetric Wake of a Cylinder

Authors: Y. Obikane , M.Kaneko, K.Kakioka, K.Ogura

Abstract:

The fine structure of supercavitation in the wake of a symmetrical cylinder is studied with high-speed video cameras. The flow is observed in a cavitation tunnel at the speed of 8m/sec when the sidewall and the wake are partially filled with the massive cavitation bubbles. The present experiment observed that a two-dimensional ripple wave with a wave length of 0.3mm is propagated in a downstream direction, and then abruptly increases to a thicker three-dimensional layer. IR-photography recorded that the wakes originated from the horseshoe vortexes alongside the cylinder. The wake was developed to inside the dead water zone, which absorbed the bubbly wake propelled from the separated vortices at the center of the cylinder. A remote sensing classification technique (maximum most likelihood) determined that the surface porosity was 0.2, and the mean speed in the mixed wake was 7m/sec. To confirm the existence of two-dimensional wave motions in the interface, the experiments were conducted at a very low frequency, and showed similar gravity waves in both the upper and lower interfaces.

Keywords: Supercavitation, density gradient correlation

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64 A Fast Object Detection Method with Rotation Invariant Features

Authors: Zilong He, Yuesheng Zhu

Abstract:

Based on the combined shape feature and texture feature, a fast object detection method with rotation invariant features is proposed in this paper. A quick template matching scheme based online learning designed for online applications is also introduced in this paper. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach has the features of lower computation complexity and higher detection rate, while keeping almost the same performance compared to the HOG-based method, and can be more suitable for run time applications.

Keywords: gradient feature, online learning, rotationinvariance, template feature

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63 Power Generation Potential of Dynamic Architecture

Authors: Ben Richard Hughes, Hassam Nasarullah Chaudhry

Abstract:

The main aim of this work is to establish the capabilities of new green buildings to ascertain off-grid electricity generation based on the integration of wind turbines in the conceptual model of a rotating tower [2] in Dubai. An in depth performance analysis of the WinWind 3.0MW [3] wind turbine is performed. Data based on the Dubai Meteorological Services is collected and analyzed in conjunction with the performance analysis of this wind turbine. The mathematical model is compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results based on a conceptual rotating tower design model. The comparison results are further validated and verified for accuracy by conducting experiments on a scaled prototype of the tower design. The study concluded that integrating wind turbines inside a rotating tower can generate enough electricity to meet the required power consumption of the building, which equates to a wind farm containing 9 horizontal axis wind turbines located at an approximate area of 3,237,485 m2 [14].

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, green building, horizontal axis wind turbine, rotating tower, velocity gradient.

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62 Fast Intra Prediction Algorithm for H.264/AVC Based on Quadratic and Gradient Model

Authors: A. Elyousfi, A. Tamtaoui, E. Bouyakhf

Abstract:

The H.264/AVC standard uses an intra prediction, 9 directional modes for 4x4 luma blocks and 8x8 luma blocks, 4 directional modes for 16x16 macroblock and 8x8 chroma blocks, respectively. It means that, for a macroblock, it has to perform 736 different RDO calculation before a best RDO modes is determined. With this Multiple intra-mode prediction, intra coding of H.264/AVC offers a considerably higher improvement in coding efficiency compared to other compression standards, but computational complexity is increased significantly. This paper presents a fast intra prediction algorithm for H.264/AVC intra prediction based a characteristic of homogeneity information. In this study, the gradient prediction method used to predict the homogeneous area and the quadratic prediction function used to predict the nonhomogeneous area. Based on the correlation between the homogeneity and block size, the smaller block is predicted by gradient prediction and quadratic prediction, so the bigger block is predicted by gradient prediction. Experimental results are presented to show that the proposed method reduce the complexity by up to 76.07% maintaining the similar PSNR quality with about 1.94%bit rate increase in average.

Keywords: Intra prediction, H.264/AVC, video coding, encodercomplexity.

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61 Particle Simulation of Rarefied Gas Flows witha Superimposed Wall Surface Temperature Gradient in Microgeometries

Authors: V. Azadeh Ranjbar

Abstract:

Rarefied gas flows are often occurred in micro electro mechanical systems and classical CFD could not precisely anticipate the flow and thermal behavior due to the high Knudsen number. Therefore, the heat transfer and the fluid dynamics characteristics of rarefied gas flows in both a two-dimensional simple microchannel and geometry similar to single Knudsen compressor have been investigated with a goal of increasing performance of a actual Knudsen compressor by using a particle simulation method. Thermal transpiration and thermal creep, which are rarefied gas dynamic phenomena, that cause movement of the flow from less to higher temperature is generated by using two different longitude temperature gradients (Linear, Step) along the walls of the flow microchannel. In this study the influence of amount of temperature gradient and governing pressure in various Knudsen numbers and length-to-height ratios have been examined.

Keywords: DSMC, Thermal transpiration, Thermal creep, MEMS, Knudsen Compressor.

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