Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22560

Search results for: trajectory analysis

22560 Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking

Authors: Osman Acar


Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.

Keywords: sun tracking, theoretical sun trajectory, spherical mechanism, inverse kinematic analysis

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22559 A Review on Robot Trajectory Optimization and Process Validation through off-Line Programming in Virtual Environment Using Robcad

Authors: Ashwini Umale


Trajectory planning and optimization is a fundamental problem in articulated robotics. It is often viewed as a two phase problem of initial feasible path planning around obstacles and subsequent optimization of a trajectory satisfying dynamical constraints. An optimized trajectory of multi-axis robot is important and directly influences the Performance of the executing task. Optimal is defined to be the minimum time to transition from the current speed to the set speed. In optimization of trajectory through virtual environment explores the most suitable way to represent robot motion from virtual environment to real environment. This paper aims to review the research of trajectory optimization in virtual environment using simulation software Robcad. Improvements are to be expected in trajectory optimization to generate smooth and collision free trajectories with minimization of overall robot cycle time.

Keywords: trajectory optimization, forward kinematics and reverse kinematics, dynamic constraints, robcad simulation software

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22558 Tracking Trajectory of a Cable-Driven Robot for Lower Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Hachmia Faqihi, Maarouf Saad, Khalid Benjelloun, Mohammed Benbrahim, M. Nabil Kabbaj


This paper investigates and presents a cable-driven robot to lower limb rehabilitation use in sagittal plane. The presented rehabilitation robot is used for a trajectory tracking in joint space. The paper covers kinematic and dynamic analysis, which reveals the tensionability of the used cables as being the actuating source to provide a rehabilitation exercises of the human leg. The desired trajectory is generated to be used in the control system design in joint space. The obtained simulation results is showed to be efficient in this kind of application.

Keywords: cable-driven multi-body system, computed-torque controller, lower limb rehabilitation, tracking trajectory

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22557 Perturbative Analysis on a Lunar Free Return Trajectory

Authors: Emre Ünal, Hasan Başaran


In this study, starting with a predetermined Lunar free-return trajectory, an analysis of major near-Earth perturbations is carried out. Referencing to historical Apollo-13 flight, changes in the mission’s resultant perimoon and perigee altitudes with each perturbative effect are evaluated. The perturbations that were considered are Earth oblateness effects, up to the 6th order, atmospheric drag, third body perturbations consisting of solar and planetary effects and solar radiation pressure effects. It is found that for a Moon mission, most of the main perturbative effects spoil the trajectory significantly while some came out to be negligible. It is seen that for apparent future request of constructing low cost, reliable and safe trajectories to the Moon, most of the orbital perturbations are crucial.

Keywords: Apollo-13 trajectory, atmospheric drag, lunar trajectories, oblateness effect, perturbative effects, solar radiation pressure, third body perturbations

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22556 Automatic Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dual Human Interaction Using Video Sequences

Authors: Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Pin-Chi Lin, Li-Der Jeng


Advance in techniques of image and video processing has enabled the development of intelligent video surveillance systems. This study was aimed to automatically detect moving human objects and to analyze events of dual human interaction in a surveillance scene. Our system was developed in four major steps: image preprocessing, human object detection, human object tracking, and motion trajectory analysis. The adaptive background subtraction and image processing techniques were used to detect and track moving human objects. To solve the occlusion problem during the interaction, the Kalman filter was used to retain a complete trajectory for each human object. Finally, the motion trajectory analysis was developed to distinguish between the interaction and non-interaction events based on derivatives of trajectories related to the speed of the moving objects. Using a database of 60 video sequences, our system could achieve the classification accuracy of 80% in interaction events and 95% in non-interaction events, respectively. In summary, we have explored the idea to investigate a system for the automatic classification of events for interaction and non-interaction events using surveillance cameras. Ultimately, this system could be incorporated in an intelligent surveillance system for the detection and/or classification of abnormal or criminal events (e.g., theft, snatch, fighting, etc.).

Keywords: motion detection, motion tracking, trajectory analysis, video surveillance

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22555 Hand Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dynamic Hand Gestures Used in Indian Sign Language

Authors: Daleesha M. Viswanathan, Sumam Mary Idicula


Dynamic hand gestures are an intrinsic component in sign language communication. Extracting spatial temporal features of the hand gesture trajectory plays an important role in a dynamic gesture recognition system. Finding a discrete feature descriptor for the motion trajectory based on the orientation feature is the main concern of this paper. Kalman filter algorithm and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models are incorporated with this recognition system for hand trajectory tracking and for spatial temporal classification, respectively.

Keywords: orientation features, discrete feature vector, HMM., Indian sign language

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22554 Analysis the Trajectory of the Spacecraft during the Transition to the Planet's Orbit Using Aerobraking in the Atmosphere of the Planet

Authors: Zaw Min Tun


The paper focuses on the spacecraft’s trajectory transition from interplanetary hyperbolic orbit to the planet’s orbit using the aerobraking in the atmosphere of the planet. A considerable mass of fuel is consumed during the spacecraft transition from the planet’s gravitation assist trajectory into the planet’s satellite orbit. To reduce the fuel consumption in this transition need to slow down the spacecraft’s velocity in the planet’s atmosphere and reduce its orbital transition time. The paper is devoted to the use of the planet’s atmosphere for slowing down the spacecraft during its transition into the satellite orbit with uncertain atmospheric parameters. To reduce the orbital transition time of the spacecraft is controlled by the change of attack angles’ values at the aerodynamic deceleration path and adjusting the minimum flight altitude of the spacecraft at the pericenter of the planet’s upper atmosphere.

Keywords: aerobraking, atmosphere of the planet, orbital transition time, Spacecraft’s trajectory

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22553 Numerical Predictions of Trajectory Stability of a High-Speed Water-Entry and Water-Exit Projectile

Authors: Lin Lu, Qiang Li, Tao Cai, Pengjun Zhang


In this study, a detailed analysis of trajectory stability and flow characteristics of a high-speed projectile during the water-entry and water-exit process has been investigated numerically. The Zwart-Gerber-Belamri (Z-G-B) cavitation model and the SST k-ω turbulence model based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) method are employed. The numerical methodology is validated by comparing the experimental photograph of cavitation shape and the experimental underwater velocity with the numerical simulation results. Based on the numerical methodology, the influences of rotational speed, water-entry and water-exit angle of the projectile on the trajectory stability and flow characteristics have been carried out in detail. The variation features of projectile trajectory and total resistance have been conducted, respectively. In addition, the cavitation characteristics of water-entry and water-exit have been presented and analyzed. Results show that it may not be applicable for the water-entry and water-exit to achieve the projectile stability through the rotation of projectile. Furthermore, there ought to be a critical water-entry angle for the water-entry stability of practical projectile. The impact of water-exit angle on the trajectory stability and cavity phenomenon is not as remarkable as that of the water-entry angle.

Keywords: cavitation characteristics, high-speed projectile, numerical predictions, trajectory stability, water-entry, water-exit

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22552 Motion Planning of SCARA Robots for Trajectory Tracking

Authors: Giovanni Incerti


The paper presents a method for a simple and immediate motion planning of a SCARA robot, whose end-effector has to move along a given trajectory; the calculation procedure requires the user to define in analytical form or by points the trajectory to be followed and to assign the curvilinear abscissa as function of the time. On the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the robot, a specifically developed program determines the motion laws of the actuators that enable the robot to generate the required movement; this software can be used in all industrial applications for which a SCARA robot has to be frequently reprogrammed, in order to generate various types of trajectories with different motion times.

Keywords: motion planning, SCARA robot, trajectory tracking, analytical form

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22551 Object Trajectory Extraction by Using Mean of Motion Vectors Form Compressed Video Bitstream

Authors: Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yi-Chun Chang


Video object tracking is one of the popular research topics in computer graphics area. The trajectory can be applied in security, traffic control, even the sports training. The trajectory for sports training can be utilized to analyze the athlete’s performance without traditional sensors. There are many relevant works which utilize mean shift algorithm with background subtraction. This kind of the schemes should select a kernel function which may affect the accuracy and performance. In this paper, we consider the motion information in the pre-coded bitstream. The proposed algorithm extracts the trajectory by composing the motion vectors from the pre-coded bitstream. We gather the motion vectors from the overlap area of the object and calculate mean of the overlapped motion vectors. We implement and simulate our proposed algorithm in H.264 video codec. The performance is better than relevant works and keeps the accuracy of the object trajectory. The experimental results show that the proposed trajectory extraction can extract trajectory form the pre-coded bitstream in high accuracy and achieve higher performance other relevant works.

Keywords: H.264, video bitstream, video object tracking, sports training

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22550 Iterative Dynamic Programming for 4D Flight Trajectory Optimization

Authors: Kawser Ahmed, K. Bousson, Milca F. Coelho


4D flight trajectory optimization is one of the key ingredients to improve flight efficiency and to enhance the air traffic capacity in the current air traffic management (ATM). The present paper explores the iterative dynamic programming (IDP) as a potential numerical optimization method for 4D flight trajectory optimization. IDP is an iterative version of the Dynamic programming (DP) method. Due to the numerical framework, DP is very suitable to deal with nonlinear discrete dynamic systems. The 4D waypoint representation of the flight trajectory is similar to the discretization by a grid system; thus DP is a natural method to deal with the 4D flight trajectory optimization. However, the computational time and space complexity demanded by the DP is enormous due to the immense number of grid points required to find the optimum, which prevents the use of the DP in many practical high dimension problems. On the other hand, the IDP has shown potentials to deal successfully with high dimension optimal control problems even with a few numbers of grid points at each stage, which reduces the computational effort over the traditional DP approach. Although the IDP has been applied successfully in chemical engineering problems, IDP is yet to be validated in 4D flight trajectory optimization problems. In this paper, the IDP has been successfully used to generate minimum length 4D optimal trajectory avoiding any obstacle in its path, such as a no-fly zone or residential areas when flying in low altitude to reduce noise pollution.

Keywords: 4D waypoint navigation, iterative dynamic programming, obstacle avoidance, trajectory optimization

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22549 Dissecting Big Trajectory Data to Analyse Road Network Travel Efficiency

Authors: Rania Alshikhe, Vinita Jindal


Digital innovation has played a crucial role in managing smart transportation. For this, big trajectory data collected from traveling vehicles, such as taxis through installed global positioning system (GPS)-enabled devices can be utilized. It offers an unprecedented opportunity to trace the movements of vehicles in fine spatiotemporal granularity. This paper aims to explore big trajectory data to measure the travel efficiency of road networks using the proposed statistical travel efficiency measure (STEM) across an entire city. Further, it identifies the cause of low travel efficiency by proposed least square approximation network-based causality exploration (LANCE). Finally, the resulting data analysis reveals the causes of low travel efficiency, along with the road segments that need to be optimized to improve the traffic conditions and thus minimize the average travel time from given point A to point B in the road network. Obtained results show that our proposed approach outperforms the baseline algorithms for measuring the travel efficiency of the road network.

Keywords: GPS trajectory, road network, taxi trips, digital map, big data, STEM, LANCE

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22548 Real-Time Path Planning for Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Improved Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree and Iterative Trajectory Optimization

Authors: A. Ramalho, L. Romeiro, R. Ventura, A. Suleman


A real-time path planning framework for Unmanned Air Vehicles, and in particular multi-rotors is proposed. The framework is designed to provide feasible trajectories from the current UAV position to a goal state, taking into account constraints such as obstacle avoidance, problem kinematics, and vehicle limitations such as maximum speed and maximum acceleration. The framework computes feasible paths online, allowing to avoid new, unknown, dynamic obstacles without fully re-computing the trajectory. These features are achieved using an iterative process in which the robot computes and optimizes the trajectory while performing the mission objectives. A first trajectory is computed using a modified Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm, that provides trajectories that respect a maximum curvature constraint. The trajectory optimization is accomplished using the Interior Point Optimizer (IPOPT) as a solver. The framework has proven to be able to compute a trajectory and optimize to a locally optimal with computational efficiency making it feasible for real-time operations.

Keywords: interior point optimization, multi-rotors, online path planning, rapidly exploring random trees, trajectory optimization

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22547 Analysis of Dynamics Underlying the Observation Time Series by Using a Singular Spectrum Approach

Authors: O. Delage, H. Bencherif, T. Portafaix, A. Bourdier


The main purpose of time series analysis is to learn about the dynamics behind some time ordered measurement data. Two approaches are used in the literature to get a better knowledge of the dynamics contained in observation data sequences. The first of these approaches concerns time series decomposition, which is an important analysis step allowing patterns and behaviors to be extracted as components providing insight into the mechanisms producing the time series. As in many cases, time series are short, noisy, and non-stationary. To provide components which are physically meaningful, methods such as Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) or, more recently, Empirical Adaptive Wavelet Decomposition (EAWD) have been proposed. The second approach is to reconstruct the dynamics underlying the time series as a trajectory in state space by mapping a time series into a set of Rᵐ lag vectors by using the method of delays (MOD). Takens has proved that the trajectory obtained with the MOD technic is equivalent to the trajectory representing the dynamics behind the original time series. This work introduces the singular spectrum decomposition (SSD), which is a new adaptive method for decomposing non-linear and non-stationary time series in narrow-banded components. This method takes its origin from singular spectrum analysis (SSA), a nonparametric spectral estimation method used for the analysis and prediction of time series. As the first step of SSD is to constitute a trajectory matrix by embedding a one-dimensional time series into a set of lagged vectors, SSD can also be seen as a reconstruction method like MOD. We will first give a brief overview of the existing decomposition methods (EMD-EWT-EAWD). The SSD method will then be described in detail and applied to experimental time series of observations resulting from total columns of ozone measurements. The results obtained will be compared with those provided by the previously mentioned decomposition methods. We will also compare the reconstruction qualities of the observed dynamics obtained from the SSD and MOD methods.

Keywords: time series analysis, adaptive time series decomposition, wavelet, phase space reconstruction, singular spectrum analysis

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22546 Static vs. Stream Mining Trajectories Similarity Measures

Authors: Musaab Riyadh, Norwati Mustapha, Dina Riyadh


Trajectory similarity can be defined as the cost of transforming one trajectory into another based on certain similarity method. It is the core of numerous mining tasks such as clustering, classification, and indexing. Various approaches have been suggested to measure similarity based on the geometric and dynamic properties of trajectory, the overlapping between trajectory segments, and the confined area between entire trajectories. In this article, an evaluation of these approaches has been done based on computational cost, usage memory, accuracy, and the amount of data which is needed in advance to determine its suitability to stream mining applications. The evaluation results show that the stream mining applications support similarity methods which have low computational cost and memory, single scan on data, and free of mathematical complexity due to the high-speed generation of data.

Keywords: global distance measure, local distance measure, semantic trajectory, spatial dimension, stream data mining

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22545 Investigation of Riders' Path on Horizontal Curves

Authors: Lemonakis Panagiotis, Eliou Nikos, Karakasidis Theodoros, Botzoris George


It is well known that trajectory along with speed are two of the most important contributing factors in road accidents. Trajectory is meant as the "line“, usually different from the center-line that a driver traverses through horizontal curves which depends on the characteristics of the road environment (especially the curvature), the vehicle and the driver himself. Drivers and especially riders, tend to broaden their paths in order to succeed greater path radiuses and hence, reduce the applied centrifugal force enhancing safety. The objective of the present research is to investigate riders’ path on horizontal curves. Within the context of the research, field measurements were conducted on a rural two lane highway, with the participation of eight riders and the use of an instrumented motorcycle. The research has shown that the trajectory of the riders is correlated to the radius and the length of the horizontal curve as well.

Keywords: trajectory, path, riders, horizontal curves

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22544 Trajectory Tracking of a 2-Link Mobile Manipulator Using Sliding Mode Control Method

Authors: Abolfazl Mohammadijoo


In this paper, we are investigating the sliding mode control approach for trajectory tracking of a two-link-manipulator with a wheeled mobile robot in its base. The main challenge of this work is the dynamic interaction between mobile base and manipulator, which makes trajectory tracking more difficult than n-link manipulators with a fixed base. Another challenging part of this work is to avoid from chattering phenomenon of sliding mode control that makes lots of damages for actuators in real industrial cases. The results show the effectiveness of the sliding mode control approach for the desired trajectory.

Keywords: mobile manipulator, sliding mode control, dynamic interaction, mobile robotics

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22543 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

Authors: E. Popov, N. Yorino, Y. Zoka, Y. Sasaki, H. Sugihara


This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

Keywords: power system, transient stability, critical trajectory method, energy function method

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22542 HBTOnto: An Ontology Model for Analyzing Human Behavior Trajectories

Authors: Heba M. Wagih, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar


Social Network has recently played a significant role in both scientific and social communities. The growing adoption of social network applications has been a relevant source of information nowadays. Due to its popularity, several research trends are emerged to service the huge volume of users including, Location-Based Social Networks (LBSN), Recommendation Systems, Sentiment Analysis Applications, and many others. LBSNs applications are among the highly demanded applications that do not focus only on analyzing the spatiotemporal positions in a given raw trajectory but also on understanding the semantics behind the dynamics of the moving object. LBSNs are possible means of predicting human mobility based on users social ties as well as their spatial preferences. LBSNs rely on the efficient representation of users’ trajectories. Hence, traditional raw trajectory information is no longer convenient. In our research, we focus on studying human behavior trajectory which is the major pillar in location recommendation systems. In this paper, we propose an ontology design patterns with their underlying description logics to efficiently annotate human behavior trajectories.

Keywords: human behavior trajectory, location-based social network, ontology, social network

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22541 Visual Analytics of Higher Order Information for Trajectory Datasets

Authors: Ye Wang, Ickjai Lee


Due to the widespread of mobile sensing, there is a strong need to handle trails of moving objects, trajectories. This paper proposes three visual analytic approaches for higher order information of trajectory data sets based on the higher order Voronoi diagram data structure. Proposed approaches reveal geometrical information, topological, and directional information. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of proposed three approaches.

Keywords: visual analytics, higher order information, trajectory datasets, spatio-temporal data

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22540 Determining Abnomal Behaviors in UAV Robots for Trajectory Control in Teleoperation

Authors: Kiwon Yeom


Change points are abrupt variations in a data sequence. Detection of change points is useful in modeling, analyzing, and predicting time series in application areas such as robotics and teleoperation. In this paper, a change point is defined to be a discontinuity in one of its derivatives. This paper presents a reliable method for detecting discontinuities within a three-dimensional trajectory data. The problem of determining one or more discontinuities is considered in regular and irregular trajectory data from teleoperation. We examine the geometric detection algorithm and illustrate the use of the method on real data examples.

Keywords: change point, discontinuity, teleoperation, abrupt variation

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22539 Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yu-Sheng Hsu


On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be used for constructing the 2D vehicle environmental map and available parking type judgment. Finally, the auto-parking controller executes the on-line optimal parking trajectory planning based on this 2D environmental map, and monitors the real-time vehicle parking trajectory tracking control. This low cost auto-parking system was tested on a model car.

Keywords: vehicle auto-parking, parking space detection, parking path tracking control, intelligent fuzzy controller

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22538 An Activity Based Trajectory Search Approach

Authors: Mohamed Mahmoud Hasan, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar


With the gigantic increment in portable applications use and the spread of positioning and location-aware technologies that we are seeing today, new procedures and methodologies for location-based strategies are required. Location recommendation is one of the highly demanded location-aware applications uniquely with the wide accessibility of social network applications that are location-aware including Facebook check-ins, Foursquare, and others. In this paper, we aim to present a new methodology for location recommendation. The proposed approach coordinates customary spatial traits alongside other essential components including shortest distance, and user interests. We also present another idea namely, "activity trajectory" that represents trajectory that fulfills the set of activities that the user is intrigued to do. The approach dispatched acquaints the related distance value to select trajectory(ies) with minimum cost value (distance) and spatial-area to prune unneeded directions. The proposed calculation utilizes the idea of movement direction to prescribe most comparable N-trajectory(ies) that matches the client's required action design with least voyaging separation. To upgrade the execution of the proposed approach, parallel handling is applied through the employment of a MapReduce based approach. Experiments taking into account genuine information sets were built up and tested for assessing the proposed approach. The exhibited tests indicate how the proposed approach beets different strategies giving better precision and run time.

Keywords: location based recommendation, map-reduce, recommendation system, trajectory search

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22537 Fiscal Stability Indicators and Public Debt Trajectory in Croatia

Authors: Hrvoje Simovic


Paper analyses the key problems of fiscal sustainability in Croatia. To point out key challenges of fiscal sustainability, the public debt sustainability is analyzed using standard indicators of fiscal stability, accompanied with the identification of regime changes approach in the public debt trajectory using switching regression approach. The analysis is conducted for the period from 2001 to 2016. Results show huge vulnerability in recession period (2009-14), so key challenges in current fiscal policy and public debt management are recognized in maturity prolongation, interest rates trends, and credit rating expectations.

Keywords: fiscal sustainability, public debt, Croatia, budget deficit

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22536 The Trajectory of the Ball in Football Game

Authors: Mahdi Motahari, Mojtaba Farzaneh, Ebrahim Sepidbar


Tracking of moving and flying targets is one of the most important issues in image processing topic. Estimating of trajectory of desired object in short-term and long-term scale is more important than tracking of moving and flying targets. In this paper, a new way of identifying and estimating of future trajectory of a moving ball in long-term scale is estimated by using synthesis and interaction of image processing algorithms including noise removal and image segmentation, Kalman filter algorithm in order to estimating of trajectory of ball in football game in short-term scale and intelligent adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm based on time series of traverse distance. The proposed system attain more than 96% identify accuracy by using aforesaid methods and relaying on aforesaid algorithms and data base video in format of synthesis and interaction. Although the present method has high precision, it is time consuming. By comparing this method with other methods we realize the accuracy and efficiency of that.

Keywords: tracking, signal processing, moving targets and flying, artificial intelligent systems, estimating of trajectory, Kalman filter

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22535 Comparison of Developed Statokinesigram and Marker Data Signals by Model Approach

Authors: Boris Barbolyas, Kristina Buckova, Tomas Volensky, Cyril Belavy, Ladislav Dedik


Background: Based on statokinezigram, the human balance control is often studied. Approach to human postural reaction analysis is based on a combination of stabilometry output signal with retroreflective marker data signal processing, analysis, and understanding, in this study. The study shows another original application of Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST), too. Methods: In this study, the participants maintained quiet bipedal standing for 10 s on stabilometry platform. Consequently, bilateral vibration stimuli to Achilles tendons in 20 s interval was applied. Vibration stimuli caused that human postural system took the new pseudo-steady state. Vibration frequencies were 20, 60 and 80 Hz. Participant's body segments - head, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles and little fingers were marked by 12 retroreflective markers. Markers positions were scanned by six cameras system BTS SMART DX. Registration of their postural reaction lasted 60 s. Sampling frequency was 100 Hz. For measured data processing were used Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory. Regression analysis of developed statokinesigram trajectory (DST) data and retroreflective marker developed trajectory (DMT) data were used to find out which marker trajectories most correlate with stabilometry platform output signals. Scaling coefficients (λ) between DST and DMT by linear regression analysis were evaluated, too. Results: Scaling coefficients for marker trajectories were identified for all body segments. Head markers trajectories reached maximal value and ankle markers trajectories had a minimal value of scaling coefficient. Hips, knees and ankles markers were approximately symmetrical in the meaning of scaling coefficient. Notable differences of scaling coefficient were detected in head and shoulders markers trajectories which were not symmetrical. The model of postural system behavior was identified by MDST. Conclusion: Value of scaling factor identifies which body segment is predisposed to postural instability. Hypothetically, if statokinesigram represents overall human postural system response to vibration stimuli, then markers data represented particular postural responses. It can be assumed that cumulative sum of particular marker postural responses is equal to statokinesigram.

Keywords: center of pressure (CoP), method of developed statokinesigram trajectory (MDST), model of postural system behavior, retroreflective marker data

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22534 Sensitivity and Commitment: A View on Parenthood in a Context of Placement Trajectory

Authors: A. De Serres-Lafontaine, S. Porlier, K. Poitras


Introduction: Placement is, without doubt, a challenging experience for both foster children and biological parents who witness their child being removed from their care. Yet, few studies have examined parenting in such a context through critical parental skills such as parental sensitivity and commitment. Sensitivity is described as the capacity of parents to respond accurately to their child’s needs in a warm, predictable and consistent way, whereas commitment is the ability of the parent to get involved physically and emotionally in an enduring relationship with his child. The research confirms the important role of parental sensitivity and parental commitment on child development following placement in foster care. Nevertheless, these studies were mainly conducted with foster parents, and few studies have examined these components of parenthood with biological parents. Method: This study evolves in two times. At first, 17 parents participated throughout a 90-minutes interview. It allowed to collect information regarding the sociodemographic situation, contacts, placement trajectory. Parental sensitivity is observed during a supervised parent-child contact. The second time occurred one to two years later and implied an at-home 90-minutes interview where we updated the information from the first interview and were able to assess the level of parental commitment. In this ongoing part of the study, five parents have already participated in implying the rest of them remain to be interviewed in the coming months - from October through December 2018. Results: Descriptive analysis from the first part of the study suggests the examination of two groups: 11 children have been reunified whereas six are still in foster care. Qualitative analysis allows to compare themes of sensitivity and commitment regarding if the reunification project occurs or not. Preliminary analysis about thematic content shows key components of parental commitment through parent’s reveal of the way they nurture a relationship with their child. Furthermore, preliminary analysis suggests that parental sensitivity is not associated with family reunification (r = 0,11, p = 0,74). Further analysis will be assessed with the date from the second part of the study to examine the potential association between commitment and reunification. Discussion: Parental sensitivity and commitment are fundamental to the well-being of the child in a placement trajectory. They need to be understood better as two different complex concepts and as two parenting skills that might have a way of echoing to one another when engaged in a specific context. Above all, a more accurate comprehension of parenting in a placement trajectory allows to sustain adequate intervention practices for birth parents and could change the way parental adequacy is assessed when reaching for reunification.

Keywords: child welfare, foster care, intervention practices, parenthood

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22533 Study on Robot Trajectory Planning by Robot End-Effector Using Dual Curvature Theory of the Ruled Surface

Authors: Y. S. Oh, P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh


This paper presents the method of trajectory planning by the robot end-effector which accounts for more accurate and smooth differential geometry of the ruled surface generated by tool line fixed with end-effector based on the methods of curvature theory of ruled surface and the dual curvature theory, and focuses on the underlying relation to unite them for enhancing the efficiency for trajectory planning. Robot motion can be represented as motion properties of the ruled surface generated by trajectory of the Tool Center Point (TCP). The linear and angular properties of the six degree-of-freedom motion of end-effector are computed using the explicit formulas and functions from curvature theory and dual curvature theory. This paper explains the complete dualization of ruled surface and shows that the linear and angular motion applied using the method of dual curvature theory is more accurate and less complex.

Keywords: dual curvature theory, robot end effector, ruled surface, TCP (Tool Center Point)

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22532 Design, Control and Autonomous Trajectory Tracking of an Octorotor Rotorcraft

Authors: Seyed Jamal Haddadi, M. Reza Mehranpour, Roya Sadat Mortazavi, Zahra Sadat Mortazavi


Principal aim of this research is trajectory tracking, attitude and position control scheme in real flight mode by an Octorotor helicopter. For more stability, in this Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), number of motors is increased to eight motors which end of each arm installed two coaxial counter rotating motors. Dynamic model of this Octorotor includes of motion equation for translation and rotation. Utilized controller is proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop. The proposed controller is designed such that to be able to attenuate an effect of external wind disturbance and guarantee stability in this condition. The trajectory is determined by a Global Positioning System (GPS). Also an ARM CortexM4 is used as microprocessor. Electronic board of this UAV designed as able to records all of the sensors data, similar to an aircraft black box in external memory. Finally after auto landing of Octorotor, flight data is shown in MATLAB software and Experimental results of the proposed controller show the effectiveness of our approach on the Autonomous Quadrotor in real conditions.

Keywords: octorotor, design, PID controller, autonomous, trajectory tracking

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22531 Identification of Vehicle Dynamic Parameters by Using Optimized Exciting Trajectory on 3- DOF Parallel Manipulator

Authors: Di Yao, Gunther Prokop, Kay Buttner


Dynamic parameters, including the center of gravity, mass and inertia moments of vehicle, play an essential role in vehicle simulation, collision test and real-time control of vehicle active systems. To identify the important vehicle dynamic parameters, a systematic parameter identification procedure is studied in this work. In the first step of the procedure, a conceptual parallel manipulator (virtual test rig), which possesses three rotational degrees-of-freedom, is firstly proposed. To realize kinematic characteristics of the conceptual parallel manipulator, the kinematic analysis consists of inverse kinematic and singularity architecture is carried out. Based on the Euler's rotation equations for rigid body dynamics, the dynamic model of parallel manipulator and derivation of measurement matrix for parameter identification are presented subsequently. In order to reduce the sensitivity of parameter identification to measurement noise and other unexpected disturbances, a parameter optimization process of searching for optimal exciting trajectory of parallel manipulator is conducted in the following section. For this purpose, the 321-Euler-angles defined by parameterized finite-Fourier-series are primarily used to describe the general exciting trajectory of parallel manipulator. To minimize the condition number of measurement matrix for achieving better parameter identification accuracy, the unknown coefficients of parameterized finite-Fourier-series are estimated by employing an iterative algorithm based on MATLAB®. Meanwhile, the iterative algorithm will ensure the parallel manipulator still keeps in an achievable working status during the execution of optimal exciting trajectory. It is showed that the proposed procedure and methods in this work can effectively identify the vehicle dynamic parameters and could be an important application of parallel manipulator in the fields of parameter identification and test rig development.

Keywords: parameter identification, parallel manipulator, singularity architecture, dynamic modelling, exciting trajectory

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