Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5569

Search results for: series active filter

5569 Using Power Flow Analysis for Understanding UPQC’s Behaviors

Authors: O. Abdelkhalek, A. Naimi, M. Rami, M. N. Tandjaoui, A. Kechich


This paper deals with the active and reactive power flow analysis inside the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) during several cases. The UPQC is a combination of shunt and series active power filter (APF). It is one of the best solutions towards the mitigation of voltage sags and swells problems on distribution network. This analysis can provide the helpful information to well understanding the interaction between the series filter, the shunt filter, the DC bus link and electrical network. The mathematical analysis is based on active and reactive power flow through the shunt and series active power filter. Wherein series APF can absorb or deliver the active power to mitigate a swell or sage voltage where in the both cases it absorbs a small reactive power quantity whereas the shunt active power absorbs or releases the active power for stabilizing the storage capacitor’s voltage as well as the power factor correction. The voltage sag and voltage swell are usually interpreted through the DC bus voltage curves. These two phenomena are introduced in this paper with a new interpretation based on the active and reactive power flow analysis inside the UPQC. For simplifying this study, a linear load is supposed in this digital simulation. The simulation results are carried out to confirm the analysis done.

Keywords: UPQC, Power flow analysis, shunt filter, series filter.

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5568 Power Quality Improvement Using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller for Five-Level Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Yousfi Abdelkader, Chaker Abdelkader, Bot Youcef


This article proposes a five-level shunt active power filter for power quality improvement using a interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT2 FLC). The reference compensating current is extracted using the P-Q theory. The majority of works previously reported are based on two-level inverters with a conventional Proportional integral (PI) controller, which requires rigorous mathematical modeling of the system. In this paper, a IT2 FLC controlled five-level active power filter is proposed to overcome the problem associated with PI controller. The IT2 FLC algorithm is applied for controlling the DC-side capacitor voltage as well as the harmonic currents of the five-level active power filter. The active power filter with a IT2 FLC is simulated in MATLAB Simulink environment. The simulated response shows that the proposed shunt active power filter controller has produced a sinusoidal supply current with low harmonic distortion and in phase with the source voltage.

Keywords: power quality, shunt active power filter, interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (T2FL), multilevel inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5567 Self-Tuning-Filter and Fuzzy Logic Control for Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Kaddari Faiza, Mazari Benyounes, Mihoub Youcef, Safa Ahmed


Active filtering of electric power has now become a mature technology for reactive power and harmonic compensation caused by the proliferation of power electronics devices used for industrial, commercial and residential purposes. The aim of this study is to enhance the power quality by improving the performances of shunt active power filter in harmonic mitigation to obtain sinusoidal source currents with very weak ripples. A power circuit configuration and control scheme for shunt active power filter are described with an improved method for harmonics compensation using self-tuning-filter for harmonics identification and fuzzy logic control to generate reference current. Simulation results (using MATLAB/SIMULINK) illustrates the compensation characteristics of the proposed control strategy. Analysis of these results proves the feasibility and effectiveness of this method to improve the power quality and also show the performances of fuzzy logic control which provides flexibility, high precision and fast response. The total harmonic distortion (THD %) for the simulations found to be within the recommended imposed IEEE 519-1992 harmonic standard.

Keywords: Active Powers Filter (APF), Self-Tuning-Filter (STF), fuzzy logic control, hysteresis-band control

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5566 Renewable Energy Interfaced Shunt Active Filter Using a Virtual Flux Direct Power Control

Authors: M. R. Bengourina, M. Rahli, L. Hassaine, S. Saadi


In this study, we present a control method entitled virtual flux direct power control of a grid connected photovoltaic system associated with an active power filter. The virtual flux direct control of power (VF-DPC) is employed for the calculation of reference current generation. In this technique, the switches states of inverter are selected from a table of switching based on the immediate errors between the active and reactive powers and their reference values. The objectives of this paper are the reduction of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of source current, compensating reactive power and injecting the maximum active power available from the PV array into the load and/or grid. MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

Keywords: shunt active power filter, VF-DPC, photovoltaic, MPPT

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5565 A Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter for Currents Harmonics Elimination and Reactive Power Compensation

Authors: Amar Omeiri


This paper presents a three-phase shunt active power filter for current harmonics suppression and reactive power compensation using the supply current as reference. The proposed APF has a simple control circuit; it consists of detecting the supply current instead of the load current. The advantages of this APF are simplicity of control circuits and low implementation cost. The simulation results show that the proposed APF can compensate the reactive power and suppress current harmonics with two types of non-linear loads.

Keywords: active power filter, current harmonics and reactive power compensation, PWM inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
5564 Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network

Authors: Zahzouh Zoubir, Bouzaouit Azzeddine, Gahgah Mounir


The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.

Keywords: Actif power filter, MPPT, pertub&observe algorithm, PV array, PWM-control

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
5563 Integration of UPQC Based on Fuzzy Controller for Power Quality Enhancement in Distributed Network

Authors: M. Habab, C. Benachaiba, B. Mazari, H. Madi, C. Benoudjafer


The use of Distributed Generation (DG) has been increasing in recent years to fill the gap between energy supply and demand. This paper presents the grid connected wind energy system with UPQC based on fuzzy controller to compensate for voltage and current disturbances. The proposed system can improve power quality at the point of installation on power distribution systems. Simulation results show the capability of the DG-UPQC intelligent system to compensate sags voltage and current harmonics at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC).

Keywords: shunt active filter, series active filter, UPQC, power quality, sags voltage, distributed generation, wind turbine

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5562 DFIG-Based Wind Turbine with Shunt Active Power Filter Controlled by Double Nonlinear Predictive Controller

Authors: Abderrahmane El Kachani, El Mahjoub Chakir, Anass Ait Laachir, Abdelhamid Niaaniaa, Jamal Zerouaoui, Tarik Jarou


This paper presents a wind turbine based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the utility grid through a shunt active power filter (SAPF). The whole system is controlled by a double nonlinear predictive controller (DNPC). A Taylor series expansion is used to predict the outputs of the system. The control law is calculated by optimization of the cost function. The first nonlinear predictive controller (NPC) is designed to ensure the high performance tracking of the rotor speed and regulate the rotor current of the DFIG, while the second one is designed to control the SAPF in order to compensate the harmonic produces by the three-phase diode bridge supplied by a passive circuit (rd, Ld). As a result, we obtain sinusoidal waveforms of the stator voltage and stator current. The proposed nonlinear predictive controllers (NPCs) are validated via simulation on a 1.5 MW DFIG-based wind turbine connected to an SAPF. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory and promising.

Keywords: wind power, doubly fed induction generator, shunt active power filter, double nonlinear predictive controller

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5561 Optimal Injected Current Control for Shunt Active Power Filter Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Brahim Berbaoui


In this paper, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) based method is proposed for the implantation of optimal harmonic power flow in power systems. In this algorithm approach, proportional integral controller for reference compensating currents of active power filter is performed in order to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD). The simulation results show that the new control method using PSO approach is not only easy to be implanted, but also very effective in reducing the unwanted harmonics and compensating reactive power. The studies carried out have been accomplished using the MATLAB Simulink Power System Toolbox.

Keywords: shunt active power filter, power quality, current control, proportional integral controller, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 502
5560 Unified Power Quality Conditioner Presentation and Dimensioning

Authors: Abderrahmane Kechich, Othmane Abdelkhalek


Static converters behave as nonlinear loads that inject harmonic currents into the grid and increase the consumption of the inactive power. On the other hand, the increased use of sensitive equipment requires the application of sinusoidal voltages. As a result, the electrical power quality control has become a major concern in the field of power electronics. In this context, the active power conditioner (UPQC) was developed. It combines both serial and parallel structures; the series filter can protect sensitive loads and compensate for voltage disturbances such as voltage harmonics, voltage dips or flicker when the shunt filter compensates for current disturbances such as current harmonics, reactive currents and imbalance. This double feature is that it is one of the most appropriate devices. Calculating parameters is an important step and in the same time it’s not easy for that reason several researchers based on trial and error method for calculating parameters but this method is not easy for beginners researchers especially what about the controller’s parameters, for that reason this paper gives a mathematical way to calculate of almost all of UPQC parameters away from trial and error method. This paper gives also a new approach for calculating of PI regulators parameters for purpose to have a stable UPQC able to compensate for disturbances acting on the waveform of line voltage and load current in order to improve the electrical power quality.

Keywords: UPQC, Shunt active filer, series active filer, PI controller, PWM control, dual-loop control

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
5559 A Model Predictive Control Based Virtual Active Power Filter Using V2G Technology

Authors: Mahdi Zolfaghari, Seyed Hossein Hosseinian, Hossein Askarian Abyaneh, Mehrdad Abedi


This paper presents a virtual active power filter (VAPF) using vehicle to grid (V2G) technology to maintain power quality requirements. The optimal discrete operation of the power converter of electric vehicle (EV) is based on recognizing desired switching states using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A fast dynamic response, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and good reference tracking performance are realized through the presented control strategy. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the scheme in improving power quality as well as good dynamic response in power transferring capability.

Keywords: electric vehicle, model predictive control, power quality, V2G technology, virtual active power filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
5558 A Reconfigurable Microstrip Patch Antenna with Polyphase Filter for Polarization Diversity and Cross Polarization Filtering Operation

Authors: Lakhdar Zaid, Albane Sangiovanni


A reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna with polyphase filter for polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation is presented in this paper. In our approach, a polyphase filter is used to obtain the four 90° phase shift outputs to feed a square microstrip patch antenna. The antenna can be switched between four states of polarization in transmission as well as in receiving mode. Switches are interconnected with the polyphase filter network to produce left-hand circular polarization, right-hand circular polarization, horizontal linear polarization, and vertical linear polarization. Additional advantage of using polyphase filter is its filtering capability for cross polarization filtering in right-hand circular polarization and left-hand circular polarization operation. The theoretical and simulated results demonstrated that polyphase filter is a good candidate to drive microstrip patch antenna to accomplish polarization diversity and cross polarization filtering operation.

Keywords: active antenna, polarization diversity, patch antenna, polyphase filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
5557 Artificial Neural Networks Face to Sudden Load Change for Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Dehini Rachid, Ferdi Brahim


The shunt active power filter (SAPF) is not destined only to improve the power factor, but also to compensate the unwanted harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads. This paper presents a SAPF with identification and control method based on artificial neural network (ANN). To identify harmonics, many techniques are used, among them the conventional p-q theory and the relatively recent one the artificial neural network method. It is difficult to get satisfied identification and control characteristics by using a normal (ANN) due to the nonlinearity of the system (SAPF + fast nonlinear load variations). This work is an attempt to undertake a systematic study of the problem to equip the (SAPF) with the harmonics identification and DC link voltage control method based on (ANN). The latter has been applied to the (SAPF) with fast nonlinear load variations. The results of computer simulations and experiments are given, which can confirm the feasibility of the proposed active power filter.

Keywords: artificial neural networks (ANN), p-q theory, harmonics, total harmonic distortion

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5556 Detection and Tracking Approach Using an Automotive Radar to Increase Active Pedestrian Safety

Authors: Michael Heuer, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Alexander Rain, Marc-Michael Meinecke


Vulnerable road users, e.g. pedestrians, have a high impact on fatal accident numbers. To reduce these statistics, car manufactures are intensively developing suitable safety systems. Hereby, fast and reliable environment recognition is a major challenge. In this paper we describe a tracking approach that is only based on a 24 GHz radar sensor. While common radar signal processing loses much information, we make use of a track-before-detect filter to incorporate raw measurements. It is explained how the Range-Doppler spectrum can help to indicated pedestrians and stabilize tracking even in occultation scenarios compared to sensors in series.

Keywords: radar, pedestrian detection, active safety, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
5555 Investigation of Soot Regeneration Behavior in the DPF Cleaning Device

Authors: Won Jun Jo, Man Young Kim


To meet stringent diesel particulate matter regulations, DPF system is essential after treatment technology providing exceptional reliability and filtration performance. At low load driving conditions, the passive type of DPF system is ineffective for regeneration method due to the inadequate of engine exhaust heat in removing accumulated soot from the filter. Therefore, DPF cleaning device is necessary to remove the soot particles. In this work, the numerical analysis on the active regeneration of DPF in DPF cleaning device is performed to find the optimum operating conditions. In order to find the DPF regeneration characteristics during active regeneration, 5 different initial soot loading condition are investigated. As the initial soot mass increases, the maximum temperature of DPF and regeneration rate also increase.

Keywords: active regeneration, DPF cleaning device, pressure drop, Diesel Particulate Filter, particulate matters, computational fluid dynamics

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5554 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis


In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain

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5553 Performance Analysis of Shunt Active Power Filter for Various Reference Current Generation Techniques

Authors: Vishal V. Choudhari, Gaurao A. Dongre, S. P. Diwan


A number of reference current generation have been developed for analysis of shunt active power filter to mitigate the load compensation. Depending upon the type of load the technique has to be chosen. In this paper, six reference current generation techniques viz. instantaneous reactive power theory(IRP), Synchronous reference frame theory(SRF), Perfect harmonic cancellation(PHC), Unity power factor method(UPF), Self-tuning filter method(STF), Predictive filtering method(PFM) are compared for different operating conditions. The harmonics are introduced because of non-linear loads in the system. These harmonics are eliminated using above techniques. The results and performance of system simulated on MATLAB/Simulink platform. The system is experimentally implemented using DS1104 card of dSPACE system.

Keywords: SAPF, power quality, THD, IRP, SRF, dSPACE module DS1104

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
5552 Operation Parameters of Vacuum Cleaned Filters

Authors: Wilhelm Hoeflinger, Thomas Laminger, Johannes Wolfslehner


For vacuum cleaned dust filters, used e. g. in textile industry, there exist no calculation methods to determine design parameters (e. g. traverse speed of the nozzle, filter area...). In this work a method to calculate the optimum traverse speed of the nozzle of an industrial-size flat dust filter at a given mean pressure drop and filter face velocity was elaborated. Well-known equations for the design of a cleanable multi-chamber bag-house-filter were modified in order to take into account a continuously regeneration of a dust filter by a nozzle. Thereby, the specific filter medium resistance and the specific cake resistance values are needed which can be derived from filter tests under constant operation conditions. A lab-scale filter test rig was used to derive the specific filter media resistance value and the specific cake resistance value for vacuum cleaned filter operation. Three different filter media were tested and the determined parameters were compared to each other.

Keywords: design of dust filter, dust removing, filter regeneration, operation parameters

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5551 FLC with 3DSVM for 4LEG 4WIRE Shunt Active Power Filter

Authors: Abdelhalim Kessal, Ali Chebabhi


In this paper, a controller based on fuzzy logic control (FLC) associated to Three Dimensional Space Vector Modulation (3DSVM) is applied for shunt active filter in αβo axes domain. The main goals are to improve power quality under disturbed loads, minimize source currents harmonics and reduce neutral current magnitude in the four-wire structure. FLC is used to obtain the reference current and control the DC-bus voltage at the inverter output. The switching signals of the four-leg inverter are generating through a Three Dimensional Space Vector Modulation (3DSVM). Selected simulation results have been shown to validate the proposed system.

Keywords: flc, 3dsvm, sapf, harmonic, inverter

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5550 Compact Microstrip Ultra-Wideband Bandstop Filter With Quasi-Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Hussein Shaman, Faris Almansour


This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband

Keywords: microstrip filter, bandstop filter, UWB filter, transmission line filter

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5549 Harmonic Assessment and Mitigation in Medical Diagonesis Equipment

Authors: S. S. Adamu, H. S. Muhammad, D. S. Shuaibu


Poor power quality in electrical power systems can lead to medical equipment at healthcare centres to malfunction and present wrong medical diagnosis. Equipment such as X-rays, computerized axial tomography, etc. can pollute the system due to their high level of harmonics production, which may cause a number of undesirable effects like heating, equipment damages and electromagnetic interferences. The conventional approach of mitigation uses passive inductor/capacitor (LC) filters, which has some drawbacks such as, large sizes, resonance problems and fixed compensation behaviours. The current trends of solutions generally employ active power filters using suitable control algorithms. This work focuses on assessing the level of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) on medical facilities and various ways of mitigation, using radiology unit of an existing hospital as a case study. The measurement of the harmonics is conducted with a power quality analyzer at the point of common coupling (PCC). The levels of measured THD are found to be higher than the IEEE 519-1992 standard limits. The system is then modelled as a harmonic current source using MATLAB/SIMULINK. To mitigate the unwanted harmonic currents a shunt active filter is developed using synchronous detection algorithm to extract the fundamental component of the source currents. Fuzzy logic controller is then developed to control the filter. The THD without the active power filter are validated using the measured values. The THD with the developed filter show that the harmonics are now within the recommended limits.

Keywords: power quality, total harmonics distortion, shunt active filters, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
5548 A Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Fault Detection

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite observations and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noise-free systems. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, numerical examples are performed for the discretized DC motor system having the multiple sensor faults.

Keywords: residual generation filter, finite memory structure, kalman filter, fast detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
5547 Study on Filter for Semiconductor of Minimizing Damage by X-Ray Laminography

Authors: Chan Jong Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Ki Hyun Park, Koan Sik Joo


This research used the MCNPX simulation program to evaluate the utility of a filter that was developed to minimize the damage to a semiconductor device during defect testing with X-ray. The X-ray generator was designed using the MCNPX code, and the X-ray absorption spectrum of the semiconductor device was obtained based on the designed X-ray generator code. To evaluate the utility of the filter, the X-ray absorption rates of the semiconductor device were calculated and compared for Ag, Rh, Mo and V filters with thicknesses of 25μm, 50μm, and 75μm. The results showed that the X-ray absorption rate varied with the type and thickness of the filter, ranging from 8.74% to 49.28%. The Rh filter showed the highest X-ray absorption rates of 29.8%, 15.18% and 8.74% for the above-mentioned filter thicknesses. As shown above, the characteristics of the X-ray absorption with respect to the type and thickness of the filter were identified using MCNPX simulation. With these results, both time and expense could be saved in the production of the desired filter. In the future, this filter will be produced, and its performance will be evaluated.

Keywords: X-ray, MCNPX, filter, semiconductor, damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
5546 Comparative Study between Classical P-Q Method and Modern Fuzzy Controller Method to Improve the Power Quality of an Electrical Network

Authors: A. Morsli, A. Tlemçani, N. Ould Cherchali, M. S. Boucherit


This article presents two methods for the compensation of harmonics generated by a nonlinear load. The first is the classic method P-Q. The second is the controller by modern method of artificial intelligence specifically fuzzy logic. Both methods are applied to an Active Power Filter shunt (APFs) based on a three-phase voltage converter at five levels NPC topology. In calculating the harmonic currents of reference, we use the algorithm P-Q and pulse generation, we use the intersective PWM. For flexibility and dynamics, we use fuzzy logic. The results give us clear that the rate of Harmonic Distortion issued by fuzzy logic is better than P-Q.

Keywords: fuzzy logic controller, P-Q method, pulse width modulation (PWM), shunt active power filter (sAPF), total harmonic distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
5545 A Packet Loss Probability Estimation Filter Using Most Recent Finite Traffic Measurements

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


A packet loss probability (PLP) estimation filter with finite memory structure is proposed to estimate the packet rate mean and variance of the input traffic process in real-time while removing undesired system and measurement noises. The proposed PLP estimation filter is developed under a weighted least square criterion using only the finite traffic measurements on the most recent window. The proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to have several inherent properties such as unbiasedness, deadbeat, robustness. A guideline for choosing appropriate window length is described since it can affect significantly the estimation performance. Using computer simulations, the proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to be superior to the Kalman filter for the temporarily uncertain system. One possible explanation for this is that the proposed PLP estimation filter can have greater convergence time of a filtered estimate as the window length M decreases.

Keywords: packet loss probability estimation, finite memory filter, infinite memory filter, Kalman filter

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5544 The Effect of Compensating Filter on Image Quality in Lateral Projection of Thoracolumbar Radiography

Authors: Noor Arda Adrina Daud, Mohd Hanafi Ali


The compensating filter is placed between the patient and X-ray tube to compensate various density and thickness of human body. The main purpose of this project is to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoracolumbar radiography. The study was performed by an X-ray unit where different thicknesses of aluminum were used as compensating filter. Specifically the relationship between thickness of aluminum, density and noise were evaluated. Results show different thickness of aluminum compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoracolumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The aluminum wedge compensating filter was designed resulting in an acceptable image quality.

Keywords: compensating filter, aluminum, image quality, lateral, thoracolumbar

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5543 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani


Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.

Keywords: empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
5542 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen


Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: frequency transformation, bilinear z-transformation, pre-warping frequency, digital filters, analog filters, pascal’s triangle

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5541 Design of Wide-Range Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Digital Filters

Authors: Jong-Jy Shyu, Soo-Chang Pei, Yun-Da Huang


In this paper, design of wide-range variable fractional-delay (WR-VFD) finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters is proposed. With respect to the conventional VFD filter which is designed such that its delay is adjustable within one unit, the proposed VFD FIR filter is designed such that its delay can be tunable within a wider range. By the traces of coefficients of the fractional-delay FIR filter, it is found that the conventional method of polynomial substitution for filter coefficients no longer satisfies the design demand, and the circuits perform the sinc function (sinc converter) are added to overcome this problem. In this paper, least-squares method is adopted to design WR-VFD FIR filter. Throughout this paper, several examples will be proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented methods.

Keywords: digital filter, FIR filter, variable fractional-delay (VFD) filter, least-squares approximation

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5540 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder


The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

Procedia PDF Downloads 358