Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22023

Search results for: redundancy analysis

22023 Performance and Availability Analysis of 2N Redundancy Models

Authors: Yutae Lee


In this paper, we consider the performance and availability of a redundancy model. The redundancy model is a form of resilience that ensures service availability in the event of component failure. This paper considers a 2N redundancy model. In the model there are at most one active service unit and at most one standby service unit. The active one is providing the service while the standby is prepared to take over the active role when the active fails. We design our analysis model using Stochastic Reward Nets, and then evaluate the performance and availability of 2N redundancy model using Stochastic Petri Net Package (SPNP).

Keywords: availability, performance, stochastic reward net, 2N redundancy

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22022 Redundancy Component Matrix and Structural Robustness

Authors: Xinjian Kou, Linlin Li, Yongju Zhou, Jimian Song


We introduce the redundancy matrix that expresses clearly the geometrical/topological configuration of the structure. With the matrix, the redundancy of the structure is resolved into redundant components and assigned to each member or rigid joint. The values of the diagonal elements in the matrix indicates the importance of the corresponding members or rigid joints, and the geometrically correlations can be shown with the non-diagonal elements. If a member or rigid joint failures, reassignment of the redundant components can be calculated with the recursive method given in the paper. By combining the indexes of reliability and redundancy components, we define an index concerning the structural robustness. To further explain the properties of the redundancy matrix, we cited several examples of statically indeterminate structures, including two trusses and a rigid frame. With the examples, some simple results and the properties of the matrix are discussed. The examples also illustrate that the redundancy matrix and the relevant concepts are valuable in structural safety analysis.

Keywords: Structural Robustness, Structural Reliability, Redundancy Component, Redundancy Matrix

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22021 Designing a Cyclic Redundancy Checker-8 for 32 Bit Input Using VHDL

Authors: Ankit Shai


CRC or Cyclic Redundancy Check is one of the most common, and one of the most powerful error-detecting codes implemented on modern computers. Most of the modern communication protocols use some error detection algorithms in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data between transmission and reception. Cyclic Redundancy Check, or CRC, is the most popular one among these error detection codes. CRC properties are defined by the generator polynomial length and coefficients. The aim of this project is to implement an efficient FPGA based CRC-8 that accepts a 32 bit input, taking into consideration optimal chip area and high performance, using VHDL. The proposed architecture is implemented on Xilinx ISE Simulator. It is designed while keeping in mind the hardware design, complexity and cost factor.

Keywords: cyclic redundancy checker, CRC-8, 32-bit input, FPGA, VHDL, ModelSim, Xilinx

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22020 A Hybrid P2P Storage Scheme Based on Erasure Coding and Replication

Authors: Usman Mahmood, Khawaja M. U. Suleman


A peer-to-peer storage system has challenges like; peer availability, data protection, churn rate. To address these challenges different redundancy, replacement and repair schemes are used. This paper presents a hybrid scheme of redundancy using replication and erasure coding. We calculate and compare the storage, access, and maintenance costs of our proposed scheme with existing redundancy schemes. For realistic behaviour of peers a trace of live peer-to-peer system is used. The effect of different replication, and repair schemes are also shown. The proposed hybrid scheme performs better than existing double coding hybrid scheme in all metrics and have an improved maintenance cost than hierarchical codes.

Keywords: erasure coding, P2P, redundancy, replication

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22019 Reliability and Cost Focused Optimization Approach for a Communication Satellite Payload Redundancy Allocation Problem

Authors: Mehmet Nefes, Selman Demirel, Hasan H. Ertok, Cenk Sen


A typical reliability engineering problem regarding communication satellites has been considered to determine redundancy allocation scheme of power amplifiers within payload transponder module, whose dominant function is to amplify power levels of the received signals from the Earth, through maximizing reliability against mass, power, and other technical limitations. Adding each redundant power amplifier component increases not only reliability but also hardware, testing, and launch cost of a satellite. This study investigates a multi-objective approach used in order to solve Redundancy Allocation Problem (RAP) for a communication satellite payload transponder, focusing on design cost due to redundancy and reliability factors. The main purpose is to find the optimum power amplifier redundancy configuration satisfying reliability and capacity thresholds simultaneously instead of analyzing respectively or independently. A mathematical model and calculation approach are instituted including objective function definitions, and then, the problem is solved analytically with different input parameters in MATLAB environment. Example results showed that payload capacity and failure rate of power amplifiers have remarkable effects on the solution and also processing time.

Keywords: communication satellite payload, multi-objective optimization, redundancy allocation problem, reliability, transponder

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22018 Multi-Objective Optimization of Combined System Reliability and Redundancy Allocation Problem

Authors: Vijaya K. Srivastava, Davide Spinello


This paper presents established 3n enumeration procedure for mixed integer optimization problems for solving multi-objective reliability and redundancy allocation problem subject to design constraints. The formulated problem is to find the optimum level of unit reliability and the number of units for each subsystem. A number of illustrative examples are provided and compared to indicate the application of the superiority of the proposed method.

Keywords: integer programming, mixed integer programming, multi-objective optimization, Reliability Redundancy Allocation

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22017 A Novel Meta-Heuristic Algorithm Based on Cloud Theory for Redundancy Allocation Problem under Realistic Condition

Authors: H. Mousavi, M. Sharifi, H. Pourvaziri


Redundancy Allocation Problem (RAP) is a well-known mathematical problem for modeling series-parallel systems. It is a combinatorial optimization problem which focuses on determining an optimal assignment of components in a system design. In this paper, to be more practical, we have considered the problem of redundancy allocation of series system with interval valued reliability of components. Therefore, during the search process, the reliabilities of the components are considered as a stochastic variable with a lower and upper bounds. In order to optimize the problem, we proposed a simulated annealing based on cloud theory (CBSAA). Also, the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is embedded to the CBSAA to handle the random variable components’ reliability. This novel approach has been investigated by numerical examples and the experimental results have shown that the CBSAA combining MCS is an efficient tool to solve the RAP of systems with interval-valued component reliabilities.

Keywords: redundancy allocation problem, simulated annealing, cloud theory, monte carlo simulation

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22016 Reductive Control in the Management of Redundant Actuation

Authors: Mkhinini Maher, Knani Jilani


We present in this work the performances of a mobile omnidirectional robot through evaluating its management of the redundancy of actuation. Thus we come to the predictive control implemented. The distribution of the wringer on the robot actions, through the inverse pseudo of Moore-Penrose, corresponds to a -geometric- distribution of efforts. We will show that the load on vehicle wheels would not be equi-distributed in terms of wheels configuration and of robot movement. Thus, the threshold of sliding is not the same for the three wheels of the vehicle. We suggest exploiting the redundancy of actuation to reduce the risk of wheels sliding and to ameliorate, thereby, its accuracy of displacement. This kind of approach was the subject of study for the legged robots.

Keywords: mobile robot, actuation, redundancy, omnidirectional, inverse pseudo moore-penrose, reductive control

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22015 Generation of Photo-Mosaic Images through Block Matching and Color Adjustment

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee


Mosaic refers to a technique that makes image by gathering lots of small materials in various colours. This paper presents an automatic algorithm that makes the photomosaic image using photos. The algorithm is composed of four steps: Partition and feature extraction, block matching, redundancy removal and colour adjustment. The input image is partitioned in the small block to extract feature. Each block is matched to find similar photo in database by comparing similarity with Euclidean difference between blocks. The intensity of the block is adjusted to enhance the similarity of image by replacing the value of light and darkness with that of relevant block. Further, the quality of image is improved by minimizing the redundancy of tiles in the adjacent blocks. Experimental results support that the proposed algorithm is excellent in quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis.

Keywords: photomosaic, Euclidean distance, block matching, intensity adjustment

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22014 A Preliminary Study of Urban Resident Space Redundancy in the Context of Rapid Urbanization: Based on Urban Research of Hongkou District of Shanghai

Authors: Ziwei Chen, Yujiang Gao


The rapid urbanization has caused the massive physical space in Chinese cities to be in a state of duplication and dislocation through the rapid development, forming many daily spaces that cannot be standardized, typed, and identified, such as illegal construction. This phenomenon is known as urban spatial redundancy and is often excluded from mainstream architectural discussions because of its 'remaining' and 'excessive' derogatory label. In recent years, some practice architects have begun to pay attention to this phenomenon and tried to tap the value behind it. In this context, the author takes the redundancy phenomenon of resident space as the research object and explores the inspiration to the urban architectural renewal and the innovative residential area model, based on the urban survey of redundant living space in Hongkou District of Shanghai. On this basis, it shows that the changes accumulated in the long-term use of the building can be re-applied to the goals before the design, which is an important link and significance of the existence of an architecture.

Keywords: rapid urbanization, living space redundancy, architectural renewal, residential area model

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22013 Instructional Consequences of the Transiency of Spoken Words

Authors: Slava Kalyuga, Sujanya Sombatteera


In multimedia learning, written text is often transformed into spoken (narrated) text. This transient information may overwhelm limited processing capacity of working memory and inhibit learning instead of improving it. The paper reviews recent empirical studies in modality and verbal redundancy effects within a cognitive load framework and outlines conditions under which negative effects of transiency may occur. According to the modality effect, textual information accompanying pictures should be presented in an auditory rather than visual form in order to engage two available channels of working memory – auditory and visual - instead of only one of them. However, some studies failed to replicate the modality effect and found differences opposite to those expected. Also, according to the multimedia redundancy effect, the same information should not be presented simultaneously in different modalities to avoid unnecessary cognitive load imposed by the integration of redundant sources of information. However, a few studies failed to replicate the multimedia redundancy effect too. Transiency of information is used to explain these controversial results.

Keywords: cognitive load, transient information, modality effect, verbal redundancy effect

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22012 Series-Parallel Systems Reliability Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm and Statistical Analysis

Authors: Essa Abrahim Abdulgader Saleem, Thien-My Dao


The main objective of this paper is to optimize series-parallel system reliability using Genetic Algorithm (GA) and statistical analysis; considering system reliability constraints which involve the redundant numbers of selected components, total cost, and total weight. To perform this work, firstly the mathematical model which maximizes system reliability subject to maximum system cost and maximum system weight constraints is presented; secondly, a statistical analysis is used to optimize GA parameters, and thirdly GA is used to optimize series-parallel systems reliability. The objective is to determine the strategy choosing the redundancy level for each subsystem to maximize the overall system reliability subject to total cost and total weight constraints. Finally, the series-parallel system case study reliability optimization results are showed, and comparisons with the other previous results are presented to demonstrate the performance of our GA.

Keywords: reliability, optimization, meta-heuristic, genetic algorithm, redundancy

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22011 Redundancy in Malay Morphology: School Grammar versus Corpus Grammar

Authors: Zaharani Ahmad, Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin


The aim of this paper is to examine and identify the issue of linguistic redundancy in two competing grammars of Malay, namely the school grammar and the corpus grammar. The former is a normative grammar which is formally and prescriptively taught in the classroom, whereas the latter is a descriptive grammar that is informally acquired and mastered by the students as native speakers of the language outside the classroom. Corpus grammar is depicted based on its actual used in natural occurring texts, as attested in the corpus. It is observed that the grammar taught in schools is incompatible with the grammar used in the corpus. For instance, a noun phrase containing nominal reduplicated form which denotes plurality (i.e. murid-murid ‘students’ which is derived from murid ‘student’) and a modifier categorized as quantifiers (i.e. semua ‘all’, seluruh ‘entire’, and kebanyakan ‘most’) is not acceptable in the school grammar because the formation (i.e. semua murid-murid ‘all the students’ kebanyakan pelajar-pelajar ‘most of the students’) is claimed to be redundant, and redundancy is prohibited in the grammar. Redundancy is generally construed as the property of speech and language by which more information is provided than is precisely required for the message to be understood, so that, if some information is omitted, the remaining information will still be sufficient for the message to be comprehended. Thus, the correct construction to be used is strictly the reduplicated form (i.e. murid-murid ‘students’) or the quantifier plus the root (i.e. semua murid ‘all the students’) with the intention that the grammatical meaning of plural is not repeated. Nevertheless, the so-called redundant form (i.e. kebanyakan pelajar-pelajar ‘most of the students’) is frequently used in the corpus grammar. This study shows that there are a number of redundant forms occur in the morphology of the language, particularly in affixation, reduplication and combination of both. Apparently, the so-called redundancy has grammatical and socio-cultural functions in communication that is to give emphasis and to stress the importance of the information delivered by the speakers or writers.

Keywords: corpus grammar, morphology, redundancy, school grammar

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22010 Fault Detection and Isolation of a Three-Tank System using Analytical Temporal Redundancy, Parity Space/Relation Based Residual Generation

Authors: A. T. Kuda, J. J. Dayya, A. Jimoh


This paper investigates the fault detection and Isolation technique of measurement data sets from a three tank system using analytical model-based temporal redundancy which is based on residual generation using parity equations/space approach. It further briefly outlines other approaches of model-based residual generation. The basic idea of parity space residual generation in temporal redundancy is dynamic relationship between sensor outputs and actuator inputs (input-output model). These residuals where then used to detect whether or not the system is faulty and indicate the location of the fault when it is faulty. The method obtains good results by detecting and isolating faults from the considered data sets measurements generated from the system.

Keywords: fault detection, fault isolation, disturbing influences, system failure, parity equation/relation, structured parity equations

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22009 Bioinformatic Approaches in Population Genetics and Phylogenetic Studies

Authors: Masoud Sheidai


Biologists with a special field of population genetics and phylogeny have different research tasks such as populations’ genetic variability and divergence, species relatedness, the evolution of genetic and morphological characters, and identification of DNA SNPs with adaptive potential. To tackle these problems and reach a concise conclusion, they must use the proper and efficient statistical and bioinformatic methods as well as suitable genetic and morphological characteristics. In recent years application of different bioinformatic and statistical methods, which are based on various well-documented assumptions, are the proper analytical tools in the hands of researchers. The species delineation is usually carried out with the use of different clustering methods like K-means clustering based on proper distance measures according to the studied features of organisms. A well-defined species are assumed to be separated from the other taxa by molecular barcodes. The species relationships are studied by using molecular markers, which are analyzed by different analytical methods like multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). The species population structuring and genetic divergence are usually investigated by PCoA and PCA methods and a network diagram. These are based on bootstrapping of data. The Association of different genes and DNA sequences to ecological and geographical variables is determined by LFMM (Latent factor mixed model) and redundancy analysis (RDA), which are based on Bayesian and distance methods. Molecular and morphological differentiating characters in the studied species may be identified by linear discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC). We shall illustrate these methods and related conclusions by giving examples from different edible and medicinal plant species.

Keywords: GWAS analysis, K-Means clustering, LFMM, multidimensional scaling, redundancy analysis

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22008 Key Frame Based Video Summarization via Dependency Optimization

Authors: Janya Sainui


As a rapid growth of digital videos and data communications, video summarization that provides a shorter version of the video for fast video browsing and retrieval is necessary. Key frame extraction is one of the mechanisms to generate video summary. In general, the extracted key frames should both represent the entire video content and contain minimum redundancy. However, most of the existing approaches heuristically select key frames; hence, the selected key frames may not be the most different frames and/or not cover the entire content of a video. In this paper, we propose a method of video summarization which provides the reasonable objective functions for selecting key frames. In particular, we apply a statistical dependency measure called quadratic mutual informaion as our objective functions for maximizing the coverage of the entire video content as well as minimizing the redundancy among selected key frames. The proposed key frame extraction algorithm finds key frames as an optimization problem. Through experiments, we demonstrate the success of the proposed video summarization approach that produces video summary with better coverage of the entire video content while less redundancy among key frames comparing to the state-of-the-art approaches.

Keywords: video summarization, key frame extraction, dependency measure, quadratic mutual information

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22007 Evaluation of Redundancy Architectures Based on System on Chip Internal Interfaces for Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Flight Control Computer

Authors: Sebastian Hiergeist


It is a common view that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) tend to migrate into the civil airspace. This trend is challenging UAV manufacturer in plenty ways, as there come up a lot of new requirements and functional aspects. On the higher application levels, this might be collision detection and avoidance and similar features, whereas all these functions only act as input for the flight control components of the aircraft. The flight control computer (FCC) is the central component when it comes up to ensure a continuous safe flight and landing. As these systems are flight critical, they have to be built up redundantly to be able to provide a Fail-Operational behavior. Recent architectural approaches of FCCs used in UAV systems are often based on very simple microprocessors in combination with proprietary Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) extensions implementing the whole redundancy functionality. In the future, such simple microprocessors may not be available anymore as they are more and more replaced by higher sophisticated System on Chip (SoC). As the avionic industry cannot provide enough market power to significantly influence the development of new semiconductor products, the use of solutions from foreign markets is almost inevitable. Products stemming from the industrial market developed according to IEC 61508, or automotive SoCs, according to ISO 26262, can be seen as candidates as they have been developed for similar environments. Current available SoC from the industrial or automotive sector provides quite a broad selection of interfaces like, i.e., Ethernet, SPI or FlexRay, that might come into account for the implementation of a redundancy network. In this context, possible network architectures shall be investigated which could be established by using the interfaces stated above. Of importance here is the avoidance of any single point of failures, as well as a proper segregation in distinct fault containment regions. The performed analysis is supported by the use of guidelines, published by the aviation authorities (FAA and EASA), on the reliability of data networks. The main focus clearly lies on the reachable level of safety, but also other aspects like performance and determinism play an important role and are considered in the research. Due to the further increase in design complexity of recent and future SoCs, also the risk of design errors, which might lead to common mode faults, increases. Thus in the context of this work also the aspect of dissimilarity will be considered to limit the effect of design errors. To achieve this, the work is limited to broadly available interfaces available in products from the most common silicon manufacturer. The resulting work shall support the design of future UAV FCCs by giving a guideline on building up a redundancy network between SoCs, solely using on board interfaces. Therefore the author will provide a detailed usability analysis on available interfaces provided by recent SoC solutions, suggestions on possible redundancy architectures based on these interfaces and an assessment of the most relevant characteristics of the suggested network architectures, like e.g. safety or performance.

Keywords: redundancy, System-on-Chip, UAV, flight control computer (FCC)

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22006 Method of False Alarm Rate Control for Cyclic Redundancy Check-Aided List Decoding of Polar Codes

Authors: Dmitry Dikarev, Ajit Nimbalker, Alexei Davydov


Polar coding is a novel example of error correcting codes, which can achieve Shannon limit at block length N→∞ with log-linear complexity. Active research is being carried to adopt this theoretical concept for using in practical applications such as 5th generation wireless communication systems. Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error detection code is broadly used in conjunction with successive cancellation list (SCL) decoding algorithm to improve finite-length polar code performance. However, there are two issues: increase of code block payload overhead by CRC bits and decrease of CRC error-detection capability. This paper proposes a method to control CRC overhead and false alarm rate of polar decoding. As shown in the computer simulations results, the proposed method provides the ability to use any set of CRC polynomials with any list size while maintaining the desired level of false alarm rate. This level of flexibility allows using polar codes in 5G New Radio standard.

Keywords: 5G New Radio, channel coding, cyclic redundancy check, list decoding, polar codes

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22005 A Mathematical Model for Reliability Redundancy Optimization Problem of K-Out-Of-N: G System

Authors: Gak-Gyu Kim, Won Il Jung


According to a remarkable development of science and technology, function and role of the system of engineering fields has recently been diversified. The system has become increasingly more complex and precise, and thus, system designers intended to maximize reliability concentrate more effort at the design stage. This study deals with the reliability redundancy optimization problem (RROP) for k-out-of-n: G system configuration with cold standby and warm standby components. This paper further intends to present the optimal mathematical model through which the following three elements of (i) multiple components choices, (ii) redundant components quantity and (iii) the choice of redundancy strategies may be combined in order to maximize the reliability of the system. Therefore, we focus on the following three issues. First, we consider RROP that there exists warm standby state as well as cold standby state of the component. Second, as eliminating an approximation approach of the previous RROP studies, we construct a precise model for system reliability. Third, given transition time when the state of components changes, we present not simply a workable solution but the advanced method. For the wide applicability of RROPs, moreover, we use absorbing continuous time Markov chain and matrix analytic methods in the suggested mathematical model.

Keywords: RROP, matrix analytic methods, k-out-of-n: G system, MTTF, absorbing continuous time Markov Chain

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22004 The Effects of Human Activities on Plant Diversity in Tropical Wetlands of Lake Tana (Ethiopia)

Authors: Abrehet Kahsay Mehari


Aquatic plants provide the physical structure of wetlands and increase their habitat complexity and heterogeneity, and as such, have a profound influence on other biotas. In this study, we investigated how human disturbance activities influenced the species richness and community composition of aquatic plants in the wetlands of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Twelve wetlands were selected: four lacustrine, four river mouths, and four riverine papyrus swamps. Data on aquatic plants, environmental variables, and human activities were collected during the dry and wet seasons of 2018. A linear mixed effect model and a distance-based Redundancy Analysis (db-RDA) were used to relate aquatic plant species richness and community composition, respectively, to human activities and environmental variables. A total of 113 aquatic plant species, belonging to 38 families, were identified across all wetlands during the dry and wet seasons. Emergent species had the maximum area covered at 73.45 % and attained the highest relative abundance, followed by amphibious and other forms. The mean taxonomic richness of aquatic plants was significantly lower in wetlands with high overall human disturbance scores compared to wetlands with low overall human disturbance scores. Moreover, taxonomic richness showed a negative correlation with livestock grazing, tree plantation, and sand mining. The community composition also varied across wetlands with varying levels of human disturbance and was primarily driven by turnover (i.e., replacement of species) rather than nestedness resultant(i.e., loss of species). Distance-based redundancy analysis revealed that livestock grazing, tree plantation, sand mining, waste dumping, and crop cultivation were significant predictors of variation in aquatic plant communities’ composition in the wetlands. Linear mixed effect models and distance-based redundancy analysis also revealed that water depth, turbidity, conductivity, pH, sediment depth, and temperature were important drivers of variations in aquatic plant species richness and community composition. Papyrus swamps had the highest species richness and supported different plant communities. Conservation efforts should therefore focus on these habitats and measures should be taken to restore the highly disturbed and species poor wetlands near the river mouths.

Keywords: species richness, community composition, aquatic plants, wetlands, Lake Tana, human disturbance activities

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22003 The Relationship between Basic Human Needs and Opportunity Based on Social Progress Index

Authors: Ebru Ozgur Guler, Huseyin Guler, Sera Sanli


Social Progress Index (SPI) whose fundamentals have been thrown in the World Economy Forum is an index which aims to form a systematic basis for guiding strategy for inclusive growth which requires achieving both economic and social progress. In this research, it has been aimed to determine the relations among “Basic Human Needs” (BHN) (including four variables of ‘Nutrition and Basic Medical Care’, ‘Water and Sanitation’, ‘Shelter’ and ‘Personal Safety’) and “Opportunity” (OPT) (that is composed of ‘Personal Rights’, ‘Personal Freedom and Choice’, ‘Tolerance and Inclusion’, and ‘Access to Advanced Education’ components) dimensions of 2016 SPI for 138 countries which take place in the website of Social Progress Imperative by carrying out canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which is a data reduction technique that operates in a way to maximize the correlation between two variable sets. In the interpretation of results, the first pair of canonical variates pointing to the highest canonical correlation has been taken into account. The first canonical correlation coefficient has been found as 0.880 indicating to the high relationship between BHN and OPT variable sets. Wilk’s Lambda statistic has revealed that an overall effect of 0.809 is highly large for the full model in order to be counted as statistically significant (with a p-value of 0.000). According to the standardized canonical coefficients, the largest contribution to BHN set of variables has come from ‘shelter’ variable. The most effective variable in OPT set has been detected to be ‘access to advanced education’. Findings based on canonical loadings have also confirmed these results with respect to the contributions to the first canonical variates. When canonical cross loadings (structure coefficients) are examined, for the first pair of canonical variates, the largest contributions have been provided by ‘shelter’ and ‘access to advanced education’ variables. Since the signs for structure coefficients have been found to be negative for all variables; all OPT set of variables are positively related to all of the BHN set of variables. In case canonical communality coefficients which are the sum of the squares of structure coefficients across all interpretable functions are taken as the basis; amongst all variables, ‘personal rights’ and ‘tolerance and inclusion’ variables can be said not to be useful in the model with 0.318721 and 0.341722 coefficients respectively. On the other hand, while redundancy index for BHN set has been found to be 0.615; OPT set has a lower redundancy index with 0.475. High redundancy implies high ability for predictability. The proportion of the total variation in BHN set of variables that is explained by all of the opposite canonical variates has been calculated as 63% and finally, the proportion of the total variation in OPT set that is explained by all of the canonical variables in BHN set has been determined as 50.4% and a large part of this proportion belongs to the first pair. The results suggest that there is a high and statistically significant relationship between BHN and OPT. This relationship is generally accounted by ‘shelter’ and ‘access to advanced education’.

Keywords: canonical communality coefficient, canonical correlation analysis, redundancy index, social progress index

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22002 Rd-PLS Regression: From the Analysis of Two Blocks of Variables to Path Modeling

Authors: E. Tchandao Mangamana, V. Cariou, E. Vigneau, R. Glele Kakai, E. M. Qannari


A new definition of a latent variable associated with a dataset makes it possible to propose variants of the PLS2 regression and the multi-block PLS (MB-PLS). We shall refer to these variants as Rd-PLS regression and Rd-MB-PLS respectively because they are inspired by both Redundancy analysis and PLS regression. Usually, a latent variable t associated with a dataset Z is defined as a linear combination of the variables of Z with the constraint that the length of the loading weights vector equals 1. Formally, t=Zw with ‖w‖=1. Denoting by Z' the transpose of Z, we define herein, a latent variable by t=ZZ’q with the constraint that the auxiliary variable q has a norm equal to 1. This new definition of a latent variable entails that, as previously, t is a linear combination of the variables in Z and, in addition, the loading vector w=Z’q is constrained to be a linear combination of the rows of Z. More importantly, t could be interpreted as a kind of projection of the auxiliary variable q onto the space generated by the variables in Z, since it is collinear to the first PLS1 component of q onto Z. Consider the situation in which we aim to predict a dataset Y from another dataset X. These two datasets relate to the same individuals and are assumed to be centered. Let us consider a latent variable u=YY’q to which we associate the variable t= XX’YY’q. Rd-PLS consists in seeking q (and therefore u and t) so that the covariance between t and u is maximum. The solution to this problem is straightforward and consists in setting q to the eigenvector of YY’XX’YY’ associated with the largest eigenvalue. For the determination of higher order components, we deflate X and Y with respect to the latent variable t. Extending Rd-PLS to the context of multi-block data is relatively easy. Starting from a latent variable u=YY’q, we consider its ‘projection’ on the space generated by the variables of each block Xk (k=1, ..., K) namely, tk= XkXk'YY’q. Thereafter, Rd-MB-PLS seeks q in order to maximize the average of the covariances of u with tk (k=1, ..., K). The solution to this problem is given by q, eigenvector of YY’XX’YY’, where X is the dataset obtained by horizontally merging datasets Xk (k=1, ..., K). For the determination of latent variables of order higher than 1, we use a deflation of Y and Xk with respect to the variable t= XX’YY’q. In the same vein, extending Rd-MB-PLS to the path modeling setting is straightforward. Methods are illustrated on the basis of case studies and performance of Rd-PLS and Rd-MB-PLS in terms of prediction is compared to that of PLS2 and MB-PLS.

Keywords: multiblock data analysis, partial least squares regression, path modeling, redundancy analysis

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22001 Reliability Analysis of a Fuel Supply System in Automobile Engine

Authors: Chitaranjan Sharma


The present paper deals with the analysis of a fuel supply system in an automobile engine of a four wheeler which is having both the option of fuel i.e. PETROL and CNG. Since CNG is cheaper than petrol so the priority is given to consume CNG as compared to petrol. An automatic switch is used to start petrol supply at the time of failure of CNG supply. Using regenerative point technique with Markov renewal process, the reliability characteristics which are useful to system designers are obtained.

Keywords: reliability, redundancy, repair time, transition, probability, regenerative points, markov renewal, process

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22000 Detection of Cardiac Arrhythmia Using Principal Component Analysis and Xgboost Model

Authors: Sujay Kotwale, Ramasubba Reddy M.


Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a non-invasive technique used to study and analyze various heart diseases. Cardiac arrhythmia is a serious heart disease which leads to death of the patients, when left untreated. An early-time detection of cardiac arrhythmia would help the doctors to do proper treatment of the heart. In the past, various algorithms and machine learning (ML) models were used to early-time detection of cardiac arrhythmia, but few of them have achieved better results. In order to improve the performance, this paper implements principal component analysis (PCA) along with XGBoost model. The PCA was implemented to the raw ECG signals which suppress redundancy information and extracted significant features. The obtained significant ECG features were fed into XGBoost model and the performance of the model was evaluated. In order to valid the proposed technique, raw ECG signals obtained from standard MIT-BIH database were employed for the analysis. The result shows that the performance of proposed method is superior to the several state-of-the-arts techniques.

Keywords: cardiac arrhythmia, electrocardiogram, principal component analysis, XGBoost

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21999 Constructions of Linear and Robust Codes Based on Wavelet Decompositions

Authors: Alla Levina, Sergey Taranov


The classical approach to the providing noise immunity and integrity of information that process in computing devices and communication channels is to use linear codes. Linear codes have fast and efficient algorithms of encoding and decoding information, but this codes concentrate their detect and correct abilities in certain error configurations. To protect against any configuration of errors at predetermined probability can robust codes. This is accomplished by the use of perfect nonlinear and almost perfect nonlinear functions to calculate the code redundancy. The paper presents the error-correcting coding scheme using biorthogonal wavelet transform. Wavelet transform applied in various fields of science. Some of the wavelet applications are cleaning of signal from noise, data compression, spectral analysis of the signal components. The article suggests methods for constructing linear codes based on wavelet decomposition. For developed constructions we build generator and check matrix that contain the scaling function coefficients of wavelet. Based on linear wavelet codes we develop robust codes that provide uniform protection against all errors. In article we propose two constructions of robust code. The first class of robust code is based on multiplicative inverse in finite field. In the second robust code construction the redundancy part is a cube of information part. Also, this paper investigates the characteristics of proposed robust and linear codes.

Keywords: robust code, linear code, wavelet decomposition, scaling function, error masking probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
21998 Image Multi-Feature Analysis by Principal Component Analysis for Visual Surface Roughness Measurement

Authors: Wei Zhang, Yan He, Yan Wang, Yufeng Li, Chuanpeng Hao


Surface roughness is an important index for evaluating surface quality, needs to be accurately measured to ensure the performance of the workpiece. The roughness measurement based on machine vision involves various image features, some of which are redundant. These redundant features affect the accuracy and speed of the visual approach. Previous research used correlation analysis methods to select the appropriate features. However, this feature analysis is independent and cannot fully utilize the information of data. Besides, blindly reducing features lose a lot of useful information, resulting in unreliable results. Therefore, the focus of this paper is on providing a redundant feature removal approach for visual roughness measurement. In this paper, the statistical methods and gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) are employed to extract the texture features of machined images effectively. Then, the principal component analysis(PCA) is used to fuse all extracted features into a new one, which reduces the feature dimension and maintains the integrity of the original information. Finally, the relationship between new features and roughness is established by the support vector machine(SVM). The experimental results show that the approach can effectively solve multi-feature information redundancy of machined surface images and provides a new idea for the visual evaluation of surface roughness.

Keywords: feature analysis, machine vision, PCA, surface roughness, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
21997 Issue Reorganization Using the Measure of Relevance

Authors: William Wong Xiu Shun, Yoonjin Hyun, Mingyu Kim, Seongi Choi, Namgyu Kim


Recently, the demand of extracting the R&D keywords from the issues and using them in retrieving R&D information is increasing rapidly. But it is hard to identify the related issues or to distinguish them. Although the similarity between the issues cannot be identified, but with the R&D lexicon, the issues that always shared the same R&D keywords can be determined. In details, the R&D keywords that associated with particular issue is implied the key technology elements that needed to solve the problem of the particular issue. Furthermore, the related issues that sharing the same R&D keywords can be showed in a more systematic way through the issue clustering constructed from the perspective of R&D. Thus, sharing of the R&D result and reusable of the R&D technology can be facilitated. Indirectly, the redundancy of investment on the same R&D can be reduce as the R&D information can be shared between those corresponding issues and reusability of the related R&D can be improved. Therefore, a methodology of constructing an issue clustering from the perspective of common R&D keywords is proposed to satisfy the demands mentioned.

Keywords: clustering, social network analysis, text mining, topic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
21996 Popularization of Persian Scientific Articles in the Public Media: An Analysis Based on Experimental Meta-function View Point

Authors: Behnaz Zolfaghari


In civilized societies, linguists seek to find suitable equivalents for scientific terms in the common language of their society. Many researches have conducted surveys about language of science on one hand and media discourse on the other, but the goal of this research is the comparative analysis of science discourse in Persian academic media and public discourse in the general Persian media by applying experimental meta-function as one of the four theoretical tools introduced by Holiday’s Systemic Functional Grammar .The said analysis aims to explore the processes that can convert the language in which scientific facts are published to a language well suited to the interested layman. The results of comparison show that these two discourses use differently six processes of experimental meta-function. Comparing the redundancy of different processes, the researcher tried to re-identify these differences in these two discourses and present a model for the procedures of converting science discourse to popularized discourse. This model can be useful for those journalists and textbook authors who want to restate scientific technical texts in a simple style for inexpert addresser including general people and students.

Keywords: systemic functional grammar, discourse analysis, science language, popularization, media discourse

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
21995 Robust Diagnosis of an Electro-Mechanical Actuators, Bond Graph LFT Approach

Authors: A. Boulanoir, B. Ould Bouamama, A. Debiane, N. Achour


The paper deals with robust Fault Detection and isolation with respect to parameter uncertainties based on linear fractional transformation form (LFT) Bond graph. The innovative interest of the proposed methodology is the use only one representation for systematic generation of robust analytical redundancy relations and adaptive residual thresholds for sensibility analysis. Furthermore, the parameter uncertainties are introduced graphically in the bond graph model. The methodology applied to the nonlinear industrial Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMA) used in avionic systems, has determined first the structural monitorability analysis (which component can be monitored) with given instrumentation architecture with any need of complex calculation and secondly robust fault indicators for online supervision.

Keywords: bond graph (BG), electro mechanical actuators (EMA), fault detection and isolation (FDI), linear fractional transformation (LFT), mechatronic systems, parameter uncertainties, avionic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
21994 Response Reduction Factor for Earthquake Resistant Design of Special Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Rohan V. Ambekar, Shrirang N. Tande


The present study estimates the seismic response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall using static nonlinear (pushover) analysis. Calculation of response reduction factor (R) is done as per the new formulation of response reduction factor (R) given by Applied Technology Council (ATC)-19 which is the product of strength factor (Rs), ductility factor (Rµ) and redundancy factor (RR). The analysis revealed that these three factors affect the actual value of response reduction factor (R) and therefore they must be taken into consideration while determining the appropriate response reduction factor to be used during the seismic design process. The actual values required for determination of response reduction factor (R) is worked out on the basis of pushover curve which is a plot of base shear verses roof displacement. Finally, the calculated values of response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall are compared with the codal values.

Keywords: response reduction factor, ductility ratio, base shear, special moment resisting frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 338