Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2873

Search results for: Georgian wine market

2873 Trends and Prospects for the Development of Georgian Wine Market

Authors: E. Kharaishvili, M. Chavleishvili, M. Natsvaladze

Abstract:

The article presents the trends in Georgian wine market development and evaluates the competitive advantages of Georgia to enter the wine market based on its customs, traditions and historical practices combined with modern technologies. In order to analyze the supply of wine, dynamics of vineyard land area and grape varieties are discussed, trends in wine production are presented, trends in export and import are evaluated, local wine market, its micro and macro environments are studied and analyzed based on the interviews with experts and analysis of initial recording materials. For strengthening its position on the international market, the level of competitiveness of Georgian wine is defined, which is evaluated by “ex-ante” and “ex-post” methods, as well as by four basic and two additional factors of the Porter’s diamond method; potential advantages and disadvantages of Georgian wine are revealed. Conclusions are made by identifying the factors that hinder the development of Georgian wine market. Based on the conclusions, relevant recommendations are developed.

Keywords: Georgian wine market, competitive advantage, bio wine, export-import, Porter's diamond model

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2872 Consumer Market for Georgian Hazelnut and the Strategy to Improve Its Competitiveness

Authors: M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The paper presents the trends of Georgian hazelnut market development and analyses the competitive advantages which will help Georgia to enter international hazelnut market using modern technologies. The history of hazelnut crop development and hazelnut species in Georgia are discussed. For hazelnut supply analysis trends in hazelnut production are considered, trends in export and import development is evaluated, domestic hazelnut market is studied and analysed based on expert interviews and initial accounting materials. In order to achieve and strengthen its position in international market, potential advantages and disadvantages of Georgian hazelnut are revealed, analysis of export and import possibilities of hazelnut is presented. Recommendations are developed based on the conclusions, which are made through identifying the key factors that hinder development of Georgian hazelnut market.

Keywords: hazelnut market, hazelnut export and import, competitiveness of hazelnut

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2871 Application of the Quantile Regression Approach to the Heterogeneity of the Fine Wine Prices

Authors: Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme, Benoit Faye, Eric Le Fur

Abstract:

In this paper, the heterogeneity of the Bordeaux Legends 50 wine market price segment is addressed. For this purpose, quantile regression is applied – with market segmentation based on wine bottle price quantile – and the hedonic price of wine attributes is computed for various price segments of the market. The approach is applied to a major privately held data set which consists of approximately 30,000 transactions over the 2003–2014 period. The findings suggest that the relative hedonic prices of several wine attributes differ significantly among deciles. In particular, the elasticity coefficient of the expert ratings shows strong variation among prices. If - as suggested in the literature - expert ratings have a positive influence on wine price on average, they have a clearly decreasing impact over the quantiles. Finally, the lower the wine price, the higher the potential for price appreciation over time. Other variables such as chateaux or vintage are also shown to vary across the distribution of wine prices. While enhancing our understanding of the complex market dynamics that underlie Bordeaux wines’ price, this research provides empirical evidence that the QR approach adequately captures heterogeneity among wine price ranges, which simultaneously applies to wine stock, vintage and auctions’ house.

Keywords: hedonics, market segmentation, quantile regression, heterogeneity, wine economics

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2870 Sustainable Project Management Necessarily Implemented in the Chinese Wine Market Due to Climate Variation

Authors: Ruixin Zhang, Joel Carboni, Songchenchen Gong

Abstract:

Since the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) officially became the 17 development goals set by the United Nations in 2015, it has become an inevitable trend in project management development globally. Since Sustainability and glob-alization are the main focus and trends in the 21st century, project management contains system-based optimization, and or-ganizational humanities, environmental protection, and economic development. As a populous country globally, with the advanced development of economy and technology, China becomes one of the biggest markets in the wine industry. However, the develop-ment of society also brings specific environmental issues. Climate changes have already brought severe impacts on the Chinese wine market, including consumer behavior, wine production activities, and organizational humanities. Therefore, the implementation of sustainable project management in Chinese wine market is essential. Surveys based analysis is the primary method to interpret how the climate variation effect the Chinese wine market and the importance of sustainable project management implementation for green market growth in China. This paper proposes the CWW Conceptual model that can be used in the wine industry, the new 7 Drivers Model, and SPM Framework to interpret the main drivers that impact project management implementation in the wine industry and to offer the directions to wine companies in China which would help them to achieve the green growth.

Keywords: project management, sustainability, green growth, climate changes, Chinese wine market

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2869 Investigate the Relationship between Wine Quality, Ageing Potential, Oak Influence, and Retail Price in New Zealand Pinot Noir Wines

Authors: Jingxian An

Abstract:

Wine quality, ageing potential, and oak influence are essential factors in determining the commercial value of wine (wine price). This paper certifies that wine quality, ageing potential, and oak influence all have a positive influence on wine price. Among these three sensory attributes, oak influence has the greatest influence on price setting by wine traders and price estimation by experienced consumers. In the meanwhile, this paper also provides winemakers with chemical instructions for increasing total phenolics that can improve wine quality, age potential, and oak influence, all of which can boost the commercial value of a wine.

Keywords: ageing potential, wine quality, oak influence, retail price, estimated price, total phenolics

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2868 Drugs, Silk Road, Bitcoins

Authors: Lali Khurtsia, Vano Tsertsvadze

Abstract:

Georgian drug policy is directed to reduce the supply of drugs. Retrospective analysis has shown that law enforcement activities have been followed by the expulsion of particular injecting drugs. The demand remains unchanged and drugs are substituted by the hand-made, even more dangerous homemade drugs entered the market. To find out expected new trends on the Georgian drug market, qualitative study was conducted with Georgian drug users to determine drug supply routes. It turned out that drug suppliers and consumers for safety reasons and to protect their anonymity, use Skype to make deals. IT in illegal drug trade is even more sophisticated in the worldwide. Trading with Bitcoins in the Darknet ensures high confidentiality of money transactions and the safe circulation of drugs. In 2014 largest Bitcoin mining enterprise in the world was built in Georgia. We argue that the use of Bitcoins and Darknet by Georgian drug consumers and suppliers will be an incentive to response adequately to the government's policy of restricting supply in order to satisfy market demand for drugs.

Keywords: bitcoin, darknet, drugs, policy

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2867 The Industrial Property in the Context of Wine Production in Brazil

Authors: Fátima R. Zan, Daniela C. Guimarães, Rosângela O. Soares, Suzana L. Russo

Abstract:

The wine until it reaches the consumer has a long way to go, from planting the wine to the bottling and the placing on the market, bringing many years of experimentation, and through several generations to have recognition for quality and excellence. The winemaking grew dramatically and are today many brands, including the associated locations, demonstrating their origin and cultural order that is associated with their production. The production, circulation and marketing of wines and products of grape and wine in Brazil is regulated by Law 7.678/88, amended by Law 10970/04, and adjusting the legislation to Regulation Wine Mercosur. This study was based on a retrospective study, and aimed to identify and characterize the modalities of industrial property used in wine production in Brazil. The wineries were selected from the 2014 ranking list, drawn up by the World Association of Journalists and Writers of Wines and Spirits (WAWWJ). The results show that the registration with INPI, regarding Patents, Trademarks, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications, is not used by the wineries analyzed.

Keywords: counterfeiting, industrial property, protection, wine production

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2866 Quantitative Ranking Evaluation of Wine Quality

Authors: A. Brunel, A. Kernevez, F. Leclere, J. Trenteseaux

Abstract:

Today, wine quality is only evaluated by wine experts with their own different personal tastes, even if they may agree on some common features. So producers do not have any unbiased way to independently assess the quality of their products. A tool is here proposed to evaluate wine quality by an objective ranking based upon the variables entering wine elaboration, and analysed through principal component analysis (PCA) method. Actual climatic data are compared by measuring the relative distance between each considered wine, out of which the general ranking is performed.

Keywords: wine, grape, weather conditions, rating, climate, principal component analysis, metric analysis

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2865 Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Influencing Resveratrol, Myricetin and Quercetin Content of Wine

Authors: Mariam Khomasuridze, Nino Chkhartishvili, Irma Chanturia

Abstract:

The influence of preharvest and postharvest factors on resveratrol, myricetin and quercetin content of wine was studied during the experiment. The content of cis and trans resveratrol, myricetin and quercetin were analyzed by HPLC. In frame of experiment, the various factors affecting on wine composition were researched: variety, climate, viticulture practices, grape maturity, harvesting methods and wine making techniques. The results have shown that varietal potential and amount of yield play the most important role in formation of antioxidant compounds. Based on achieved results, the usage of medium roast oak chips protects resveratrol, myricetin, and quercetin from coagulation and precipitation. Compared to the control samples, the wines, produced by addition of oak chips were approximately four times richer with these antioxidant compounds. The retention of resveratrol was lowered with 45 % in wines, producing in Qvevri by Georgian traditional technology without controlling temperature during fermentation. The opposite effects in case of myricetin, quercetin and total phenolics content were determined. Their concentrations were higher with 56-78%, then in the fermented tank at 22 -25 °C. As the result of the experiment, the optimal technology scheme of wine was worked out, reached by biologically active compounds: resveratrol, myricetin, and quercetin.

Keywords: resveratrol, miricetin, quercetin, wine

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2864 The Wine List Design by Upscale Restaurants

Authors: A. Oliveira-Brochado, R. Vinhas da Silva

Abstract:

This paper investigates the structure and content of the wine lists in upscale restaurants in Portugal (N=61). The respondents considered that a wine list should be easy to use and to modify, well-designed, modern and varied. Respondents also stated that they perform on average 6 revisions to the wine list per year. The restaurant owner, the restaurant manager and the sommelier were the main persons in charge of the wine list design. One of the mostimportant reasons for selecting wines across most restaurants was to ‘complement the menu’ and ‘pairing food with wine’. Restaurants also reported to be relatively independent from suppliers and magazine evaluations. Moreover, this work revealed that the restaurant wine list is considered by restaurateurs as a strategic tool to sell wine as a complement to the menu, to improve customer satisfaction and loyalty, to increase restaurant value and to enhance a successful positioning.

Keywords: Portugal, restaurants, wine list design, hospitality

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2863 The Role of Branding for Success in the Georgian Tea Market

Authors: Maia Seturi, Tamari Todua

Abstract:

Economic growth is seen as the increase in the production capacity of a country. It enables a country to produce more and more material wealth and social benefits. Today, the success of any product on the market is closely related to the issue of branding. The brand is a source of information for a user/consumer, which helps to simplify the choice of goods and reduce consumer risk. The paper studies the role of branding in order to promote Georgian tea brands. The main focus of the research is directed to consumer attitudes regarding Georgian tea brands. The methodology of the paper is based on marketing research. The findings study revealed that the majority of consumers prefer foreign tea brands. The final part of the article presents the main recommendations.

Keywords: marketing research, customer behavior, brand, successful brand

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2862 The World of Great Wines: The Douro Valley Experience

Authors: A. Oliveira-Brochado, R. Silva, C. Paulino

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to use an experiential view of wine tourism to develop a battery of items that can potentially capture the overall Douro Valley experience from the tourist’s perspective. The Douro Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage region located in Portugal, was the target of this study. The research took a mixed approach using both qualitative and quantitative designs. Firstly, we combine the literature review on service quality scales with a content analysis of five in-depth interviews with winery managers and a focus group with wine tourists to identify the main dimensions of the overall tourism experience and to develop a battery of items for each dimension. Eight dimensions of the overall wine tourism experience came out, as follows: winery service and staff, winery facilities, winery service, wine product, wine region environment, wine region accessibilities, wine region´s offerings, and the wine region and winery reputation.

Keywords: wine tourism, Douro region, survey, wineries, experience

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2861 Financial Investment of a Wine Cavein Greece

Authors: Stamataki Erofili Nellie, Benardos Andreas

Abstract:

Winemaking and aging in Greece has been performed so far in special facilities, designed either as above ground or shallow underground buildings. The latter are well-known in Santorini as “canaves,” dating back to the 1700s. Canaves were mainly used for wine storage and aging, although occasionally, they included a winepress to complete there the whole wine production. On the other hand, wine caves are subterranean caves of the same use as canaves in the wine manufacturing industry, but they are excavated at a much greater depth of more than 53 meters or 175 feet. Whereas canaves or a typical wine cellar is around 10 feet deep, with is equivalent to almost 3 meters. This paper discusses the advantages and the disadvantages of creating a wine cave for the vinification of a winery in Greece and the financial investment or risk that has to be taken. The data presented and analysed are given from wineries in Greece and especially from those located in Santorini island. The estimation of the cost for the excavation of the model selected as a wine cave will be compared with the financial budget of the existing premises and facilities above ground in Greek wineries. In order to show whether it is viable for a greek winery to invest in a wine cave.

Keywords: underground space use, subterranean winery, wine cave, underground winery, greece

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2860 Sensory Gap Analysis on Port Wine Promotion and Perceptions

Authors: José Manue Carvalho Vieira, Mariana Magalhães, Elizabeth Serra

Abstract:

The Port Wine industry is essential to Portugal because it carries a tangible cultural heritage and for social and economic reasons. Positioned as a luxury product, brands need to pay more attention to the new generation's habits, preferences, languages, and sensory perceptions. Healthy lifestyles, anti-alcohol campaigns, and digitalisation of their buying decision process need to be better understood to understand the wine market in the future. The purpose of this study is to clarify the sensory perception gap between Port Wine descriptors promotion and the new generation's perceptions to help wineries to align their strategies. Based on the interpretivist approach - multiple methods and techniques (mixed-methods), different world views and different assumptions, and different data collection methods and analysis, this research integrated qualitative semi-structured interviews, Port Wine promotion contents, and social media perceptions mined by Sentiment Analysis Enginius algorithm. Findings confirm that Port Wine CEOs' strategies, brands' promotional content, and social perceptions are not sufficiently aligned. The central insight for Port Wine brands' managers is that there is a long and continuous work of understanding and associating their descriptors with the most relevant perceptual values and criteria of their targets to reposition (when necessary) and sustainably revitalise their brands. Finally, this study hypothesised a sensory gap that leads to a decrease in consumption, trying to find recommendations on how to transform it into an advantage for a better attraction towards the young age group (18-25).

Keywords: port wine, consumer habits, sensory gap analysis, wine marketing

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2859 Carbon Footprint and Exergy Destruction Footprint in White Wine Production Line

Authors: Mahmut Genc, Seda Genc

Abstract:

Wine is the most popular alcoholic drink in the World with 274.4 million of hectoliter annual production in the year of 2015. The wine industry is very important for some regions as well as creating significant value in their economies. This industry is very sensitive to the global warming since viticulture highly depends on climate and geographical region. Sustainability concept is a crucial issue for the wine industry and sustainability performances of wine production processes should be determined. Although wine production industry is an energy intensive sector as a whole, the most energy intensive products are widely used both in the viti and vinicultural process. In this study, gate-to-gate LCA approach in energy resource utilization and global warming potential impacts for white wine production line were attempted and carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint were calculated, accordingly. As a result, carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint values were calculated to be 1.75 kg CO2eq and 365.3kW, respectively.

Keywords: carbon footprint, exergy analysis, exergy destruction footprint, white wine

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2858 Tasting and Touring: Chinese Consumers’ Experiences with Australian Wine and Winery Tour: A Case Study of Sirromet Wines, Queensland

Authors: Ning Niu

Abstract:

The study hinges on consumer taste, food industry (wine production) and cultural consumption (vineyard tourism) which are related to the Chinese market, consumers, and visitors traveling to Australian vineyards. The research topic can be summed up as: the economic importance of the Chinese market on Australian wine production; the economic importance of the Chinese market have an impact on how Australian wine is produced or packaged; the impact of mass Chinese wine tourism on Australian vineyards; the gendered and cultured experience of wine tourism for Chines visitors. This study aims to apply the theories of Pierre Bourdieu into the research in food industry and cultural consumption; investigate Chinese experiences with Australian wine products and vineyard tours; to explore the cultural, gendered and class influences on their experiences. The academic background covers the concepts of habitus, taste, capital proposed by Pierre Bourdieu along with long-lasting concepts within China’s cultural context including mianzi (face, dignity/honor/hierarchy) and guanxi (connections/social network), in order to develop new perspectives to study the tastes of Chinese tourists coming to Australia for wine experiences. The documents cited from Australian government or industries will be interpreted, and the analysis of data will constitute the economic background for this current study. The study applies qualitative research and draws from the fieldwork, choosing ethnographic observation, interviews, personal experiences and discursive analysis of government documents and tourism documents. The expected sample size includes three tourism professionals, two or three local Australian wine producers, and 20 to 30 Chinese wine consumers and visitors travelling to Australian vineyards. An embodied ethnography will be used to observe the Chinese participants’ feelings, thoughts, and experiences of their engagement with Australian wine and vineyards. The researcher will interview with Chinese consumers, tourism professionals, and Australian winemakers to collect primary data. Note-taking, picture-taking, and audio-recording will be adopted with informants’ permissions. Personal or group interview will be last for 30 and 60 minutes respectively. Personal experiences of the researcher have been analyzed to respond to some research questions, and have accumulated part of primary data (e.g., photos and stories) to discover how 'mianzi' and 'guanxi' influence Australian wine and tourism industries to meet the demands’ of Chinese consumers. At current stage, the secondary data from analysis of official and industrial documents has proved the economic importance of Chinese market is influencing Australian wine and tourism industries. And my own experiences related to this study, in some sense, has proved the Chinese cultural concepts (mianzi and guanxi) are influencing the Australian wine production and package along with vineyard tours. Future fieldwork will discover more in this research realm, contribute more to knowledge.

Keywords: habitus, taste, capital, mianzi, guanxi

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2857 Investigating the Securities on Market Development in Georgia

Authors: Shota Gulbani

Abstract:

At the present stage, for the countries with developing economies, studying, and researching financial markets, gains special importance, because the situation of financial markets shapes an exact views about the carried out economic policy of the country. Besides, it’s unimaginable any country with developed economy, without healthy and functioning financial markets, whereas, for any kind of business it has got a great importance in terms of finding diversified and alternative capital. In this regard; it should be noted that the segments of Georgian financial markets are developed quite unequally, as evidenced by the fact that the Georgian financial sector is represented by 93% of commercial banks, what does not create an conformable environment for non-bank financial institutions development. In spite of the fact that Georgia has got one of the best banking system of region, it is important to properly analyze that this system should not hinder the development of other participants of Georgian financial sector.

Keywords: financial markets, macroeconomics, investments, stock exchange

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2856 The Role of Multinational Enterprises' Investments in Emerging Country's Economic Development, Case of Georgia

Authors: V. Charaia

Abstract:

From the strategic point of view, not all Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) are always positively benefiting the host economy, i.e. not all Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are promoting local/host economies. FDI could have different impact on different sectors of the economy, based not only on annual investment amount, but MNE motivations and peculiarities of the host economy in particular. FDI analysis based only on its amount can lead to incorrect decisions, it is much more important to understand the essence of investment. Consequently, our research is oriented on MNE’s motivations, answering which sectors are most popular among international investors and why, what motivated them to invest into one or another business. Georgian economy for the last period of time is attracting more and more efficiency seeking investments, which could be translated as - concentrating production in a limited number of locations to supply various markets, while benefiting local economy with: new technologies, employment, exports diversification, increased income for the local economy and so on. Foreign investors and MNEs in particular are no longer and not so much interested in the resource seeking investments, which was the case for Georgia in the last decade of XX century. Despite the fact of huge progress for the Georgian economy, still there is a room for foreign investors to make a local market oriented investments. The local market is still rich in imported products, which should be replaced by local ones. And the last but not the least important issue is that approximately 30% of all FDIs in Georgia according to this research are “efficiency seeking” investments, which is an enormous progress and a hope for future Georgian success.

Keywords: investments, MNE, FDI motivations, Georgian economy

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2855 Analysis of Histamine Content in Selected Food Products from the Serbian Market

Authors: Brizita Djordjevic, Bojana Vidovic, Milica Zrnic, Uros Cakar, Ivan Stankovic, Davor Korcok, Sladjana Sobajic

Abstract:

Histamine is a biogenic amine, which is formed by enzymatic decarboxylation from the amino acid histidine. It can be found in foods such as fish and fish products, meat and fermented meat products, cheese, wine and beer. The presence of histamine in these foods can indicate microbiological spoilage or poor manufacturing processes. The consumption of food containing large amounts of histamine can have toxicological consequences. In 62 food products (31 canned fish products, 19 wines and 12 cheeses) from the market of Serbia the content of histamine was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (Immunolab GmbH, Kassel, Germany). The detection limits of this assay were 20 µg/kg for fish and cheese and 4 µg/L for wine. The concentration of histamine varied between 0.16-207 mg/kg in canned fish products, 0.03-1.47 mg/kg in cheeses and 0.01- 0.18 mg/L in wines. In all analyzed canned fish products the results obtained for the histamine were below the limits set by European and national legislation, so they can be considered acceptable and safe for the health consumers. The levels of histamine in analyzed cheeses and wines were very low and did not pose safety concerns.

Keywords: cheese, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, histamine, fish products, wine

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2854 Production of Ginseng Berry Wines and Analysis of Their Properties

Authors: Jae Hee Choi, Seung Il Ahn, Sae Kyul Kim, Byung Wook Yang, Bong Sun Park, Hwan Sup Kim, Young Tae Hahm

Abstract:

The root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER, commonly known as Korean ginseng, has several physiologic effects as a cure-all or a panacea. Among the ginseng, ginseng berry can be obtained from 3 or 4-year-old ginseng plant. Ginseng berry contains the high amount of ginsenoside Re, compared with other ginsenosides. Ginseng berry wine was manufactured with berry extract. The concentration of ginsenoside in ginseng berry extract obtained from Anseong Ginseng Nonghyup was 3.6 mg/g. Ethanol content of ginseng berry wine was 15.00±1.00%. Total polyphenol content was 1.62±0.12 mg/ml. In analysis of organic acids, acetic acid was high in ginseng berry extract whereas malic acid in ginseng berry wine was high.Ginseng berry rice wine was manufactured with berry extract with traditional nuruk (yeast). When the ginseng berry rice wine was manufactured, ginseng berry extract was diluted into 5% of total volume of wine. pH values and total acidity were 3.30±0.03 and 1.28±0.0 %, respectively. Residual sugar content was 8.8 ± 0.0 °Brix and ethanol content was 14.00 %. Any residual pesticides were not detected over acceptable range. Overall, the ginseng berry extract were valuable food stuffs for the manufacture of new ginseng product.

Keywords: ginseng berry, ginseng berry wine, ginsenoside, panax ginseng

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2853 Some Aspects of Social Media Marketing (Georgian Case)

Authors: Nugzar Todua, Charita Jashi

Abstract:

This paper is focusing on the attitude of Georgian consumers toward social media, influence of social media on consumer buying behavior. The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact and usage of social media marketing strategies for Georgian companies and consumers in the new reality of Georgia. There is a lack of research on social media marketing in Georgia, especially the topic which analyzes the possible purchase influence of consumers. The result of marketing research has revealed that social webs are mostly used by Georgian consumers, but they have little impact on the buying decision. The research method was exploratory in nature in the sense that there is no previous academic research about consumers’ attitude towards social media marketing.

Keywords: marketing research, purchasing behavior, social media marketing, social networking sites

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2852 Global Processes and Georgian Economic Policy

Authors: Anzor Abralava, Ketevan Kokrashvili, Rusudan Kutateladze, Nino Pailodze, Ketevan Kutateladze, Giorgi Sulashvili

Abstract:

Nowadays when the integration of states is growing fast, it is urgent to study the rules of behavior which they resort to in case of conflicts and disagreements. The reason of disagreement in many ways is the Foreign policy carried out by separate countries, as the market participants define production and export capacity and structure as well as level of international division of labor due to the competition among them. We can say over and over again that outbreak of conflicts in Georgia displays the serious controversy between political and economic powerhouses. However, to tell the truth existence of the unsolved conflicts in Georgia is the result of weakness and inadequacy of Georgian politics. Today the main task of political quarters in Georgia should be a direction to Caucasus, as to the region burdened with the most complicated problems which blockade the settlement of conflicts and farther development of our country (or vice versa). In this situation rehabilitation of our authority, leading role and hegemony; expansion and consolidation of peacekeeping and other missions are considered as the exact activities for accomplishing all Georgian economic and political goals.

Keywords: Awara Group, political centers, administrative services, dynamic process

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2851 Wine Tourism in Rural Russia: Perceptions of Vineyard Managers

Authors: Jeremy Schultz

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of vineyard managers in the Krasnodar Region of Southern Russia located between the city of Kransnodar and the Black Sea. In recent years, wine tourism throughout the region has seen tremendous growth due in part to the concurrent growth in the number of tourists vacationing at the Black Sea. This trend has contributed to the development of large-scale wine operations developing in numerous rural locations along the tourists’ travel path. Niche areas of tourism, such as wine tourism, have proven to provide economic viability for rural communities all around the world. Understanding their shared group characteristics while honoring their unique qualities as individuals aids in responsible wine tourism development that provides a sense of well-being for the communities and stakeholders involved. Semi-structured interviews and lived experience methodologies were used in locations that were associated with wine food tourism operations. By understanding management perspectives, it lends insight into sustainable destination management and wine tourism product development, furthering our progress toward ethical, responsible, and financially feasible operations. This research also represents a collaborative effort between Russia and the United States that supports an agenda of sustainable destination development and management. As a global community, we need to continue to investigate stakeholder perceptions and strategic management techniques that best support the pillars upon which responsible tourism was founded.

Keywords: wine tourism, tourism development, Russia, rural tourism

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2850 Diagnosis, Development, and Adoption of Technology Packages for Innovation in Precision Agriculture in the Wine Sector in Mexico

Authors: Nivon P. Alejandra, Valencia P. L. Rodrigo, Vivanco V. Martin, Morita A. Adelina

Abstract:

Technological innovation is fundamental to reach and maintain the levels of competitiveness of agricultural producers, the detection of actors, their activities, resources and capacities of an innovation system is needed for the development of technological packages that adapt to each type of crops, local circumstances and characteristics of the producer. The growing development of the viticulture and wine sector in Mexico prospects an increase in its national market participation for 2020, this is the reason to consider it a fertile field for the technological packages adoption that promote Precision Agriculture (PA) in a harmonic and sustainable development. A viability inspection of technological packages adoption by viticulture and wine sector is made following the methodology proposed by SAGARPA in 2015 and the World Bank in 2008: the history, actors, strengths and opportunities are analyzed in this particular agroindustrial sector, also its technological innovation system is inspected in order to improve technological capacities and innovation networks taking into account local and regional resources. PA and technological packages adoption can help improving the conditions and quality of the grape for winemaking: increasing the wine's storage potential and its nutraceutical nature. The assertive diagnosis in vineyard opportunity areas will help the management of the crop by applying natural treatments at the right time in the right place.

Keywords: technological packages, precision farming, sustainable development, innovation

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2849 Small Farm Diversification Opportunities in Viticulture-Winemaking Sector of Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The paper analyses the role of small farms in socio-economic development of agriculture in Georgia and evaluates modern concepts regarding the development of the farms of this size. The scale of farms in Georgia is studied and the major problems are revealed. Opportunities and directions of diversification are discussed from the point of increasing the share of Georgian grapes and wine both on domestic and international markets. It’s shown that the size of vineyard areas is directly reflected on the grape and wine production potential. Accordingly, vineyard area and grape production dynamics is discussed. Comparative analysis of small farms in Georgia and Italy is made and the major differences are identified. Diversification is evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis on the one hand and on the other hand, from the point of promoting economic activities, protecting nature and rural area development. The paper provides proofs for the outcomes of diversification. The key hindering factors for the development of small farms are identified and corresponding conclusions are made, based on which recommendations for diversification of the farms of this size are developed.

Keywords: small farms, scale of farms, diversification, Georgia

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2848 The Significance of Ernest Hemingway's Writing Style in the Development of Georgian Prose of 1950-1960s

Authors: Natia Kvachakidze

Abstract:

The given research aims to study and analyze the influence of Ernest Hemingway’s writing style on Georgian prose of 1950s and 1960s. It is universally known that Ernest Hemingway’s unique writing style has had an enormous effect on various writers. His work remains highly relevant and influential even today. This is especially true about the works written in English, but literary prose created in other languages is not an exception. Certain stylistic peculiarities characteristic for Hemingway’s writing can be traced in literary works written in various languages. It is particularly interesting for us, Georgians, how all these aspects were reflected in Georgian prose of the second-half of XX century. This particular paper (which is a part of a larger research) focuses on major significant peculiarities of Georgian prose of 1950-1960s that might be connected to Hemingway's writing. In this respect, GuramRcheulishvili’s (1934-1960) works should be particularly distinguished (especially his short fiction), but literary works of other Georgian authors are not at all less important. The research involves the analysis of the prose works of some Georgian writers of the given period in the context of tracing similarities and parallels between them and the characteristic features of Ernest Hemingway’s writing style. The use of everyday language as well as short and simple sentences, a concise and sparse style, repetitions, intense dialogues are some of the essential traits in question. Themes like birth and death, war and violence, family, nature, disillusionment also prove to be vitally important for this research. Complex interconnections between the author, the narrator, and the protagonist (often autobiographical) provide another interesting subject to study. At the same time, this paper aims at studying and revealing how Hemingway’s method was reflected and transformed in Georgian prose. In this respect, it is interesting to trace not only the direct effect of Hemingway’s style but also the role of certain Georgian translations of the works of this American writer.

Keywords: hemingway, prose, georgian writers, writing style

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
2847 Criteria for Good Governance in Georgian Defense Sector:Standards and Principles

Authors: Vephkhvia Grigalashvili

Abstract:

This paper provides an overview of criteria for good governance in Georgian defense sector and scientific outcomes of comparative research. A respect for good governance and its realization into Georgian national defense sector represents a fundamental institutional necessity as well as country`s politico-legal obligation within the framework of the existing collaboration mechanisms with NATO (especially Building Integrity (BI) Programme) and the Association Agreement between the EU and Georgia. Furthermore good governance is considered as a democracy measuring criterion in country`s Euro-Atlantic integration process. Accordingly, integration and further development of the contemporary approaches of good governance into Georgian defense management model represents a burning issue of the country. The assessment of an existing model of the country, identification of defects and determination of course of institutional reforms in a mutual comparison format of good governance mechanisms of NATO or/and the EU member Eastern European or Baltic countries positively assessed by the international organizations is considered as a precondition for its effective realization. Scientific aims of this study are: (a) to conduct comparative analysis of Georgian national principles and generalized standards of NATO or/and the EU member Eastern European and Baltic countries in following segments of good governance: open governance; anticorruption policy; conflict of interests; integrity; internal and external control bodies; (b) to formulate theoretical and practical recommendations on reforms to be implemented in the country`s national defence sector. As research reveals, although, institutional / legal pillars of good governance in Georgian defense sector generally are in compliance with international principles, the quality of implementation of good government norms still remains as an area that needs further development by raising awareness of public servants and community.

Keywords: anti-corruption policy within Georgian defense governance, conflict of interests within Georgian defense governance, good governance in Georgian defense sector, principles of integrity in Georgian defense management

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2846 Imposing Personal Liability on Shareholder's/Partner's in a Corporate Entity; Implementation of UK’s Personal Liability Institutions in Georgian Corporate Law: Content and Outcomes

Authors: Gvantsa Magradze

Abstract:

The paper examines the grounds for the imposition of a personal liability on shareholder/partner, mainly under Georgian and UK law’s comparative analysis. The general emphasis was made on personal responsibility grounds adaptation in practice and presents the analyze of court decisions. On this base, reader will be capable to find a difference between the dogmatic and practical grounds for imposition personal liability. The first chapter presents the general information about discussed issue and notion of personal liability. The second chapter is devoted to an explanation the concept – ‘the head of the corporation’ to make it clear who is the subject of responsibility in the article and not to remain individuals beyond the attention, who do not hold the position of director but are participating in governing activities and, therefore, have to have fiduciury duties. After short comparative analysis of personal responsibility, the Georgian Corporate law reality is further discussed. Here, the problem of determining personal liability is a problematic issue, thus a separate chapter is devoted to the issue, which explains the grounds for personal liability imposition in details. Within the paper is discussed the content and the purpose of personal liability institutions under UK’s corporate law and an attempt to implement them, and especially ‘Alter Ego’ doctrine in Georgian corporate Law reality and the outcomes of the experiment. For the research purposes will be examined national case law in regard to personal liability imposition, as well as UK’s experience in that regard. Comparative analyze will make it clear, wherein the Georgian statute, are gaps and how to fill them up. The articles major finding as stated, is that Georgian Corporate law does not provide any legally consolidated grounds for personal liability imposition, which in fact, leads to unfaithful, unlawful actions on partners’/shareholders’ behalf. In order to make business market fair, advancement of a national statute is inevitable, and for that, the experience sharing from developed countries is an irreplaceable gift. Overall, the article analyses, how discussed amendments might influence case law and if such amendments were made years ago, how the judgments could look like (before and after amendments).

Keywords: alter ego doctrine, case law, corporate law, good faith, personal liability

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2845 Brand Equity Tourism Destinations: An Application in Wine Regions Comparing Visitors' and Managers' Perspectives

Authors: M. Gomez, A. Molina

Abstract:

The concept of brand equity in the wine tourism area is an interesting topic to explore the factors that determine it. The aim of this study is to address this gap by investigating wine tourism destinations brand equity, and understanding the impact that the denomination of origin (DO) brand image and the destination image have on brand equity. Managing and monitoring the branding of wine tourism destinations is crucial to attract tourist arrivals. The multiplicity of stakeholders involved in the branding process calls for research that, unlike previous studies, adopts a broader perspective and incorporates an internal and an external perspective. Therefore, this gap by comparing managers’ and visitors’ approaches to wine tourism destination brand equity has been addressed. A survey questionnaire for data collection purposes was used. The hypotheses were tested using winery managers and winery visitors, each leading a different position relative to the wine tourism destination brand equity. All the interviews were conducted face-to-face. The survey instrument included several scales related to DO brand image, destination image, and wine tourism destination brand equity. All items were measured on seven-point Likert scales. Partial least squares was used to analyze the accuracy of scales, the structural model, and multi-group analysis to identify the differences in the path coefficients and to test the hypotheses. The results show that the positive influence of DO brand image on wine tourism destination brand equity is stronger for wineries than for visitors, but there are no significant differences between the two groups. However, there are significant differences in the positive effect of destination brand image on both wine tourism destination brand equity and DO brand image. The results of this study are important for consultants, practitioners, and policy makers. The gap between managers and visitors calls for the development of a number of campaigns to enhance the image that visitors hold and, thus, increase tourist arrivals. Events such as wine gatherings and gastronomic symposiums held at universities and culinary schools and participation in business meetings can enhance the perceptions and in turn, the added value, brand equity of the wine tourism destinations. The images of destinations and DOs can help strengthen the brand equity of the wine tourism destinations, especially for visitors. Thus, the development and reinforcement of favorable, strong, and unique destination associations and DO associations are important to increase that value. Joint campaigns are advisable to enhance the images of destinations and DOs and, as a consequence, the value of the wine tourism destination brand.

Keywords: brand equity, managers, visitors, wine tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
2844 Experimental Study for Examination of Nature of Diffusion Process during Wine Microoxygenation

Authors: Ilirjan Malollari, Redi Buzo, Lorina Lici

Abstract:

This study was done for the characterization of polyphenols changes of anthocyanins, flavonoids, the color intensity and total polyphenols index, maturity and oxidation index during the process of micro-oxygenation of wine that comes from a specific geographic area in the southeastern region of the country. Also, through mathematical modeling of the oxygen distribution within solution of wort for wine fermentation, was shown the strong impact of carbon dioxide present in the liquor. Analytical results show periodic increases of color intensity and tonality, reduction level of free anthocyanins and flavonoids free because of polycondensation reactions between tannins and anthocyanins, increased total polyphenols index and decrease the ratio between the flavonoids and anthocyanins offering a red stabilize wine proved by sensory degustation tasting for color intensity, tonality, body, tannic perception, taste and remained back taste which comes by specific area associated with environmental indications. Micro-oxygenation of wine is a wine-making technique, which consists in the addition of small and controlled amounts of oxygen in the different stages of wine production but more efficiently after end of alcoholic fermentation. The objectives of the process include improved mouth feel (body and texture), color enhanced stability, increased oxidative stability, and decreased vegetative aroma during polyphenols changes process. A very important factor is polyphenolics organic grape composition strongly associated with the environment geographical specifics area in which it is grown the grape.

Keywords: micro oxygenation, polyphenols, environment, wine stability, diffusion modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 143