Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Athar Ata

15 Characterization of Probability Distributions through Conditional Expectation of Pair of Generalized Order Statistics

Authors: Zubdahe Noor, Haseeb Athar


In this article, first a relation for conditional expectation is developed and then is used to characterize a general class of distributions F(x) = 1-e^(-ah(x)) through conditional expectation of difference of pair of generalized order statistics. Some results are reduced for particular cases. In the end, a list of distributions is presented in the form of table that are compatible with the given general class.

Keywords: generalized order statistics, order statistics, record values, conditional expectation, characterization

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14 Hematological Changes in the Hydatidosed Male Sheep after Experimental Inoculation of Echinococcus granulosus Eggs

Authors: M. Younus, Muhammad Shafique, M. Athar Khan, Tanveer Akhtar , M. Moeen Athar


A total of 48 apparently healthy weaned sheep lambs (Ovis aries) of 8-10 weeks old weighing 7-10 Kg were purchased from the contractors, maintained in the experimental station of University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus at Lahore, Pakistan. They were dewormed against nematodes with levamisole (ICI) at recommended dose rates. The feces were tested against the parasitic eggs, no helminths ova were seen. All the 48 sheep lambs were divided into two groups i.e. group A & group B. Group 'A' comprising of 40 sheep, kept as infected groups whereas group 'B' comprising of 08 sheep & kept as a new infected control group. Each sheep lamb of group A was given 3-4 fresh gravid segments contains 2-3 thousand eggs of Echinococcus granulosus. These were collected from experimentally infected dogs by feeding fresh hydrated cysts collected from liver & lungs of sheep after slaughtering. Each lamb was fed with fresh gravid segments for a total period of 5 days or each alternate day. Coagulated blood was collected before the start of infected diet and after every month by jugular phlebotomy of each sheep lamb from the infected & new infected control group. One lamb each from group A & group B was slaughtered at the end of each month for the presence of macroscopic hydatid cyst in viscera & abdominal cavity. After 180 days of the experiment, hydatid cysts were confirmed in the abdominal cavity. Hematological parameters of zero days & then at the end of every month revealed that there was a gradual increase (PL 0.05) in the White Blood Cell (WBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rates (ESR). The increasing trend was probably due to inflammatory response and lytic effect of the newly developing E. granulosus hydatid cysts. The red blood cell (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) infected groups were decreased significantly as compared to the control group (PL 0.05). The experiment was terminated at the end of the 7th month. It can be concluded that Echinococcus granulosus can damage livestock and other intermediate hosts such as horses, the development of hydatid cysts affect the organs due to the growing cysts pressuring the organ tissues. Parts of the tissue die, which impairs the functioning of the affected organ. The clinical signs depend on the affected organ. The major damage for livestock is organ condemnation at slaughter.

Keywords: echinococcus granulosus, hydatidosis, sheep, hematology

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13 Critical Success Factors of Information Technology Projects

Authors: Athar Imtiaz, Abduljalil S. Al-Mudhary, Taha Mirhashemi, Roslina Ibrahim


Information Technology (IT) is being used by almost all organizations throughout the world. However, its success at supporting and improving business is debatable. There is always the risk of IT project failure and studies have proven that a large number of IT projects indeed do fail. There are many components that further the success of IT projects; these have been studied in previous studies. Studies have found the most necessary components for success in software development projects, executive information systems etc. In this study, previous literature that has looked into these success promoting factors have been critically reviewed and analyzed. Fifteen critical Success Factors (CSF) of IT projects were enlisted and examined. These factors can be applied to all IT projects and is not specific to a particular type of IT/IS project. A hypothesis was also generated after the evaluation of the factors.

Keywords: critical success factors, CSF, IT projects, IS projects, software development projects

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12 Investigating the Effects of Hydrogen on Wet Cement for Underground Hydrogen Storage Applications in Oil and Gas Wells

Authors: Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Hossein Emadi, Athar Hussain


Green hydrogen is quickly emerging as a new source of renewable energy for the world. Hydrogen production using water electrolysis is deemed as an environmentally friendly and safe source of energy for transportation and other industries. However, storing a high volume of hydrogen seems to be a significant challenge. Abandoned hydrocarbon reservoirs are considered as viable hydrogen storage options because of the availability of the required infrastructure such as wells and surface facilities. However, long-term wellbore integrity in these wells could be a serious challenge. Hydrogen reduces the compressive strength of a set cement if it gets in contact with the cement slurry. Also, mixing hydrogen with cement slurry slightly increases its density and rheological properties, which need to be considered to have a successful primary cementing operation.

Keywords: hydrogen, well bore integrity, clean energy, cementing

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11 Bit Error Rate Analysis of Multiband OFCDM UWB System in UWB Fading Channel

Authors: Sanjay M. Gulhane, Athar Ravish Khan, Umesh W. Kaware


Orthogonal frequency and code division multiplexing (OFCDM) has received large attention as a modulation scheme to realize high data rate transmission. Multiband (MB) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) Ultra Wide Band (UWB) system become promising technique for high data rate due to its large number of advantage over Singleband (UWB) system, but it suffer from coherent frequency diversity problem. In this paper we have proposed MB-OFCDM UWB system, in which two-dimensional (2D) spreading (time and frequency domain spreading), has been introduced, combining OFDM with 2D spreading, proposed system can provide frequency diversity. This paper presents the basic structure and main functions of the MB-OFCDM system, and evaluates the bit error rate BER performance of MB-OFDM and MB-OFCDM system under UWB indoor multi-path channel model. It is observe that BER curve of MB-OFCDM UWB improve its performance by 2dB as compare to MB-OFDM UWB system.

Keywords: MB-OFDM UWB system, MB-OFCDM UWB system, UWB IEEE channel model, BER

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10 C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Athar Hussain Memon


Objectives: We tried to determine the frequency of raised C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of six months study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from March 2013 to August 2013. All diabetic patients of ≥35 years age of either gender for >01 year duration visited at OPD were evaluated for C-reactive protein and their glycemic status by hemoglobin A1c. The data was analyzed in SPSS and the frequency and percentage were calculated. Results: During six month study period, total 100 diabetic patients were evaluated for C-reactive protein. The majority of patients were from urban areas 75/100 (75%). The mean ±SD for age of patients with diabetes mellitus was 51.63±7.82. The mean age ±SD of patient with raised CRP was 53±7.21. The mean ±SD for HbA1c in patients with raised CRP is 9.55±1.73. The mean random blood sugar level in patients with raised CRP was 247.42 ± 6.62. The majority of subjects were of 50-69 years of age group with female predominance (p=0.01) while the CRP was raised in 70 (70%) patients in relation to age (p=0.02) and gender (p=0.01), respectively. Both HbA1c and CRP were raised in 64.9% (p=0.04) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean ±SD of CRP was 5.8±1.21 while for male and female individuals with raised CRP was 3.52±1.22 and 5.7±1.63, respectively. Conclusions: The raised CRP was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes and metabolism

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9 Synthesis, Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Antibacterial Studies of Highly Functionalized Novel Spiropyrrolidine 4-Quinolone-3-Carboxylic Acids Derived from 6-Acetyl Quinolone

Authors: Thangaraj Arasakumar, Athar Ata, Palathurai Subramaniam Mohan


A series of novel 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid grafted spiropyrrolidines as new type of antibacterial agents were synthesized via multicomponent 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of an azomethine ylides with a newly prepared (E)-4-oxo-6-(3-phenyl-acryloyl)-1,4-dihydro-quinoline-3-carboxylic acids in high regioselectivity with good yields. The structure of cycloadduct characterized by FT IR, mass, 1H, 13C, 2D NMR techniques and elemental analysis. Structure and spectrometry of compound 8a has been investigated theoretically by using HF and DFT approach at B3LYP, M05-2x/6-31G* levels of theories. The optimized geometries and calculated vibrational frequencies are evaluated via comparison with experimental values. A good agreement is found between the measured and calculated values. The DFT studies support the molecular mechanism of this cycloaddition reaction and determine the molecular electrostatic potential and thermodynamic properties. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae). Among 21 compounds screened, 8f and 8p were found to be more active against tested bacteria.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, azomethine ylide, DFT calculation, spirooxindole

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8 Information Theoretic Approach for Beamforming in Wireless Communications

Authors: Syed Khurram Mahmud, Athar Naveed, Shoaib Arif


Beamforming is a signal processing technique extensively utilized in wireless communications and radars for desired signal intensification and interference signal minimization through spatial selectivity. In this paper, we present a method for calculation of optimal weight vectors for smart antenna array, to achieve a directive pattern during transmission and selective reception in interference prone environment. In proposed scheme, Mutual Information (MI) extrema are evaluated through an energy constrained objective function, which is based on a-priori information of interference source and desired array factor. Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) performance is evaluated for both transmission and reception. In our scheme, MI is presented as an index to identify trade-off between information gain, SINR, illumination time and spatial selectivity in an energy constrained optimization problem. The employed method yields lesser computational complexity, which is presented through comparative analysis with conventional methods in vogue. MI based beamforming offers enhancement of signal integrity in degraded environment while reducing computational intricacy and correlating key performance indicators.

Keywords: beamforming, interference, mutual information, wireless communications

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7 Bayesian Analysis of Topp-Leone Generalized Exponential Distribution

Authors: Najrullah Khan, Athar Ali Khan


The Topp-Leone distribution was introduced by Topp- Leone in 1955. In this paper, an attempt has been made to fit Topp-Leone Generalized exponential (TPGE) distribution. A real survival data set is used for illustrations. Implementation is done using R and JAGS and appropriate illustrations are made. R and JAGS codes have been provided to implement censoring mechanism using both optimization and simulation tools. The main aim of this paper is to describe and illustrate the Bayesian modelling approach to the analysis of survival data. Emphasis is placed on the modeling of data and the interpretation of the results. Crucial to this is an understanding of the nature of the incomplete or 'censored' data encountered. Analytic approximation and simulation tools are covered here, but most of the emphasis is on Markov chain based Monte Carlo method including independent Metropolis algorithm, which is currently the most popular technique. For analytic approximation, among various optimization algorithms and trust region method is found to be the best. In this paper, TPGE model is also used to analyze the lifetime data in Bayesian paradigm. Results are evaluated from the above mentioned real survival data set. The analytic approximation and simulation methods are implemented using some software packages. It is clear from our findings that simulation tools provide better results as compared to those obtained by asymptotic approximation.

Keywords: Bayesian Inference, JAGS, Laplace Approximation, LaplacesDemon, posterior, R Software, simulation

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6 Biomass and Biogas Yield of Maize as Affected by Nitrogen Rates with Varying Harvesting under Semi-Arid Condition of Pakistan

Authors: Athar Mahmood, Asad Ali


Management considerations including harvesting time and nitrogen application considerably influence the biomass yield, quality and biogas production. Therefore, a field study was conducted to determine the effect of various harvesting times and nitrogen rates on the biomass yield, quality and biogas yield of maize crop. This experiment was consisted of various harvesting times i.e., harvesting after 45, 55 and 65 days of sowing (DAS) and nitrogen rates i.e., 0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 respectively. The data indicated that maximum plant height, leaf area, dry matter (DM) yield, protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and biogas yield were recorded 65 days after sowing while lowest was recorded 45 days after sowing. In contrary to that significantly higher chlorophyll contents were observed at 45 DAS. In case of nitrogen rates maximum plant height, leaf area, and DM yield, protein contents, ash contents, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and chlorophyll contents were determined with nitrogen at the rate of 200 kg ha-1, while minimum was observed when no N was applied. Therefore, harvesting 65 DAS and N application @ 200 kg ha-1 can be suitable for getting the higher biomass and biogas production.

Keywords: chemical composition, fiber contents, biogas, nitrogen, harvesting time

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5 Catastrophic Spending on Health: A Determinant of Access to Health Care by Migrant Slum Population

Authors: Saira Mehnaz, Ali Jafar Abedi, Shazia Farooq Fazli, Sakeena Mushfiq, Zulfia Khan, M. Athar Ansari


Introduction: Public health spending is a necessity in an underdeveloped country like India. The people are already suffering from poverty and that clubbed with out of pocket expenditure leads them to a very catastrophic situation, reducing the overall access to healthcare. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the usual source of medical care opted, the illness pattern, the expenditure incurred on illness and its source of procurement by the study population. It also intended to assess this expenditure as a determinant of access to health care. Methodology: Cities like Aligarh, which are classified as B grade cities in India are thought to be ripe sites for getting livelihood and hence are almost half filled with migrants living in urban slums. A cross sectional study was done to study the newer slum pockets. 3409 households with a population of 16,978 were studied with the help of pretested questionnaire; SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Results and Conclusions: In our study, we found that almost all the households suffered from catastrophic health expenditure. The study population, which was already vulnerable owing to their low socio-economic and migrant status was further being forced with into poverty and indebtedness on account of expenditure on illness. This lead to a significant decrease in access to health. National health financing systems should be designed to protect households from financial catastrophe, by reducing out-of-pocket spending.

Keywords: access to healthcare, catastrophic health expenditure, new urban slums, out of pocket expenditure

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4 Food Poisoning (Salmonellosis) as a Public Health Problem Through Consuming the Meat and Eggs of the Carrier Birds

Authors: M.Younus, M. Athar Khan, Asif Adrees


The present research endeavour was made to investigate the Public Health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier’s birds and to see the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from poultry feed, poultry meat, and poultry eggs and their role in the chain of transmission of salmonellae to human beings and causing food poisoning. The ultimate objective was to generate data to improve the quality of poultry products and human health awareness. Salmonellosis is one of the most wide spread food borne zoonoses in all the continents of the world. The etiological agents Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium not only produce the disease but during the convalescent phase (after the recovery of disease) remain carriers for indefinite period of time. The carrier state was not only the source of spread of disease with in the poultry but also caused typhoid fever in humans. The chain of transmission started from poultry feed to poultry meat and ultimately to humans as dead end hosts. In this experiment a total number of 200 samples of human stool and blood were collected randomly (100 samples of human stool and 100 samples of human blood) of 100 patients suspected from food poisoning patients from different hospitals of Lahore area for the identification of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium through PCR method in order to see the public health impact of Salmonellosis through consuming the meat and eggs of the carrier birds. On the average 14 and 10 stool samples were found positive against Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium from each of the 25 patients from each hospital respectively in case of suspected food poisoning patients. Similarly on an average 5% and 6% blood samples were found positive from 25 patients of each hospital respectively. There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) in the sero positivity of stool and blood samples of suspected food poisoning patients as far as Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium was concerned. However there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the hospitals.

Keywords: salmonella, zoonosis, food, transmission, eggs

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3 Qualitative and Quantitative Screening of Biochemical Compositions for Six Selected Marine Macroalgae from Mediterranean Coast of Egypt

Authors: Madelyn N. Moawad, Hermine R. Z. Tadros, Mary G. Ghobrial, Ahmad R. Bassiouny, Kamal M. Kandeel, Athar Ata


Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in marine environment. They provide an excellent source of bioactive substances such as dietary fibers and various functional polysaccharides that could potentially be used as ingredients for both human and animal health applications. The observations suggested that these bioactive compounds have strong antioxidant properties, which have beneficial effects on human health. The present research aimed at finding new chemical products from local marine macroalgae for natural medicinal uses and consumption for their nutritional values. Macroalgae samples were collected manually mainly from the Mediterranean Sea at shallow subtidal zone of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The chemical compositions of lyophilized materials of six selected macroalgal species; Colpomenia sinuosa, Sargassum linifolium, Padina pavonia, Pterocladiella capillacea, Laurencia pinnatifidia, and Caulerpa racemosa, were investigated for proteins using bovine serum albumin, and carbohydrates were assayed by phenol-sulfuric acid reaction. The macroalgae lipid was extracted with chloroform, methanol and phosphate buffer. Vitamins were extracted using trichloroacetic acid. Chlorophylls and total carotenoids were determined spectrophotometrically and total phenols were extracted with methanol. In addition, lipid-soluble, and water-soluble antioxidant, and anti α-glucosidase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity of hexane extracts was investigated using phosphomolybdenum reagent. The anti-α-glucosidase effect measurement was initiated by mixing α-glucosidase solution with p-nitrophenyl α-D-glucopyranoside. The results showed that the ash contents varied from 11.2 to 35.4 % on dry weight basis for P. capillacea and Laurencia pinnatifidia, respectively. The protein contents ranged from 5.63 % in brown macroalgae C. sinuosa to 8.73 % in P. pavonia. A relative wide range in carbohydrate contents was observed (20.06–46.75 %) for the test algal species. The highest lipid percentage was found in green alga C. racemosa (5.91%) followed by brown algae P. pavonia (3.57%) and C. sinuosa (2.64%). The phenolic contents varied from 1.32 mg GAE/g for C. sinuosa to 4.00 mg GAE/g in P. pavonia. The lipid-soluble compounds exhibited higher antioxidant capacity (73.18-145.95 µM/g) than that of the water-soluble ones ranging from 24.83 µM/g in C. racemosa to 74.07 µM/g in S. linifolium. The most potent anti-α-glucosidase activity was observed for P. pavonia with IC50 of 17.12 μg/ml followed by S. linifolium (IC50 = 71.75 μg/ml), C. racemosa (IC50 = 84.73 μg/ml), P. capillacea (IC50 = 92.16 μg/ml), C. sinuosa (IC50 = 112.44 μg/ml), and L. pinnatifida (IC50 = 115.11 μg/ml).

Keywords: α-glucosidase, lyophilized, macroalgae, spectrophotometrically

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2 Enhancing Efficiency of Building through Translucent Concrete

Authors: Humaira Athar, Brajeshwar Singh


Generally, the brightness of the indoor environment of buildings is entirely maintained by the artificial lighting which has consumed a large amount of resources. It is reported that lighting consumes about 19% of the total generated electricity which accounts for about 30-40% of total energy consumption. One possible way is to reduce the lighting energy by exploiting sunlight either through the use of suitable devices or energy efficient materials like translucent concrete. Translucent concrete is one such architectural concrete which allows the passage of natural light as well as artificial light through it. Several attempts have been made on different aspects of translucent concrete such as light guiding materials (glass fibers, plastic fibers, cylinder etc.), concrete mix design and manufacturing methods for use as building elements. Concerns are, however, raised on various related issues such as poor compatibility between the optical fibers and cement paste, unaesthetic appearance due to disturbance occurred in the arrangement of fibers during vibration and high shrinkage in flowable concrete due to its high water/cement ratio. Need is felt to develop translucent concrete to meet the requirement of structural safety as OPC concrete with the maximized saving in energy towards the power of illumination and thermal load in buildings. Translucent concrete was produced using pre-treated plastic optical fibers (POF, 2mm dia.) and high slump white concrete. The concrete mix was proportioned in the ratio of 1:1.9:2.1 with a w/c ratio of 0.40. The POF was varied from 0.8-9 vol.%. The mechanical properties and light transmission of this concrete were determined. Thermal conductivity of samples was measured by a transient plate source technique. Daylight illumination was measured by a lux grid method as per BIS:SP-41. It was found that the compressive strength of translucent concrete increased with decreasing optical fiber content. An increase of ~28% in the compressive strength of concrete was noticed when fiber was pre-treated. FE-SEM images showed little-debonded zone between the fibers and cement paste which was well supported with pull-out bond strength test results (~187% improvement over untreated). The light transmission of concrete was in the range of 3-7% depending on fiber spacing (5-20 mm). The average daylight illuminance (~75 lux) was nearly equivalent to the criteria specified for illumination for circulation (80 lux). The thermal conductivity of translucent concrete was reduced by 28-40% with respect to plain concrete. The thermal load calculated by heat conduction equation was ~16% more than the plain concrete. Based on Design-Builder software, the total annual illumination energy load of a room using one side translucent concrete was 162.36 kW compared with the energy load of 249.75 kW for a room without concrete. The calculated energy saving on an account of the power of illumination was ~25%. A marginal improvement towards thermal comfort was also noticed. It is concluded that the translucent concrete has the advantages of the existing concrete (load bearing) with translucency and insulation characteristics. It saves a significant amount of energy by providing natural daylight instead of artificial power consumption of illumination.

Keywords: energy saving, light transmission, microstructure, plastic optical fibers, translucent concrete

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1 Challenging Role of Talent Management, Career Development and Compensation Management toward Employee Retention and Organizational Performance with Mediating Effect of Employee Motivation in Service Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Younas, Sidra Sawati, M. Razzaq Athar


Organizational development history reveals that it has ever been a challenge to identify and fathom the role of talent management, career development and compensation management towards employees’ retention and organizational performance. Organizations strive hard to measure the impact of all those factors which affect employee retention and organizational performance. Researchers have worked in great deal in order to know the relationship of independent variables i.e. Talent Management, Career Development and Compensation Management on dependent variables i.e. Employee Retention and Organizational Performance. Employees adorned with latest skills with long lasting loyalty play a significant role towards successful achievement of short term as well as long term goals of the organizations. Retention of valuable and resourceful employees for a longer time is equally essential for meeting the set goals. The organizations which spend reasonable chunk of their resources for taking such measures that help to retain their employees through talent management and satisfactory career development always enjoy a competitive edge over their competitors. Human resource is regarded as one of the most precious and difficult resource to management. It has its own needs and requirement. It becomes an easy prey to monotony when lacks career development. Wants and aspirations of this resource are seldom met completely but can be managed through career development and compensation management. In this era of competition, organizations have to take viable steps to management their resources especially human resource. Top management and Managers keep on working for an amenable solution in order to address the challenges relating career development and compensation management as their ultimate goal is to ensure the organizational performance on optimum level. The current study was conducted to examine the impact of Talent Management, Career Development and Compensation Management towards Employees Retention and Organizational Performance with mediating effect of Employees Motivation in Service Sector of Pakistan. The current study is based on Resource Based View (RBV) and Ability Motivation Opportunity (AMO) theories. It explains that by increasing internal resources we can manage employee talent, career development through compensation management and employee motivation more effectively. It will result in effective execution of HRM practices for employee retention enabling an organization to achieve and sustain competitive advantage through optimal performance. Data collection was made through a structured questionnaire which was based upon adopted instruments after testing reliability and validity. A total 300 employees of 30 firms in service sector of Pakistan were sampled through non-probability sampling technique. Regression analysis revealed that talent management, career development and compensation management have significant positive impact on employee retention and perceived organizational performance. The results further showed that employee motivation have a significant mediating effect on employee retention and organizational performance. The interpretation of the findings and limitations, theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.

Keywords: career development, compensation management, employee retention, organizational performance, talent management

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