Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Fault location

11 Fault Location Identification in High Voltage Transmission Lines

Authors: Khaled M. El Naggar

Abstract:

This paper introduces a digital method for fault section identification in transmission lines. The method uses digital set of the measured short circuit current to locate faults in electrical power systems. The digitized current is used to construct a set of overdetermined system of equations. The problem is then constructed and solved using the proposed digital optimization technique to find the fault distance. The proposed optimization methodology is an application of simulated annealing optimization technique. The method is tested using practical case study to evaluate the proposed method. The accurate results obtained show that the algorithm can be used as a powerful tool in the area of power system protection.

Keywords: Optimization, estimation, faults, measurement, high voltage, simulated annealing.

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10 Influence of the Line Parameters in Transmission Line Fault Location

Authors: Marian Dragomir, Alin Dragomir

Abstract:

In the paper, two fault location algorithms are presented for transmission lines which use the line parameters to estimate the distance to the fault. The first algorithm uses only the measurements from one end of the line and the positive and zero sequence parameters of the line, while the second one uses the measurements from both ends of the line and only the positive sequence parameters of the line. The algorithms were tested using a transmission grid transposed in MATLAB. In a first stage it was established a fault location base line, where the algorithms mentioned above estimate the fault locations using the exact line parameters. After that, the positive and zero sequence resistance and reactance of the line were calculated again for different ground resistivity values and then the fault locations were estimated again in order to compare the results with the base line results. The results show that the algorithm which uses the zero sequence impedance of the line is the most sensitive to the line parameters modifications. The other algorithm is less sensitive to the line parameters modification.

Keywords: Estimation algorithms, fault location, line parameters, simulation tool.

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9 Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

Authors: Osama Terra, Mariesa Nel, Hatem Hussein

Abstract:

Calibration of Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) has a crucial role for the accurate determination of fault locations and the accurate calculation of loss budget of long-haul optical fibre links during installation and repair. A comparison has been made between the Egyptian National Institute for Standards (NIS-Egypt) and the National Metrology institute of South Africa (NMISA-South Africa) for the calibration of an OTDR. The distance and the attenuation scales of a transfer OTDR have been calibrated by both institutes using their standards according to the standard IEC 61746-1 (2009). The results of this comparison have been compiled in this report.

Keywords: OTDR calibration, recirculating loop, concatenated method, standard fibre.

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8 Effect of Integrity of the Earthing System on the Rise of Earth Potential

Authors: N. Ullah, A. Haddad, F. Van Der Linde

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of breaks in bonds, breaks in the earthing system and breaks in earth wire on the rise of the earth potential (EPR) in a substation and at the transmission tower bases using various models of an L6 tower. Different approaches were adopted to examine the integrity of the earthing system and the terminal towers. These effects were investigated to see the associated difference in the EPR magnitudes with respect to a healthy system at various locations. Comparisons of the computed EPR magnitudes were then made between the healthy and unhealthy system to detect any difference. The studies were conducted at power frequency for a uniform soil with different soil resistivities. It was found that full breaks in the double bond of the terminal towers increase the EPR significantly at the fault location, while they reduce EPR at the terminal tower bases. A fault on the isolated section of the grid can result in EPR values up to 8 times of those on a healthy system at higher soil resistivities, provided that the extended earthing system stays connected to the grid.

Keywords: Bonding, earthing, EPR, integrity, system.

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7 ANFIS Approach for Locating Faults in Underground Cables

Authors: Magdy B. Eteiba, Wael Ismael Wahba, Shimaa Barakat

Abstract:

This paper presents a fault identification, classification and fault location estimation method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for medium voltage cable in the distribution system.

Different faults and locations are simulated by ATP/EMTP, and then certain selected features of the wavelet transformed signals are used as an input for a training process on the ANFIS. Then an accurate fault classifier and locator algorithm was designed, trained and tested using current samples only. The results obtained from ANFIS output were compared with the real output. From the results, it was found that the percentage error between ANFIS output and real output is less than three percent. Hence, it can be concluded that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location.

Keywords: ANFIS, Fault location, Underground Cable, Wavelet Transform.

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6 Investigations into Effect of Neural Network Predictive Control of UPFC for Improving Transient Stability Performance of Multimachine Power System

Authors: Sheela Tiwari, R. Naresh, R. Jha

Abstract:

The paper presents an investigation in to the effect of neural network predictive control of UPFC on the transient stability performance of a multimachine power system. The proposed controller consists of a neural network model of the test system. This model is used to predict the future control inputs using the damped Gauss-Newton method which employs ‘backtracking’ as the line search method for step selection. The benchmark 2 area, 4 machine system that mimics the behavior of large power systems is taken as the test system for the study and is subjected to three phase short circuit faults at different locations over a wide range of operating conditions. The simulation results clearly establish the robustness of the proposed controller to the fault location, an increase in the critical clearing time for the circuit breakers, and an improved damping of the power oscillations as compared to the conventional PI controller.

Keywords: Identification, Neural networks, Predictive control, Transient stability, UPFC.

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5 A New Method Presentation for Fault Location in Power Transformers

Authors: Hossein Mohammadpour, Rahman Dashti

Abstract:

Power transformers are among the most important and expensive equipments in the electric power systems. Consequently the transformer protection is an essential part of the system protection. This paper presents a new method for locating transformer winding faults such as turn-to-turn, turn-to-core, turn-totransformer body, turn-to-earth, and high voltage winding to low voltage winding. In this study the current and voltage signals of input and output terminals of the transformer are measured, which the Fourier transform of measured signals and harmonic analysis determine the fault's location.

Keywords: turn-to-turn faults, short circuit, Fourier transform, harmonic analysis.

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4 Wavelet Transform and Support Vector Machine Approach for Fault Location in Power Transmission Line

Authors: V. Malathi, N.S.Marimuthu

Abstract:

This paper presents a wavelet transform and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based algorithm for estimating fault location on transmission lines. The Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used for data pre-processing and this data are used for training and testing SVM. Five types of mother wavelet are used for signal processing to identify a suitable wavelet family that is more appropriate for use in estimating fault location. The results demonstrated the ability of SVM to generalize the situation from the provided patterns and to accurately estimate the location of faults with varying fault resistance.

Keywords: Fault location, support vector machine, supportvector regression, transmission lines, wavelet transform.

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3 Fault Classification of Double Circuit Transmission Line Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Anamika Jain, A. S. Thoke, R. N. Patel

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problems encountered by conventional distance relays when protecting double-circuit transmission lines. The problems arise principally as a result of the mutual coupling between the two circuits under different fault conditions; this mutual coupling is highly nonlinear in nature. An adaptive protection scheme is proposed for such lines based on application of artificial neural network (ANN). ANN has the ability to classify the nonlinear relationship between measured signals by identifying different patterns of the associated signals. One of the key points of the present work is that only current signals measured at local end have been used to detect and classify the faults in the double circuit transmission line with double end infeed. The adaptive protection scheme is tested under a specific fault type, but varying fault location, fault resistance, fault inception angle and with remote end infeed. An improved performance is experienced once the neural network is trained adequately, which performs precisely when faced with different system parameters and conditions. The entire test results clearly show that the fault is detected and classified within a quarter cycle; thus the proposed adaptive protection technique is well suited for double circuit transmission line fault detection & classification. Results of performance studies show that the proposed neural network-based module can improve the performance of conventional fault selection algorithms.

Keywords: Double circuit transmission line, Fault detection and classification, High impedance fault and Artificial Neural Network.

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2 Detection and Classification of Faults on Parallel Transmission Lines Using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network

Authors: V.S.Kale, S.R.Bhide, P.P.Bedekar, G.V.K.Mohan

Abstract:

The protection of parallel transmission lines has been a challenging task due to mutual coupling between the adjacent circuits of the line. This paper presents a novel scheme for detection and classification of faults on parallel transmission lines. The proposed approach uses combination of wavelet transform and neural network, to solve the problem. While wavelet transform is a powerful mathematical tool which can be employed as a fast and very effective means of analyzing power system transient signals, artificial neural network has a ability to classify non-linear relationship between measured signals by identifying different patterns of the associated signals. The proposed algorithm consists of time-frequency analysis of fault generated transients using wavelet transform, followed by pattern recognition using artificial neural network to identify the type of the fault. MATLAB/Simulink is used to generate fault signals and verify the correctness of the algorithm. The adaptive discrimination scheme is tested by simulating different types of fault and varying fault resistance, fault location and fault inception time, on a given power system model. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme for fault diagnosis is able to classify all the faults on the parallel transmission line rapidly and correctly.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, fault detection and classification, parallel transmission lines, wavelet transform.

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1 A Novel Approach to Fault Classification and Fault Location for Medium Voltage Cables Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: H. Khorashadi-Zadeh, M. R. Aghaebrahimi

Abstract:

A novel application of neural network approach to fault classification and fault location of Medium voltage cables is demonstrated in this paper. Different faults on a protected cable should be classified and located correctly. This paper presents the use of neural networks as a pattern classifier algorithm to perform these tasks. The proposed scheme is insensitive to variation of different parameters such as fault type, fault resistance, and fault inception angle. Studies show that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location tasks.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, cable, fault location andfault classification.

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