Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 450

Search results for: value-relevance of equity and earnings

450 Fair Value Accounting and Evolution of the Ohlson Model

Authors: Mohamed Zaher Bouaziz

Abstract:

Our study examines the Ohlson Model, which links a company's market value to its equity and net earnings, in the context of the evolution of the Canadian accounting model, characterized by more extensive use of fair value and a broader measure of performance after IFRS adoption. Our hypothesis is that if equity is reported at its fair value, this valuation is closely linked to market capitalization, so the weight of earnings weakens or even disappears in the Ohlson Model. Drawing on Canada's adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), our results support our hypothesis that equity appears to include most of the relevant information for investors, while earnings have become less important. However, the predictive power of earnings does not disappear.

Keywords: fair value accounting, Ohlson model, IFRS adoption, value-relevance of equity and earnings

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
449 Earnings Management from Taiwan Gisa Firms

Authors: An-an Chiu, Shaio Yan Huang, Ling-Na Chen, Wei-Hua Lin

Abstract:

Research has primarily focused on listed companies, less is done regarding small and medium-sized enterprises. Under the authorities' support, Taipei Exchange (TPEx) started Go Incubation Board for Startup and Acceleration Firms (GISA) in January 2014. This platform is designed to help small-sized innovative companies grow and to enter the capital market in the future. This research yield insight into earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings (SEO) based on Taiwan’s GISA firms and the effectiveness of external corporate governance. Data for the study come from the GISA Market Observation Post System from January 2014 to December 2016. The result finds that GISA firms prone to upward accrual-based earnings management during SEO to avoid long-term negative consequences. Especially, firms with paid-in capital more than NT$ 30 million, higher fundraising amounts, or smaller-sized firms, tend to increase discretionary accruals. Finally, consistent with prior literature, CPA firms effectively serve as the role of external corporate governances on mitigating earnings management.

Keywords: GISA, earnings management, CPA, seasoned equity offerings

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
448 Does Operating Cash Flow Really Matter in Value Relevance? A Recent Empirical Analysis on the Largest European Companies

Authors: Francesco Paolone

Abstract:

This paper investigates the role of Operating Cash Flow (OCF) and accruals in firm valuation analyzing financial statement information from the largest European companies and evaluating their relation to firm market value. Using a dataset of 500 largest European companies in 2018, the study investigates the relative value-relevance of equity, net income and operating cash flow (OCF). Findings show that the cash flow measure has the same explanatory power and intensity as equity and earnings to explain the market value. This study contributes to the debate on the value relevance of OCF incremental to book value and earnings. It also extends the literature, showing that OCF has information content (value relevance) superior to earnings and book value in the main European markets (Bepari et al., 2013). Finally, the study provides a support that accounting method choice may confuse investors, who have reduced confidence in accounting earnings and book value; in other words, nowadays European investors rely more on cash flows instead of accruals numbers.

Keywords: Cash Flow Statement, Value Relevance, Accounting, Financial Statement Analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
447 A Study on the Determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient in an Emerging Market

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Zeynab Lotfi Aghel

Abstract:

The determinants of Earnings Response Coefficient (ERC), including firm size, earnings growth, and earnings persistence are studied in this research. These determinants are supposed to be moderator variables that affect ERC and Return Response Coefficient. The research sample contains 82 Iranian listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) from 2001 to 2012. Gathered data have been processed by EVIEWS Software. Results show a significant positive relation between firm size and ERC, and also between earnings growth and ERC; however, there is no significant relation between earnings persistence and ERC. Also, the results show that ERC will be increased by firm size and earnings growth, but there is no relation between earnings persistence and ERC.

Keywords: earnings response coefficient (ERC), return response coefficient (RRC), firm size, earnings growth, earnings persistence

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
446 Earnings vs Cash Flows: The Valuation Perspective

Authors: Megha Agarwal

Abstract:

The research paper is an effort to compare the earnings based and cash flow based methods of valuation of an enterprise. The theoretically equivalent methods based on either earnings such as Residual Earnings Model (REM), Abnormal Earnings Growth Model (AEGM), Residual Operating Income Method (ReOIM), Abnormal Operating Income Growth Model (AOIGM) and its extensions multipliers such as price/earnings ratio, price/book value ratio; or cash flow based models such as Dividend Valuation Method (DVM) and Free Cash Flow Method (FCFM) all provide different estimates of valuation of the Indian giant corporate Reliance India Limited (RIL). An ex-post analysis of published accounting and financial data for four financial years from 2008-09 to 2011-12 has been conducted. A comparison of these valuation estimates with the actual market capitalization of the company shows that the complex accounting based model AOIGM provides closest forecasts. These different estimates may be derived due to inconsistencies in discount rate, growth rates and the other forecasted variables. Although inputs for earnings based models may be available to the investor and analysts through published statements, precise estimation of free cash flows may be better undertaken by the internal management. The estimation of value from more stable parameters as residual operating income and RNOA could be considered superior to the valuations from more volatile return on equity.

Keywords: earnings, cash flows, valuation, Residual Earnings Model (REM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
445 Earnings Volatility and Earnings Predictability

Authors: Yosra Ben Mhamed

Abstract:

Most previous research that investigates the importance of earnings volatility for a firm’s value has focused on the effects of earnings volatility on the cost of capital. Many study illustrate that earnings volatility can reduce the firm’s value by enhancing the cost of capital. However, a few recent studies directly examine the relation between earnings volatility and subsequent earnings levels. In our study, we further explore the role of volatility in forecasting. Our study makes two primary contributions to the literature. First, taking into account the level of current firm’s performance, we provide causal theory to the link between volatility and earnings predictability. Nevertheless, previous studies testing the linearity of this relationship have not mentioned any underlying theory. Secondly, our study contributes to the vast body of fundamental analysis research that identifies a set of variables that improve valuation, by showing that earnings volatility affects the estimation of future earnings. Projections of earnings are used by valuation research and practice to derive estimates of firm value. Since we want to examine the impact of volatility on earnings predictability, we sort the sample into three portfolios according to the level of their earnings volatility in ascending order. For each quintile, we present the predictability coefficient. In a second test, each of these portfolios is, then, sorted into three further quintiles based on their level of current earnings. These yield nine quintiles. So we can observe whether volatility strongly predicts decreases on earnings predictability only for highest quintile of earnings. In general, we find that earnings volatility has an inverse relationship with earnings predictability. Our results also show that the sensibility of earnings predictability to ex-ante volatility is more pronounced among profitability firms. The findings are most consistent with overinvestment and persistence explanations.

Keywords: earnings volatility, earnings predictability, earnings persistence, current profitability

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
444 The Effect of Corporate Governance on Earnings Management: When Firms Report Increasing Earnings

Authors: Su-Ping Liu, Yue Tian, Yifan Shen

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of corporate governance on earnings management when firms have reported a long stream of earnings increases (hereafter referred to as earnings beaters). We expect that good quality of corporate governance decreases the probability of income-increasing earnings management. We employ transparent tools to capture firms’ opportunistic management behavior, specifically, the repurchase of stock. In addition, we use corporate governance proxies to measure the degree of corporate governance, including board size, board independence, CEO duality, and the frequency of meeting. The results hold after the controlling of variables that suggested in prior literature. We expect that the simple technique, that is, firms’ degree of corporate governance, to be used as an inexpensive first step in detecting earnings management.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, earnings patterns, stock repurchase

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
443 International Financial Reporting Standard Adoption and Value Relevance of Earnings in Listed Consumer Goods Companies in Nigerian

Authors: Muktar Haruna

Abstract:

This research work examines the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) adoption and value relevance of earnings of listed consumer goods companies in the Nigerian. The population of the study comprises 22 listed consumer goods companies, out of which 15 were selected as sample size of the study. The scope of the study is a 12-year period covering from 2006 to 2018. Secondary data from the annual report of sampled companies were used, which consists of earnings per share (EPS), the book value of equity per share (BVE) as independent variables; firm size (FSZ) as a control variable, and market share price of sampled companies from Nigerian stock exchange as dependent variable. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. The results of the study showed that IFRS did not improve the value relevance of earnings after the adoption, which translates to a decrease in value relevance of accounting numbers in the post-adoption period. The major recommendation is that the Nigerian Reporting Council should ensure full compliance to all provisions of IFRS and provide uniformity in the presentation of non-current assets in the statement of financial position, where some present only net current assets leaving individual figures for current assets and liabilities invisible.

Keywords: IFRS, adoption, value relevance, earning per share, book value of equity per share

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
442 A Sector-Wise Study on Detecting Earnings Management in India

Authors: Raghuveer Kaur, Kartikay Sharma, Ashu Khanna

Abstract:

Earnings management has been present from times immemorial. The recent downfall of giant enterprises like Enron, Satyam and WorldCom has brought a lot of focus on the study and detection of earnings management. The present study is an attempt to study earnings management in one of the fastest emerging economy - India. The study makes an attempt to understand earnings management in different sectors of the economy. The paper first tests a hypothesis to check whether different sectors of India are engaged in earnings management or not. In the later section the paper aims to study the level of earnings management in 6 popular sectors of India: IT&BPO, Retail, Telecom, Biotech, Hotels and coffee. To measure earnings management two popular techniques of detecting earnings management has been employed: Modified Jones Model and Beniesh M Score. A total of 332 companies were studied. Publicly available data from Capitaline database has been used. The paper also classifies the top and bottom five performers on the basis of sales turnover in each sector and identifies whether they manage their earnings or not.

Keywords: earnings management, India, modified Jones model, Beneish M score

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
441 Investors' Ratio Analysis and the Profitability of Listed Firms: Evidence from Nigeria

Authors: Abisola Akinola, Akinsulere Femi

Abstract:

The stock market has continually been a source of economic development in most developing countries. This study examined the relationship between investors’ ratio analysis and profitability of quoted companies in Nigeria using secondary data obtained from the annual reports of forty-two (42) companies. The study employed the multiple regression technique to analyze the relationship between investors’ ratio analysis (measured by dividend per share and earning per share) and profitability (measured by the return on equity). The results from the analysis show that investors’ ratio analysis, when measured by earnings per share, have a positive and significant impact on profitability. However, the study noted that investors’ ratio analysis, when measured by dividend per share, tend to have a positive impact on profitability but it is statistically insignificant. By implication, investors and other stakeholders that are interested in investing in stocks can predict the earning capacity of listed firms in the stock market.

Keywords: dividend per share, earnings per share, profitability, return on equity

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
440 The Changes of the Relationship between Audit Quality and Earnings Management after Financial Crisis

Authors: Chengxuan Geng, Yizhou E

Abstract:

This paper mainly examines the changes in the relationship between earnings management and audit quality before and after financial crisis in the context of American firms from 2005 to 2010. Based on a sample of 3584 firm year observations, we find that there are changes concerning the relation between accrual-based earnings management and audit quality during the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods. However, the results do not provide enough evidence with regard to the variances in the association between real activities earnings management and audit quality during these two periods.

Keywords: audit quality, earnings management, financial crisis, relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
439 Earnings-Related Information, Cognitive Bias, and the Disposition Effect

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, Pei-Shan Kao

Abstract:

This paper discusses the reaction of investors in the Taiwan stock market to the most probable unknown earnings-related information and the most probable known earnings-related information. As compared with the previous literature regarding the effect of an official announcement of earnings forecast revision, this paper further analyzes investors’ cognitive bias toward the unknown and known earnings-related information, and the role of media during the investors' reactions to the foresaid information shocks. The empirical results show that both the unknown and known earnings-related information provides useful information content for a stock market. In addition, cognitive bias and disposition effect are the behavioral pitfalls that commonly occur in the process of the investors' reactions to the earnings-related information. Finally, media coverage has a remarkable influence upon the investors' trading decisions.

Keywords: cognitive bias, role of media, disposition effect, earnings-related information, behavioral pitfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
438 A Critical Knowledge of Brand Equity in Thai Academic Works

Authors: Pongsiri Kamkankaew

Abstract:

This paper experiments to consider brand equity thought in Thai academic works. This essay employs that the first emerging of brand equity in Thai academic works and the components of brand equity which explore the extent to the convoluted approach with other Thai social condition. In Thailand, brand equity is supposed to provide branding and brand management replacement. However, the commitment of brand equity imposes in its proposal for seemly application in Thai context – to develop the brand equity framework by the Thai social – culture and Thai utilization style which it is questionable whether the brand equity in western conception is useful for characterizing the brand equity in Thailand context. In this position, brand equity also aspects several major questions: How can western conception lead to apply in Thai business? How can diversification be given within Thai SMEs business running? Can corporate brand valuation approach adopt in real business doing? So this paper argues that Thai brand equity notion should reduce disturb over improvement of its self-restraint and business area. Instead, Thai academic who are interested in brand equity can harmonize different mature bodies of discipline and other investigative a frame of references to complete and open the recognizing of brand equity.

Keywords: Thai brand equity, knowledge critical, brand management, branding

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
437 Earnings Management and Firm’s Creditworthiness

Authors: Maria A. Murtiati, Ancella A. Hermawan

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine whether the firm’s eligibility to get a bank loan is influenced by earnings management. The earnings management is distinguished between accruals and real earnings management. Hypothesis testing is carried out with logistic regression model using sample of 285 companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2010. The result provides evidence that a greater magnitude in accruals earnings management increases the firm’s probability to be eligible to get bank loan. In contrast, real earnings management through abnormal cash flow and abnormal discretionary expenses decrease firm’s probability to be eligible to get bank loan, while real management through abnormal production cost increases such probability. The result of this study suggests that if the earnings management is assumed to be opportunistic purpose, the accruals based earnings management can distort the banks credit analysis using financial statements. Real earnings management has more impact on the cash flows, and banks are very concerned on the firm’s cash flow ability. Therefore, this study indicates that banks are more able to detect real earnings management, except abnormal production cost in real earning management.

Keywords: discretionary accruals, real earning management, bank loan, credit worthiness

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
436 The Impact of other Comprehensive Income Disclosure and Corporate Governance on Earnings Management and Firm Performance

Authors: Yan Wang, Yuan George Shan

Abstract:

This study examines whether earnings management reduces firm performance and how other comprehensive income (OCI) disclosure and strong corporate governance restrain earnings management. Using a data set comprising 6,260 firm-year observations from listed companies on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges during 2009–2015, the results indicate that OCI disclosure generally improves firm performance, but earnings management lowers firm performance. The study also finds that OCI disclosure and corporate governance are complementary in restraining earnings manipulation and promote firm performance. The implications of the findings are relevant policy-makers and regulators in assisting them evaluate the consequences of convergence of Chinese Accounting Standards with the International Financial Reporting Standards.

Keywords: other comprehensive income, corporate governance, earnings management, firm performance, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
435 Real Activities Manipulation vs. Accrual Earnings Management: The Effect of Political Risk

Authors: Heba Abdelmotaal, Magdy Abdel-Kader

Abstract:

Purpose: This study explores whether a firm’s effective political risk management is preventing real and accrual earnings management . Design/methodology/approach: Based on a sample of 130 firms operating in Egypt during the period 2008-2013, two hypotheses are tested using the panel data regression models. Findings: The empirical findings indicate a significant relation between real and accrual earnings management and political risk. Originality/value: This paper provides a statistically evidence on the effects of the political risk management failure on the mangers’ engagement in the real and accrual earnings management practices, and its impact on the firm’s performance.

Keywords: political risk, risk management failure, real activities manipulation, accrual earnings management

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
434 The Reliability of Management Earnings Forecasts in IPO Prospectuses: A Study of Managers’ Forecasting Preferences

Authors: Maha Hammami, Olfa Benouda Sioud

Abstract:

This study investigates the reliability of management earnings forecasts with reference to these two ingredients: verifiability and neutrality. Specifically, we examine the biasedness (or accuracy) of management earnings forecasts and company specific characteristics that can be associated with accuracy. Based on sample of 102 IPO prospectuses published for admission on NYSE Euronext Paris from 2002 to 2010, we found that these forecasts are on average optimistic and two of the five test variables, earnings variability and financial leverage are significant in explaining ex post bias. Acknowledging the possibility that the bias is the result of the managers’ forecasting behavior, we then examine whether managers decide to under-predict, over-predict or forecast accurately for self-serving purposes. Explicitly, we examine the role of financial distress, operating performance, ownership by insiders and the economy state in influencing managers’ forecasting preferences. We find that managers of distressed firms seem to over-predict future earnings. We also find that when managers are given more stock options, they tend to under-predict future earnings. Finally, we conclude that the management earnings forecasts are affected by an intentional bias due to managers’ forecasting preferences.

Keywords: intentional bias, management earnings forecasts, neutrality, verifiability

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
433 Value Relevance of Accounting Information: A Study of Steel Sector in India

Authors: Pradyumna Mohanty

Abstract:

The paper aims to explore whether accounting information of Indian companies in the Steel sector are value relevant or not. Ohlson’s model which usually takes into consideration book value per share (BV) and earnings per share (EARN) has been used and the same has been expanded to include two more variables such as cash flow from operations (CFO) and return on equity (ROE). The data were collected from CMIE-Prowess data base in respect of BSE-listed steel companies and the time frame spans from 2010 to 2014. OLS regression has been used to test the value relevance of these accounting numbers. Results indicate that both CFO and BV are having significant influence on the stock price in two out of five years of study. But, BV is emerging as the most significant and highly value relevant of all the four variables during the entire period of study.

Keywords: value relevance, accounting information, book value per share, earnings per share

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
432 The Impact of Diversification Strategy on Leverage and Accrual-Based Earnings Management

Authors: Safa Lazzem, Faouzi Jilani

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of diversification strategy on the nature of the relationship between leverage and accrual-based earnings management through panel-estimation techniques based on a sample of 162 nonfinancial French firms indexed in CAC All-Tradable during the period from 2006 to 2012. The empirical results show that leverage increases encourage managers to manipulate earnings management. Our findings prove that the diversification strategy provides the needed context for this accounting practice to be possible in highly diversified firms. In addition, the results indicate that diversification moderates the relationship between leverage and accrual-based earnings management by changing the nature and the sign of this relationship.

Keywords: diversification, earnings management, leverage, panel-estimation techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
431 Earnings Management and Tone Management: Evidence from the UK

Authors: Salah Kayed Kayed, Jessica Hong Yang

Abstract:

This study investigates, whether earnings management in the audited financial statements is associated with tone management in the narrative sections of the annual report in the UK. Earnings management and narrative disclosure are communication strategies used from managers to communicate with investors or other users. Because earnings management and narrative disclosure stem from managers, they can exploit this by doing manipulation in their earnings, and simultaneously disclosing qualitative text (narrative information) in their reports as a tone of words, which will affect users’ perception, and hence users will be misinformed. The association between earnings and tone management can be explained by the self-serving, through cognitive reference points, theory. The sample period lasts from 2010 to 2015, and the sample comprises all non-financial firms that consider under FTSE 350 in any year during the sample period. A list of words from previous research is used to measure the tone in the narrative sections of the annual report. Because this study focuses on the managerial strategic choice and the subjective issues that come from management, it uses the abnormal tone to capture the managerial discretion on tone, and a number of different discretionary accruals proxies to measure earnings management, where accruals management is considered as a manipulation tool from managers to change the users' perception. This research is motivated to fulfil the literature gap by examining the association between earnings and tone management. Moreover, if firms that apply earnings management use tone management to mislead investors, it is beneficial for investors, policy makers, standard setters, or other users to know whether there is an association between earnings management and tone management. Clearly, we believe that this study is fundamental in the accounting context, where it evaluates the communication strategies that are used in firms' financial reports. Consistent with prior research, it is expected that tone management is positively associated with earnings management. This means that firms that use earnings management have incentives to manipulate in their narrative disclosure through tone of words, to reflect a good perception for users, which will conceal the earnings management techniques used in their reporting.

Keywords: earnings management, FTSE 350, narrative disclosure, tone management

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
430 Volatility Spillover Among the Stock Markets of South Asian Countries

Authors: Tariq Aziz, Suresh Kumar, Vikesh Kumar, Sheraz Mustafa, Jhanzeb Marwat

Abstract:

The paper provides an updated version of volatility spillover among the equity markets of South Asian countries, including Pakistan, India, Srilanka, and Bangladesh. The analysis uses both symmetric and asymmetric Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity models to investigate volatility persistence and leverage effect. The bivariate EGARCH model is used to test for volatility transmission between two equity markets. Weekly data for the period February 2013 to August 2019 is used for empirical analysis. The findings indicate that the leverage effect exists in the equity markets of all the countries except Bangladesh. The volatility spillover from the equity market of Bangladesh to all other countries is negative and significant whereas the volatility of the equity market of Sri-Lanka does influence the volatility of any other country’s equity market. Indian equity market influence only the volatility of the Sri-Lankan equity market; and there is bidirectional volatility spillover between the equity markets of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The findings are important for policy-makers and international investors.

Keywords: volatility spillover, volatility persistence, garch, egarch

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
429 The Relation between Earnings Management with the Financial Reporting

Authors: Anocha Rojanapanich

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of earnings management on corporate transparency of the company in Dusit area workplace via financial reporting reliability and stakeholder acceptance as independent variable. And the company in Dusit are are taken as the population and sample. The questionnaire is used to collect data. Exploratory Factor Analysis is implemented to ensure construct validity, and correlation statistic is selected to test the relationship among all variable and the ordinary least squares regression is used to explore the hypothesized. The results show that earnings management has a significant and negative impact on financial reporting reliability, stakeholder acceptance, and corporate transparency. Both financial reporting reliability and stakeholder acceptance have an important and positive effect on corporate transparency, and they are then mediators of the earnings management-corporate transparency relationships.

Keywords: dusit area workplace, earnings management, financial report, business and marketing management

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
428 The Effect of Internal Auditing Function on the Quality of Financial Reporting: A Theoretical Framework

Authors: Hani Albogami

Abstract:

The internal audit function is considered as one of the internal corporate governance mechanisms that may have an impact on improving earnings quality by constraining earnings management. The internal audit function is also a unique corporate governance mechanism because internal auditors have more involvement with the day-to-day operations comparing to the audit committee, and also internal auditors audit their companies the whole year compared to the external auditor who audits only a certain time of the year. The relationships between internal audit function and earnings management can be understood by some theories. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical background of the influence of the quality of internal audit function on earnings management. In particular, the agency theory, institutional theory, singling theory, and resource dependency theory are adapted by this paper to provide some understanding and analyses that can be a basis for future research to contribute to the corporate governance academic studies.

Keywords: internal audit, corporate governance, earnings management, accounting

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
427 Stock Price Prediction with 'Earnings' Conference Call Sentiment

Authors: Sungzoon Cho, Hye Jin Lee, Sungwhan Jeon, Dongyoung Min, Sungwon Lyu

Abstract:

Major public corporations worldwide use conference calls to report their quarterly earnings. These 'earnings' conference calls allow for questions from stock analysts. We investigated if it is possible to identify sentiment from the call script and use it to predict stock price movement. We analyzed call scripts from six companies, two each from Korea, China and Indonesia during six years 2011Q1 – 2017Q2. Random forest with Frequency-based sentiment scores using Loughran MacDonald Dictionary did better than control model with only financial indicators. When the stock prices went up 20 days from earnings release, our model predicted correctly 77% of time. When the model predicted 'up,' actual stock prices went up 65% of time. This preliminary result encourages us to investigate advanced sentiment scoring methodologies such as topic modeling, auto-encoder, and word2vec variants.

Keywords: earnings call script, random forest, sentiment analysis, stock price prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
426 Corporate Social Responsibility, Earnings, and Tax Avoidance: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Cahyaningsih Cahyaningsih, Fu'ad Rakhman

Abstract:

This study examines empirically the association between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and tax avoidance. This study also investigates the effect of earnings on the relation between CSR and tax avoidance. Effective tax rate (ETR) and cash effective tax rate (CETR) were used to measure tax avoidance. Corporate social responsibility fund (CSRF) and corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD) were used as proxies for CSR. Test was conducted for public firms which were listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period of 2011-2014. Based on slack resource theory, this study finds that the relation between CSR and tax avoidance is moderated by earnings.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility disclosure, corporate social responsibility fund, earnings, tax avoidance

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
425 The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Information Disclosure on the Accuracy of Analysts' Earnings Forecasts

Authors: Xin-Hua Zhao

Abstract:

In recent years, the growth rate of social responsibility reports disclosed by Chinese corporations has grown rapidly. The economic effects of the growing corporate social responsibility reports have become a hot topic. The article takes the chemical listed engineering corporations that disclose social responsibility reports in China as a sample, and based on the information asymmetry theory, examines the economic effect generated by corporate social responsibility disclosure with the method of ordinary least squares. The research is conducted from the perspective of analysts’ earnings forecasts and studies the impact of corporate social responsibility information disclosure on improving the accuracy of analysts' earnings forecasts. The results show that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between corporate social responsibility disclosure index and analysts’ earnings forecast error. The conclusions confirm that enterprises can reduce the asymmetry of social and environmental information by disclosing social responsibility reports, and thus improve the accuracy of analysts’ earnings forecasts. It can promote the effective allocation of resources in the market.

Keywords: analysts' earnings forecasts, corporate social responsibility disclosure, economic effect, information asymmetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
424 Analysis of Unconditional Conservatism and Earnings Quality before and after the IFRS Adoption

Authors: Monica Santi, Evita Puspitasari

Abstract:

International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) has developed the principle based accounting standard. Based on this, IASB then eliminated the conservatism concept within accounting framework. Conservatism concept represents a prudent reaction to uncertainty to try to ensure that uncertainties and risk inherent in business situations are adequately considered. The conservatism concept has two ingredients: conditional conservatism or ex-post (news depending prudence) and unconditional conservatism or ex-ante (news-independent prudence). IFRS in substance disregards the unconditional conservatism because the unconditional conservatism can cause the understatement assets or overstated liabilities, and eventually the financial statement would be irrelevance since the information does not represent the real fact. Therefore, the IASB eliminate the conservatism concept. However, it does not decrease the practice of unconditional conservatism in the financial statement reporting. Therefore, we expected the earnings quality would be affected because of this situation, even though the IFRS implementation was expected to increase the earnings quality. The objective of this study was to provide empirical findings about the unconditional conservatism and the earnings quality before and after the IFRS adoption. The earnings per accrual measure were used as the proxy for the unconditional conservatism. If the earnings per accrual were negative (positive), it meant the company was classified as the conservative (not conservative). The earnings quality was defined as the ability of the earnings in reflecting the future earnings by considering the earnings persistence and stability. We used the earnings response coefficient (ERC) as the proxy for the earnings quality. ERC measured the extant of a security’s abnormal market return in response to the unexpected component of reporting earning of the firm issuing that security. The higher ERC indicated the higher earnings quality. The manufacturing companies listed in the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) were used as the sample companies, and the 2009-2010 period was used to represent the condition before the IFRS adoption, and 2011-2013 was used to represent the condition after the IFRS adoption. Data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and regression analysis. We used the firm size as the control variable with the consideration the firm size would affect the earnings quality of the company. This study had proved that the unconditional conservatism had not changed, either before and after the IFRS adoption period. However, we found the different findings for the earnings quality. The earnings quality had decreased after the IFRS adoption period. This empirical results implied that the earnings quality before the IFRS adoption was higher. This study also had found that the unconditional conservatism positively influenced the earnings quality insignificantly. The findings implied that the implementation of the IFRS had not decreased the unconditional conservatism practice and has not altered the earnings quality of the manufacturing company. Further, we found that the unconditional conservatism did not affect the earnings quality. Eventhough the empirical result shows that the unconditional conservatism gave positive influence to the earnings quality, but the influence was not significant. Thus, we concluded that the implementation of the IFRS did not increase the earnings quality.

Keywords: earnings quality, earnings response coefficient, IFRS Adoption, unconditional conservatism

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
423 Price to Earnings Growth (PEG) Predicting Future Returns Better than the Price to Earnings (PE) Ratio

Authors: Lindrianasari Stefanie, Aminah Khairudin

Abstract:

This study aims to provide empirical evidence regarding the ability of Price to Earnings Ratio and PEG Ratio in predicting future stock returns issuers. The samples used in this study are stocks that go into LQ45. The main contribution is to assign empirical evidence if the PEG Ratio can provide optimum return compared to Price to Earnings Ratio. This study used a sample of the entire company into the group LQ45 with the period of observation. The data used is limited to the financial statements of a company incorporated in LQ45 period July 2013-July 2014, using the financial statements and the position of the company's closing stock price at the end of 2010 as a reference benchmark for the growth of the company's stock price compared to the closing price of 2013. This study found that the method of PEG Ratio can outperform the method of PE ratio in predicting future returns on the stock portfolio of LQ45.

Keywords: price to earnings growth, price to earnings ratio, future returns, stock price

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
422 Personal Income and the Social Confidence in Contemporary China: The Indirect Role of the Sense of Social Equity

Authors: Wenfen Bi, Zeng Lin

Abstract:

As a developing country, China is badly in need of capital and talents to develop the socialist country with Chinese characteristics. However, a large proportion of high income people with know-how technique, wealth and management experience have immigrated or plan to immigrate to other countries. Of course, this phenomenon has attracted the attention from both the government and researchers. One explanation might be that these high-income people lack confidence in China’s social development. Based on the data on W city’s comprehensive social situation surveyed by center for the social survey research of Wuhan university (CSSR) in 2014, this paper employed the structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate whether personal income affects social confidence, via the mediating effect of the sense of social equity (sense of right equity and sense of distributive equity). Bootstrap mediation analysis revealed that after controlling Demographic variables, personal income had a significant negative influence on sense of right equity and in turn, sense of rights equity can significantly positively predict social confidence. While personal income had no significant effect on sense of distributive equity, and sense of distributive equity did not significantly affect macro social confidence. Also, the direct effects of personal income on social confidence became not significant. These findings revealed the inner mechanism of the relationship between the personal income and social confidence in contemporary China, which was caused by mediating effect of sense of rights equity. That is, the higher the personal income, the lower the sense of rights equity, the lower the social confidence. Thus, the boost of the social confidence, especially for the rich, does not only depend on the equitable distribution of material wealth, but also on the right equity and making people feel rights equally in common life.

Keywords: personal income, sense of right equity, sense of social equity, social confidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
421 Business Challenges and Opportunities of Mobile Applications for Equity Trading in India

Authors: Helee Dave

Abstract:

Globalization has helped in the growth and change of the Indian economy to a great extent. The purchasing power of Indians has increased. IT Infrastructure has considerably improved in India. There is an increase in the usage of smartphones. The smartphones facilitate all sorts of work now a day, from getting groceries to planning a tour; it is just one click away. Similar is the case with equity trading. The traders in equity market can now deal with their stocks through mobile applications eliminating the middle man. The traders do not have an option but to open a dematerialization account with the banks which are compulsory enough irrespective of their mode of transaction that is online or offline. Considering that India is a young country having more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and 65% of its population below the age of 35; this youth is comfortable with the usage of smartphones. The banking industry is also providing a virtual platform supporting equity market industry. Yet equity trading through online applications is at an infant stage. This paper primarily attempts to understand challenges and opportunities faced by equity trading through mobile apps in India.

Keywords: BPO, business process outsourcing, de-materialization account, equity, ITES, information technology enabled services

Procedia PDF Downloads 222