Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Sajad Kiani

30 Alumina Nanoparticles in One-Pot Synthesis of Pyrazolopyranopyrimidinones

Authors: Saeed Khodabakhshi, Alimorad Rashidi, Ziba Tavakoli, Sajad Kiani, Sadegh Dastkhoon

Abstract:

Alumina nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) were prepared via a new and simple synthetic route and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of prepared γ-Al2O3 NPs was investigated for the one-pot, four-component synthesis of fused tri-heterocyclic compounds containing pyrazole, pyran, and pyrimidine. This procedure has some advantages such as high efficiency, simplicity, high rate and environmental safety.

Keywords: alumina nanoparticles, one-pot, fused tri-heterocyclic compounds, pyran

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29 Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: H. Kiani, S. Moradi, B. Soltani Soulgani, S. Mousavian

Abstract:

Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: desalting unit, crude oil, neural networks, simulation, recovery, separation

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28 Numerical Study of Flow around Flat Tube between Parallel Walls

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi

Abstract:

Flow around a flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube and it is varied in range of 100 to 300. Equations are solved by using finite volume method and results are presented in form of drag and lift coefficient. Results show that drag coefficient of flat tube is up to 66% lower than circular tube with equivalent diameter. In addition, by increasing l/D from 1 to 2, the drag coefficient of flat tube is decreased about 14-27%.

Keywords: laminar flow, flat-tube, drag coefficient, cross-flow, heat exchanger

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27 Development of Fem Code for 2-D Elasticity Problems Using Quadrilateral and Triangular Elements

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Waseem Sakawat

Abstract:

This study presents the development of FEM code using Quadrilateral 4-Node (Q4) and Triangular 3-Node (T3) elements. Code is formulated using MATLAB language. Instead of using both elements in the same code, two separate codes are written. Quadrilateral element is difficult to handle directly, that is why natural coordinates (eta, ksi) are used. Due to this, Q4 code includes numerical integration (Gauss quadrature). In this case, complete numerical integration is performed using 2 points. On the other hand, T3 element can be modeled directly, by using direct stiffness approach. Axially loaded element, cantilever (special constraints) and Patch test cases were analyzed using both codes and the results were verified by using Ansys.

Keywords: FEM code, MATLAB, numerical integration, ANSYS

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26 A Comparative and Critical Analysis of Some Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ishtiaq Wahid, Masood Ahmad, Nighat Ayub, Sajad Ali

Abstract:

Lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is directly proportional to the energy consumption of its constituent nodes. Routing in wireless sensor network is very challenging due its inherit characteristics. In hierarchal routing the sensor filed is divided into clusters. The cluster-heads are selected from each cluster, which forms a hierarchy of nodes. The cluster-heads are used to transmit the data to the base station while other nodes perform the sensing task. In this way the lifetime of the network is increased. In this paper a comparative study of hierarchal routing protocols are conducted. The simulation is done in NS-2 for validation.

Keywords: WSN, cluster, routing, sensor networks

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25 Numerical Investigation of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of a Flat Tube in Cross-Flow of Air

Authors: Hamidreza Bayat, Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani, Meysam Bolhasani, Sajad Moosavi

Abstract:

Heat transfer from flat tube is studied numerically. Reynolds number is defined base on equivalent circular tube which is varied in range of 100 to 300. In these range of Reynolds number flow is considered to be laminar, unsteady, and incompressible. Equations are solved by using finite volume method. Results show that increasing l/D from 1 to 2 has insignificant effect on heat transfer and Nusselt number of flat tube is slightly lower than circular tube. However, thermal-hydraulic performance of flat tube is up to 2.7 times greater than circular tube.

Keywords: laminar flow, flat tube, convective heat transfer, heat exchanger

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24 High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Aluminized Steel by Arc Spray and Cementation Techniques

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Alireza Kiani Rashid, Abbas Afrasiabi

Abstract:

An aluminum coating deposited on mild steel substrate by electric arc spray and diffused to the base steel material by diffusion treatment at 800 and 900°C for 1 and 3 hours in a static air. Alloy layers formed by diffusion at both temperatures were investigated, and their features were compared with those of pack cementation aluminized steel. High-temperature oxidation tests were carried out in air at 600 °C for 145 hours. Results indicated that the aluminide coatings obtained from this process have significantly improved the high-temperature oxidation resistance in both methods due to the Al2O3 scale formation. Furthermore, it showed that the isothermal oxidation resistance of arc spray technique is better than pack cementation method. This can be attributed to voids that formed at the intermetallic layer /Al layer interface which is increased in the pack cementation method.

Keywords: electric arc spray, pack cementation, oxidation resistance, aluminized steel

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23 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: chromium, adsorption, Taguchi method, activated carbon

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22 Designing an Automatic Mechanical System to Prevent Cancers Caused by Drinks

Authors: Ghasem Yazadani, Hamidreza Ahmadi, Masoud Ahmadi, Sajad Rezazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper with designing and proposing a compound of a heating and cooling system has been tried to show effect of this system on preventing esophagus cancer that can be caused by hot and cold drinks such as tea, coffee and ice water. This system has been simulated mechanically by fluent software and also has been validated by experimental way and a comprehensive result has been presented. Both of solution ways show that this system can reduce or increase temperature of drink to safe very dramatically and it can be a huge step toward consuming drinks safely and also it can be efficient about time issues. The system consists of a temperature sensor and an electronic controller that has a computer program to act automatically this task. Also this system has been presented after many different simulations and has been tried to find the best one in the point view of velocity of heating and cooling.

Keywords: fluent, heat transfer, controller, esophagus cancer

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21 An Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Strong Brand Questionnaire in Sport

Authors: Mona Rezaei, Habib Honari, Mehrzad Hamidi, Fatemeh Kiani

Abstract:

Make strong brands has become a priority for many organizations in marketing. Brand is an important indicator of marketing status. Brand Strength is in kept customer, profit, brand development and gain competitive advantage and In fact it is a concept that was created from a consumer perspective. It is assumed that the creation of a strong brand is creating numerous marketing benefits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire the most strong sports brands in the consumer society. Questionnaire was conducted to a sample of 340 customers of sports brands. Psychometric parameters were determined by using appropriate statistical methods. The results of the factor analysis and Varimax rotation revealed five factors of strong brands. The results confirms that questionnaire structure have acceptable associated to the data and confirmed all indicators of the model. Reliability (859/0) was satisfactory. According to calculated psychometric indices, this questionnaire could be appropriate to assess the most strong sports brands.

Keywords: reliability, strong brand, sport brands, psychometric

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20 Tensile strength and Elastic Modulus of Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi, Ismail Ghasemi, Sajad Daneshpayeh

Abstract:

In this study, tensile strength and elastic modulus of nanocomposites based on polypropylene/ linear low density polyethylene/ nano titanium dioxide (PP/LLDPE/TiO2) were studied. The samples were produced using a co-rotating twin screw extruder including 0, 2, 4 Wt .% of nano particles, and 20, 40, 60 Wt.% of LLDPE. The styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) was used as comptabiliser. Tensile strength and elastic modulus were evaluated. The results showed that modulus was increased by 7% with addition of nano particles in comparison to PP/LLDPE. In addition, tensile strength was decreased.

Keywords: PP/LLDPE/TiO2, nanocomposites, elastic modulus, tensile strength

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19 Stabilization of a Three-Pole Active Magnetic Bearing by Hybrid Control Method in Static Mode

Authors: Mahdi Kiani, Hassan Salarieh, Aria Alasty, S. Mahdi Darbandi

Abstract:

The design and implementation of the hybrid control method for a three-pole active magnetic bearing (AMB) is proposed in this paper. The system is inherently nonlinear and conventional nonlinear controllers are a little complicated, while the proposed hybrid controller has a piecewise linear form, i.e. linear in each sub-region. A state-feedback hybrid controller is designed in this study, and the unmeasurable states are estimated by an observer. The gains of the hybrid controller are obtained by the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) method in each sub-region. To evaluate the performance, the designed controller is implemented on an experimental setup in static mode. The experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently stabilize the three-pole AMB system. The simplicity of design, domain of attraction, uncomplicated control law, and computational time are advantages of this method over other nonlinear control strategies in AMB systems.

Keywords: active magnetic bearing, three pole AMB, hybrid control, Lyapunov function

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18 Radiation Usage Impact of on Anti-Nutritional Compounds (Antitrypsin and Phytic Acid) of Livestock and Poultry Foods

Authors: Mohammad Khosravi, Ali Kiani, Behroz Dastar, Parvin Showrang

Abstract:

Review was carried out on important anti-nutritional compounds of livestock and poultry foods and the effect of radiation usage. Nowadays, with advancement in technology, different methods have been considered for the optimum usage of nutrients in livestock and poultry foods. Steaming, extruding, pelleting, and the use of chemicals are the most common and popular methods in food processing. Use of radiation in food processing researches in the livestock and poultry industry is currently highly regarded. Ionizing (electrons, gamma) and non-ionizing beams (microwave and infrared) are the most useable rays in animal food processing. In recent researches, these beams have been used to remove and reduce the anti-nutritional factors and microbial contamination and improve the digestibility of nutrients in poultry and livestock food. The evidence presented will help researchers to recognize techniques of relevance to them. Simplification of some of these techniques, especially in developing countries, must be addressed so that they can be used more widely.

Keywords: antitrypsin, gamma anti-nutritional components, phytic acid, radiation

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17 Investigating the Factors Affecting on One Time Passwords Technology Acceptance: A Case Study in Banking Environment

Authors: Sajad Shokohuyar, Mahsa Zomorrodi Anbaji, Saghar Pouyan Shad

Abstract:

According to fast technology growth, modern banking tries to decrease going to banks’ branches and increase customers’ consent. One of the problems which banks face is securing customer’s password. The banks’ solution is one time password creation system. In this research by adapting from acceptance of technology model theory, assesses factors that are effective on banking in Iran especially in using one time password machine by one of the private banks of Iran customers. The statistical population is all of this bank’s customers who use electronic banking service and one time password technology and the questionnaires were distributed among members of statistical population in 5 selected groups of north, south, center, east and west of Tehran. Findings show that confidential preservation, education, ease of utilization and advertising and informing has positive relations and distinct hardware and age has negative relations.

Keywords: security, electronic banking, one time password, information technology

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16 Electric Vehicle Market Penetration Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Policy-Making: A Case Study of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Ahmed Kiani

Abstract:

The United Arab Emirates is clearly facing a multitude of challenges in curbing its greenhouse gas emissions to meet its pre-allotted framework of Kyoto protocol and COP21 targets due to its hunger for modernization, industrialization, infrastructure growth, soaring population and oil and gas activity. In this work, we focus on the bonafide zero emission electric vehicles market penetration in the country’s transport industry for emission reduction. We study the global electric vehicle market trends, the complementary battery technologies and the trends by manufacturers, emission standards across borders and prioritized advancements which will ultimately dictate the terms of future conditions for the United Arab Emirate transport industry. Based on our findings and analysis at every stage of current viability and state-of-transport-affairs, we postulate policy recommendations to local governmental entities from a supply and demand perspective covering aspects of technology, infrastructure requirements, change in power dynamics, end user incentives program, market regulators behavior and communications amongst key stakeholders. 

Keywords: electric vehicles, greenhouse gas emission reductions, market analysis, policy recommendations

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15 Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Authors: Arghavan Tonkaboni, Shamsolmolouk Najafi, Mohmmad Taghi Kiani, Mehrzad Gholampour, Touraj Goli

Abstract:

Introduction: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a multifactorial recurrent oral lesion; which is an autoimmune disease. TH1 cytokines are the most important etiological factors. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and generally coexists with other autoimmune diseases. This study assessed the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: This case control study assessed 100 known RAS patients who were diagnosed clinically by oral medicine specialists; venous blood samples were analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total thyroxine (fT4), thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-TG) levels. Results: Fifty patients with RAS aged between 18-42 years (28.5±5.8) and 50 healthy volunteers aged 19-45 years (27.3±5.4) participated. In RAS patients, fT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (P=0.031, P=0.706); however, fT4 level was lower in the RAS group (P=0.447). Anti TG and anti-TPO levels were significantly higher in the RAS group (P=0.008, P=0.067). Conclusion: Our study showed that ATD prevalence was significantly higher in RAS patients. Based on this study, we recommend assessment of thyroid hormones and antibodies in RAS patients.

Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, thyroid antibodies, thyroid hormone, thyroid autoimmune disease

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14 Customers' Prescription of Foreign versus Local Brands in the Pharmaceutical Industry of Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors: Saira Tajdar, Sajad Ahmad

Abstract:

The pharmaceutical market of Pakistan showed a mixed trend since 1947. In these six decades various local and foreign pharmaceutical companies entered the market with their highly researched based formulas and brands for various diseases. It also created a very competitive market between local and foreign companies and brands. But this intense competition does not clear the picture that whether the customers (Doctors) are preferring/prescribing foreign or local brands more frequently. Previous research has been done in various markets for different brands that whether the customers in that industry prefer foreign or local brands. However, the pharmaceutical industry in this regard has been ignored by the researchers. Generally people don't know that for prescription brands of medicines what the preferences of customers (Doctors) are. Therefore, this study is conducted in two departments of Pharmaceutical industry by selecting the top recommended formulas in those departments that for those formulas whether the customers (Doctors) are prescribing either foreign brands or local brands. Secondary data has been collected from previous studies on the country of origin (COO), ethnocentrism and factors influencing brands preferences from authentic sources. Primary data was also collected through 100 self administered questionnaires from top five hospitals of Peshawar. The results of the study were analyzed through SPSS which shows that in some categories of pharmaceutical products the COO is very important but not for all.

Keywords: customer prescription, country of origin, empirical study, foreign versus local brands, pharmaceutical industry, Pakistan

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13 Influence of Canola Oil and Lysine Supplementation Diets on Growth Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Meat in Broiler Chicks

Authors: Ali Kiani, Seyed Davod. Sharifi, Shokoufeh Ghazanfari

Abstract:

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing different levels of lysine and canola oil on growth performance and fatty acid composition of meat of broilers chicks. 240-day old Ross broiler chicks were used in a 3×2 factorial arrangement with canola oil (1, 3, and 5%) and lysine (recommended, and 25% more than recommended by Ross broiler manual) in completely randomized design with four replicates and 10 birds per each. The experimental diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded at the end of starter (10 d), grower (24 d) and finisher (42 d) periods, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. The results showed that the weight gain of chickens fed diets containing 5% canola oil were greater than those of birds fed on other diets (P<0.05). The dietary lysine had significant effect on feed intake and diets with 25% more than recommended, increased feed intake significantly (P<0.05). The canola oil×lysine interaction effects on performance were not significant. Among all treatment birds, those fed diets containing 5% canola oil had the highest meristic acid and oleic acid content in their meat. Broilers fed diets containing 3 or 5% canola oil possessed the higher content of linolenic acid and lower content of arachidonic acid in their meat (P<0.05). The results of the present experiment indicated that the diets containing canola oil (5%) and lysine at 25% higher than requirement, improve the growth performance, carcass and breast yield of broiler, and increase the accumulation of Omega-3 fatty acids in breast meat.

Keywords: broiler, canola oil. lysine, fatty acid

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12 Rendering of Indian History: A Study Based on Select Graphic Novels

Authors: Akhila Sara Varughese

Abstract:

In the postmodern society, visual narratives became an emerging genre in the field of literature. Graphic literature focuses on the literal and symbolic layer of interpretation. The most salient feature of graphic literature is its exploration of the public history of events and life narratives. The Indian graphic literature re-interprets the canon, style and the form of texts in Indian Writing in English and it demands a new literacy and the structure of the English literature. With the help of visual-verbal language, the graphic narratives discuss various facets of contemporary India. Graphic novels have firmly identified itself with the art of storytelling because of its capability of expressing human experiences to the most. In the textual novels, the author usually deserts the imagination of the readers, but in the case of graphic narratives, due to the presence of visual elements, the interpretation becomes simpler. India is the second most populous country in the world with a long tradition of history and culture. Indian literature always tries to reconstruct Indian history in various modes of representation. The present paper focuses on the fictional articulation of Indian history through the graphic narratives and analyses how some historical events in India portrays. The paper also traces the differences in rendering the history in graphic novels with that of textual novels. The paper discusses how much the blending of words and images helps in represent the Indian history by analyzing the graphic novels like Kashmir Pending by Naseer Ahmed, Delhi Calm by Vishwajyoti Ghosh and Munnu by Malik Sajad.

Keywords: graphic novels, Indian history, representation, visual-verbal literacy

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11 Trajectory Optimization of Re-Entry Vehicle Using Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Muhammad Shahbaz

Abstract:

Performance of any vehicle can be predicted by its design/modeling and optimization. Design optimization leads to efficient performance. Followed by horizontal launch, the air launch re-entry vehicle undergoes a launch maneuver by introducing a carefully selected angle of attack profile. This angle of attack profile is the basic element to complete a specified mission. Flight program of said vehicle is optimized under the constraints of the maximum allowed angle of attack, lateral and axial loads and with the objective of reaching maximum altitude. The main focus of this study is the endo-atmospheric phase of the ascent trajectory. A three degrees of freedom trajectory model is simulated in MATLAB. The optimization process uses evolutionary algorithm, because of its robustness and efficient capacity to explore the design space in search of the global optimum. Evolutionary Algorithm based trajectory optimization also offers the added benefit of being a generalized method that may work with continuous, discontinuous, linear, and non-linear performance matrix. It also eliminates the requirement of a starting solution. Optimization is particularly beneficial to achieve maximum advantage without increasing the computational cost and affecting the output of the system. For the case of launch vehicles we are immensely anxious to achieve maximum performance and efficiency under different constraints. In a launch vehicle, flight program means the prescribed variation of vehicle pitching angle during the flight which has substantial influence reachable altitude and accuracy of orbit insertion and aerodynamic loading. Results reveal that the angle of attack profile significantly affects the performance of the vehicle.

Keywords: endo-atmospheric, evolutionary algorithm, efficient performance, optimization process

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10 Influence of the Substitution of C for Mg and Ni on the Microstructure and Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of Mg2Ni Alloys

Authors: Sajad Haghanifar, Seyed-Farshid Kashani Bozorg

Abstract:

Nano-crystalline Mg2Ni-based powder was produced by mechanical alloying technique using binary and ternary powder mixtures with stoichiometric compositions of Mg2Ni, Mg1.9C0.1Ni and Mg2C0.1Ni0.9. The structures and morphologies of the milled products were studied by XRD, SEM and HRTEM. Their electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics were investigated in 6 M KOH solution. X-Ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the milled products showed the formation of Mg2Ni-based nano-crystallites after 5, 15 and 30 h of milling using the initial powder mixtures of Mg1.9C0.1Ni, Mg2Ni and Mg2C0.1Ni0.9, respectively. It was found that partial substitution of C for Mg has beneficial effect on the formation kinetic of nano-crystalline Mg2Ni. Contrary to this, partial substitution of C for Ni was resulted in retardation of formation kinetic of nano-crystalline Mg2Ni. In addition, the negative electrode made from Mg1.9C0.1Ni ternary milled product after 30 hour of milling exhibited the highest initial discharge capacity and longest discharge life. Thus, partial substitution of C for Mg is beneficial to electrode properties of the Mg2Ni-based crystallites. The relation between the discharge capacity and cycling number of mechanically alloyed products was proposed on the basis of the fact that the degradation of discharge capacity was mainly caused by the oxidation of magnesium and nickel. The experimental data fitted the deduced equation well.

Keywords: Mg2Ni, hydrogen absorbing materials, electrochemical properties, nano-crystalline, amorphous, mechanical alloying, carbon

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9 The Effects of Passive and Active Recoveries on Responses of Platelet Indices and Hemodynamic Variables to Resistance Exercise

Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Sajad Ahmadizad, Fatemeh Hoseinzadeh, Atefe Sarvestan

Abstract:

The exercise recovery is an important variable in designing resistance exercise training. This study determined the effects of passive and active recoveries on responses of platelet indices and hemodynamic variables to resistance exercise. Twelve healthy subjects (six men and six women, age, 25.4 ±2.5 yrs) performed two types of resistance exercise protocols (six exercises including upper- and lower-body parts) at two separate sessions with one-week intervening. First resistance protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 80% of 1RM with 2 min passive rest between sets and exercises; while, the second protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 60% of 1RM followed by active recovery included six repetitions of the same exercise at 20% of 1RM. The exercise volume was equalized. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 1-hour recovery, and analyzed for fibrinogen and platelet indices. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP), were measured before, immediately after exercise and every 5 minutes during recovery. Data analyzes showed a significant increase in SBP (systolic blood pressure), HR, rate of pressure product (RPP) and PLT in response to resistance exercise (P<0.05) and that changes for HR and RPP were significantly different between two protocols (P<0.05). Furthermore, MPV and P_LCR did not change in response to resistance exercise, though significant reductions were observed after 1h recovery compared to before and after exercise (P<0.05). No significant changes in fibrinogen and PDW following two types of resistance exercise protocols were observed (P>0.05). On the other hand, no significant differences in platelet indices were found between the two protocols (P>0.05). Resistance exercise induces changes in platelet indices and hemodynamic variables, and that these changes are not related to the type of recovery and returned to normal levels after 1h recovery.

Keywords: hemodynamic variables, platelet indices, resistance exercise, recovery intensity

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8 The Utility of Sonographic Features of Lymph Nodes during EBUS-TBNA for Predicting Malignancy

Authors: Atefeh Abedini, Fatemeh Razavi, Mihan Pourabdollah Toutkaboni, Hossein Mehravaran, Arda Kiani

Abstract:

In countries with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, such as Iran, the differentiation of malignant tumors from non-malignant is very important. In this study, which was conducted for the first time among the Iranian population, the utility of the ultrasonographic morphological characteristics in patients undergoing EBUS was used to distinguish the non-malignant versus malignant lymph nodes. The morphological characteristics of lymph nodes, which consist of size, shape, vascular pattern, echogenicity, margin, coagulation necrosis sign, calcification, and central hilar structure, were obtained during Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Trans-Bronchial Needle Aspiration and were compared with the final pathology results. During this study period, a total of 253 lymph nodes were evaluated in 93 cases. Round shape, non-hilar vascular pattern, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, distinct margin, and the presence of necrosis sign were significantly higher in malignant nodes. On the other hand, the presence of calcification and also central hilar structure were significantly higher in the benign nodes (p-value ˂ 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that size>1 cm, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, the presence of necrosis signs and, the absence of central hilar structure are independent predictive factors for malignancy. The accuracy of each of the aforementioned factors is 42.29 %, 71.54 %, 71.90 %, 73.51 %, and 65.61 %, respectively. Of 74 malignant lymph nodes, 100% had at least one of these independent factors. According to our results, the morphological characteristics of lymph nodes based on Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Trans-Bronchial Needle Aspiration can play a role in the prediction of malignancy.

Keywords: EBUS-TBNA, malignancy, nodal characteristics, pathology

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7 Left Ventricular Adaptations of Elite Volleyball Players Based on the Playing Position

Authors: Shihab Aldin Al Riyami, Khosrow Ebrahim, Sajad Ahmadizad

Abstract:

Hemodynamic changes and ventricular loading during exercise lead to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. In athletes, volume load induces enlargement of the LV internal diameter and a proportional increase of wall thickness; while, pressure load would induce thickening of the ventricular wall. These adaptations are not similar in all athletes and are related to the types of sport. Volleyball players have different types of activity and roles based on their playing. Therefore, their physiological adaptations and requirements are different. The aim of the current study was to investigate the LV adaptationsinelite volleyball players based on their playing position. Sixty male elite volleyball players (age, 30.55±3.64 years)from Brazil, Serbia, Poland, Iran, Colombia, Cameroon, Japan, Egypt, Qatar, and Tunisia were investigated (from all five volleyball play positions). All participants had the experience of at least 3 years of participation at a professional level and international tournaments. LV characteristics were evaluated and measured using the echocardiography technique. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences (P<0.05)among the five groups of players forLV internal dimension (LVID), posterior wall thickness (PWT), and intact ventricular septum (IVS). Post-hoc analysis showed that opposite position players had significant higher value of LVID, PWT, and IVS when compared with other players, including outside hitter, middle blocker, setter, and libero (p<0.05). Additionally, in libero players, PWT was significantly lower when compared with other players (p<0.05). Based on the findings of the present study, it is concluded that LV adaptations in volleyball players are related to their playing position and that the opposite players had the highest LV adaptations when compared to other positions.

Keywords: athletes, cardiac adaptations, echocardio graphy, heart, sport

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6 Detection of Cryptosporidium Oocysts by Acid-Fast Staining Method and PCR in Surface Water from Tehran, Iran

Authors: Mohamad Mohsen Homayouni, Niloofar Taghipour, Ahmad Reza Memar, Niloofar Khalaji, Hamed Kiani, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite; its oocysts in surface water are a global health problem. Due to the low number of parasites in the water resources and the lack of laboratory culture, rapid and sensitive method for detection of the organism in the water resources is necessarily required. We applied modified acid-fast staining and PCR for the detection of the Cryptosporidium spp. and analysed the genotypes in 55 samples collected from surface water. Methods: Over a period of nine months, 55 surface water samples were collected from the five rivers in Tehran, Iran. The samples were filtered by using cellulose acetate membrane filters. By acid fast method, initial identification of Cryptosporidium oocyst were carried out on surface water samples. Then, nested PCR assay was designed for the specific amplification and analysed the genotypes. Results: Modified Ziehl-Neelsen method revealed 5–20 Cryptosporidium oocysts detected per 10 Liter. Five out of the 55 (9.09%) surface water samples were found positive for Cryptosporidium spp. by Ziehl-Neelsen test and seven (12.7%) were found positive by nested PCR. The staining results were consistent with PCR. Seven Cryptosporidium PCR products were successfully sequenced and five gp60 subtypes were detected. Our finding of gp60 gene revealed that all of the positive isolates were Cryptosporidium parvum and belonged to subtype families IIa and IId. Conclusion: Our investigations were showed that collection of water samples were contaminated by Cryptosporidium, with potential hazards for the significant health problem. This study provides the first report on detection and genotyping of Cryptosporidium species from surface water samples in Iran, and its result confirmed the low clinical incidence of this parasite on the community.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp., membrane filtration, subtype, surface water, Iran

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5 Inviscid Steady Flow Simulation Around a Wing Configuration Using MB_CNS

Authors: Muhammad Umar Kiani, Muhammad Shahbaz, Hassan Akbar

Abstract:

Simulation of a high speed inviscid steady ideal air flow around a 2D/axial-symmetry body was carried out by the use of mb_cns code. mb_cns is a program for the time-integration of the Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional compressible flows on a multiple-block structured mesh. The flow geometry may be either planar or axisymmetric and multiply-connected domains can be modeled by patching together several blocks. The main simulation code is accompanied by a set of pre and post-processing programs. The pre-processing programs scriptit and mb_prep start with a short script describing the geometry, initial flow state and boundary conditions and produce a discretized version of the initial flow state. The main flow simulation program (or solver as it is sometimes called) is mb_cns. It takes the files prepared by scriptit and mb_prep, integrates the discrete form of the gas flow equations in time and writes the evolved flow data to a set of output files. This output data may consist of the flow state (over the whole domain) at a number of instants in time. After integration in time, the post-processing programs mb_post and mb_cont can be used to reformat the flow state data and produce GIF or postscript plots of flow quantities such as pressure, temperature and Mach number. The current problem is an example of supersonic inviscid flow. The flow domain for the current problem (strake configuration wing) is discretized by a structured grid and a finite-volume approach is used to discretize the conservation equations. The flow field is recorded as cell-average values at cell centers and explicit time stepping is used to update conserved quantities. MUSCL-type interpolation and one of three flux calculation methods (Riemann solver, AUSMDV flux splitting and the Equilibrium Flux Method, EFM) are used to calculate inviscid fluxes across cell faces.

Keywords: steady flow simulation, processing programs, simulation code, inviscid flux

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4 Prioritizing Roads Safety Based on the Quasi-Induced Exposure Method and Utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process

Authors: Hamed Nafar, Sajad Rezaei, Hamid Behbahani

Abstract:

Safety analysis of the roads through the accident rates which is one of the widely used tools has been resulted from the direct exposure method which is based on the ratio of the vehicle-kilometers traveled and vehicle-travel time. However, due to some fundamental flaws in its theories and difficulties in gaining access to the data required such as traffic volume, distance and duration of the trip, and various problems in determining the exposure in a specific time, place, and individual categories, there is a need for an algorithm for prioritizing the road safety so that with a new exposure method, the problems of the previous approaches would be resolved. In this way, an efficient application may lead to have more realistic comparisons and the new method would be applicable to a wider range of time, place, and individual categories. Therefore, an algorithm was introduced to prioritize the safety of roads using the quasi-induced exposure method and utilizing the analytical hierarchy process. For this research, 11 provinces of Iran were chosen as case study locations. A rural accidents database was created for these provinces, the validity of quasi-induced exposure method for Iran’s accidents database was explored, and the involvement ratio for different characteristics of the drivers and the vehicles was measured. Results showed that the quasi-induced exposure method was valid in determining the real exposure in the provinces under study. Results also showed a significant difference in the prioritization based on the new and traditional approaches. This difference mostly would stem from the perspective of the quasi-induced exposure method in determining the exposure, opinion of experts, and the quantity of accidents data. Overall, the results for this research showed that prioritization based on the new approach is more comprehensive and reliable compared to the prioritization in the traditional approach which is dependent on various parameters including the driver-vehicle characteristics.

Keywords: road safety, prioritizing, Quasi-induced exposure, Analytical Hierarchy Process

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3 The Study of Genetic Diversity in Canola Cultivars of Kashmar-Iran Region

Authors: Seyed Habib Shojaei, Reza Eivazi, Mir Sajad Shojaei, Alireza Akbari, Pooria Mazloom, Seyede Mitra Sadati, Mir Zeinalabedin Shojaei, Farnaz Farbakhsh

Abstract:

To study the genetic diversity in rapeseeds and agronomic traits, an experiment was conducted using multivariate statistical methods at Agricultural Research Station of Kashmar in 2012-2013.In this experiment, ten genotypes of rapeseed in a Randomized Complete Block designs with three replications were evaluated. The following traits were studied: seed yield, number of days to the fifty percent of flowering, plant height, number of pods on main stem, length of the pod, seed yield per plant, number of seed in pod, harvest index, weight of 100 seeds, number of pods on lateral branch, number of lateral branches. In analyzing the variance, differences between cultivars were significant. The average comparative revealed that the most valuable variety was Licord regarding to the traits while the least valuable variety was Opera. In stepwise regression, harvest index, grain yield per plant and number of pods per lateral branches were entering to model. Correlation analysis showed that the grain yield with the number of pods per lateral branches and seed yield per plant have positive and significant correlation. In the factor analysis, the first five components explained more than 83% of the variance in the data. In the first factor, seed yield and the number of pods per lateral branches were of the highest importance. The traits, seed yield per plant, and pod per main stem were of a great significance in the second factor. Moreover, in the third factor, plant height and the number of lateral branches were more important. In the fourth factor, plant height and one hundred seeds weight were of the highest variance. Finally, days to fifty percent of flowering and one hundred seeds weight were more important in fifth factor.

Keywords: rapeseed, variance analysis, regression, factor analysis

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2 Survival of Micro-Encapsulated Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria in Mutton Nuggets and Their Assessments in Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Conditions

Authors: Rehana Akhter, Sajad A. Rather, F. A. Masoodi, Adil Gani, S. M. Wani

Abstract:

During recent years probiotic food products receive market interest as health-promoting, functional foods, which are believed to contribute health benefits. In order to deliver the health benefits by probiotic bacteria, it has been recommended that they must be present at a minimum level of 106 CFU/g to 107 CFU/g at point of delivery or be eaten in sufficient amounts to yield a daily intake of 108 CFU. However a major challenge in relation to the application of probiotic cultures in food matrix is the maintenance of viability during processing which might lead to important losses in viability as probiotic cultures are very often thermally labile and sensitive to acidity, oxygen or other food constituents for example, salts. In this study Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads with the objective of enhancing their survivability and preventing exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and where then inoculated in mutton nuggets. Micro encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2 h) resulting in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survivability when compared with free cell counterparts. A high encapsulation yield was found due to the encapsulation procedure. After incubation at low pH-values, micro encapsulation yielded higher survival rates compared to non-encapsulated probiotic cells. The viable cell numbers of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei were 107-108 CFU/g higher compared to free cells after 90 min incubation at pH 2.5. The viable encapsulated cells were inoculated into mutton nuggets at the rate of 108 to 1010 CFU/g. The micro encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei achieved higher survival counts (105-107 CFU/g) than the free cell counterparts (102-104 CFU/g). Thus micro encapsulation offers an effective means of delivery of viable probiotic bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric, intestinal juice and processing conditions during nugget preparation.

Keywords: survival, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, micro-encapsulation, nugget

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1 Utilization Of Guar Gum As Functional Fat Replacer In Goshtaba, A Traditional Indian Meat Product

Authors: Sajad A. Rather, F. A. Masoodi, Rehana Akhter, S. M. Wani, Adil Gani

Abstract:

Modern trend towards convenience foods has resulted in increased production and consumption of restructured meat products and are of great importance to the meat industry. In meat products fat plays an important role in cooking properties, texture & sensory scores, however, high fat contents in particular animal fats provide high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and are associated with several types of non communicable diseases such as obesity, hypertension and coronary heart diseases. Thus, fat reduction has generally been seen as an important strategy to produce healthier meat products. This study examined the effects of reducing fat level from 20% to 10% and substituting mutton back fat with guar gum (0.5%, 1% & 1.5%) on cooking properties, proximate composition, lipid and protein oxidation, texture, microstructure and sensory characteristics of goshtaba- a traditional meat product of J & K, India were investigated and compared with high fat counterparts. Reduced- fat goshtaba samples containing guar gum had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher yield, less shrinkage, more moisture retention and more protein content than the control sample. TBARs and protein oxidation (carbonyl content) values of the control was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than reduced fat goshtaba samples and showed a positive correlation between lipid and protein oxidation. Hardness, gumminess & chewiness of the control (20%) were significantly higher than reduced fat goshtaba samples. Microstructural differences were significant (p ≤ 0.05) between control and treated samples due to an increased moisture content in the reduced fat samples. Sensory evaluation showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction in texture, flavour and overall acceptability scores of treatment products; however the scores for 0.5% and 1% treated samples were in the range of acceptability. Guar gum may also be used as a source of soluble dietary fibre in food products and a number of clinical studies have shown a reduction in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia on consumption of guar gum, with the mechanism being attributed to an increased transit time in the stomach and small intestine, which may have been due to the viscosity of the meal hindering the access of glucose to the epithelium.

Keywords: goshtaba, guar gum, traditional, fat reduction, acceptability

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