Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2390

Search results for: proton beam therapy

2390 E-Survey: Cancer Treatment with Proton Beam Therapy in USA

Authors: Auj-E Taqaddas

Abstract:

The use of proton beam therapy is increasing globally. It seems to offer dosimetric advantages, especially in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) and brain tumours. A short E-survey was conducted to assess the clinical, technical, and educational resources and strategies employed in the state of the art proton beam therapy (PBT) centres in the USA to determine the current status of proton beam therapy. The study also aimed at finding out which PBT skills are in demand as well as what improvements are needed to ensure efficient treatment planning, delivery, and dosimetry. The study resulted in identifying areas for future research and development and in identifying cancers for which PBT is most suitable compared to other modalities to facilitate the implementation and use of PBT in clinical settings for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, intensity modulated proton therapy, proton beam therapy, single field uniform scanning

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2389 Calculation of Secondary Neutron Dose Equivalent in Proton Therapy of Thyroid Gland Using FLUKA Code

Authors: M. R. Akbari, M. Sadeghi, R. Faghihi, M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, A. R. Khorrami-Moghadam

Abstract:

Proton radiotherapy (PRT) is becoming an established treatment modality for cancer. The localized tumors, the same as undifferentiated thyroid tumors are insufficiently handled by conventional radiotherapy, while protons would propose the prospect of increasing the tumor dose without exceeding the tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissues. In spite of relatively high advantages in giving localized radiation dose to the tumor region, in proton therapy, secondary neutron production can have significant contribution on integral dose and lessen advantages of this modality contrast to conventional radiotherapy techniques. Furthermore, neutrons have high quality factor, therefore, even a small physical dose can cause considerable biological effects. Measuring of this neutron dose is a very critical step in prediction of secondary cancer incidence. It has been found that FLUKA Monte Carlo code simulations have been used to evaluate dose due to secondaries in proton therapy. In this study, first, by validating simulated proton beam range in water phantom with CSDA range from NIST for the studied proton energy range (34-54 MeV), a proton therapy in thyroid gland cancer was simulated using FLUKA code. Secondary neutron dose equivalent of some organs and tissues after the target volume caused by 34 and 54 MeV proton interactions were calculated in order to evaluate secondary cancer incidence. A multilayer cylindrical neck phantom considering all the layers of neck tissues and a proton beam impinging normally on the phantom were also simulated. Trachea (accompanied by Larynx) had the greatest dose equivalent (1.24×10-1 and 1.45 pSv per primary 34 and 54 MeV protons, respectively) among the simulated tissues after the target volume in the neck region.

Keywords: FLUKA code, neutron dose equivalent, proton therapy, thyroid gland

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
2388 Investigation of Efficient Production of ¹³⁵La for the Auger Therapy Using Medical Cyclotron in Poland

Authors: N. Zandi, M. Sitarz, J. Jastrzebski, M. Vagheian, J. Choinski, A. Stolarz, A. Trzcinska

Abstract:

¹³⁵La with the half-life of 19.5 h can be considered as a good candidate for Auger therapy. ¹³⁵La decays almost 100% by electron capture to the stable ¹³⁵Ba. In this study, all important possible reactions leading to ¹³⁵La production are investigated in details, and the corresponding theoretical yield for each reaction using the Monte-Carlo method (MCNPX code) are presented. Among them, the best reaction based on the cost-effectiveness and production yield regarding Poland facilities equipped with medical cyclotron has been selected. ¹³⁵La is produced using 16.5 MeV proton beam of general electric PET trace cyclotron through the ¹³⁵Ba(p,n)¹³⁵La reaction. Moreover, for a consistent facilitating comparison between the theoretical calculations and the experimental measurements, the beam current and also the proton beam energy is measured experimentally. Then, the obtained proton energy is considered as the entrance energy for the theoretical calculations. The production yield finally is measured and compared with the results obtained using the MCNPX code. The results show the experimental measurement and the theoretical calculations are in good agreement.

Keywords: efficient ¹³⁵La production, proton cyclotron energy measurement, MCNPX code, theoretical and experimental production yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
2387 Comparison of Water Equivalent Ratio of Several Dosimetric Materials in Proton Therapy Using Monte Carlo Simulations and Experimental Data

Authors: M. R. Akbari , H. Yousefnia, E. Mirrezaei

Abstract:

Range uncertainties of protons are currently a topic of interest in proton therapy. Two of the parameters that are often used to specify proton range are water equivalent thickness (WET) and water equivalent ratio (WER). Since WER values for a specific material is nearly constant at different proton energies, it is a more useful parameter to compare. In this study, WER values were calculated for different proton energies in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and aluminum (Al) using FLUKA and TRIM codes. The results were compared with analytical, experimental and simulated SEICS code data obtained from the literature. In FLUKA simulation, a cylindrical phantom, 1000 mm in height and 300 mm in diameter, filled with the studied materials was simulated. A typical mono-energetic proton pencil beam in a wide range of incident energies usually applied in proton therapy (50 MeV to 225 MeV) impinges normally on the phantom. In order to obtain the WER values for the considered materials, cylindrical detectors, 1 mm in height and 20 mm in diameter, were also simulated along the beam trajectory in the phantom. In TRIM calculations, type of projectile, energy and angle of incidence, type of target material and thickness should be defined. The mode of 'detailed calculation with full damage cascades' was selected for proton transport in the target material. The biggest difference in WER values between the codes was 3.19%, 1.9% and 0.67% for Al, PMMA and PS, respectively. In Al and PMMA, the biggest difference between each code and experimental data was 1.08%, 1.26%, 2.55%, 0.94%, 0.77% and 0.95% for SEICS, FLUKA and SRIM, respectively. FLUKA and SEICS had the greatest agreement (≤0.77% difference in PMMA and ≤1.08% difference in Al, respectively) with the available experimental data in this study. It is concluded that, FLUKA and TRIM codes have capability for Bragg curves simulation and WER values calculation in the studied materials. They can also predict Bragg peak location and range of proton beams with acceptable accuracy.

Keywords: water equivalent ratio, dosimetric materials, proton therapy, Monte Carlo simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
2386 Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, A. Senol, A. T. Tasci, O. Cakir

Abstract:

We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of the ep→νqγX and ep→νqZX processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (Δκγ,λγ) and (Δκz,λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101,0.065) and (0.320,0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

Keywords: anomalous couplings, future circular collider, large hadron electron collider, W-boson and Z-boson

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2385 Energy Deposited by Secondary Electrons Generated by Swift Proton Beams through Polymethylmethacrylate

Authors: Maurizio Dapor, Isabel Abril, Pablo de Vera, Rafael Garcia-Molina

Abstract:

The ionization yield of ion tracks in polymers and bio-molecular systems reaches a maximum, known as the Bragg peak, close to the end of the ion trajectories. Along the path of the ions through the materials, many electrons are generated, which produce a cascade of further ionizations and, consequently, a shower of secondary electrons. Among these, very low energy secondary electrons can produce damage in the biomolecules by dissociative electron attachment. This work deals with the calculation of the energy distribution of electrons produced by protons in a sample of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a material that is used as a phantom for living tissues in hadron therapy. PMMA is also of relevance for microelectronics in CMOS technologies and as a photoresist mask in electron beam lithography. We present a Monte Carlo code that, starting from a realistic description of the energy distribution of the electrons ejected by protons moving through PMMA, simulates the entire cascade of generated secondary electrons. By following in detail the motion of all these electrons, we find the radial distribution of the energy that they deposit in PMMA for several initial proton energies characteristic of the Bragg peak.

Keywords: Monte Carlo method, secondary electrons, energetic ions, ion-beam cancer therapy, ionization cross section, polymethylmethacrylate, proton beams, secondary electrons, radial energy distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
2384 Ion Beam Induced 2D Mesophase Patterning of Nanocrystallites in Polymer

Authors: Srutirekha Giri, Manoranjan Sahoo, Anuradha Das, Pravanjan Mallick, Biswajit Mallick

Abstract:

Ion Beam (IB) technique is a very powerful experimental technique for both material synthesis and material modifications. In this work, 3MeV proton beam was generated using the 3MV Tandem machine of the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar and extracted into air for the irradiation-induced modification purpose[1]. The polymeric material can be modeled for a three-phase system viz. crystalline(I), amorphous(II) and mesomorphic(III). So far, our knowledge is concerned. There are only few techniques reported for the synthesis of this third-phase(III) of polymer. The IB induced technique is one of them and has been reported very recently [2-4]. It was observed that by irradiating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber at very low proton fluence, 10¹⁰ - 10¹² p/s, possess 2D mesophase structure. This was confirmed using X-ray diffraction technique. A low-intensity broad peak was observed at small angle of about 2θ =6º, when the fiber axis was mounted parallel to the X-ray direction. Such peak vanished in the diffraction spectrum when the fiber axis was mounted perpendicular to the beam direction. The appearance of this extra peak in a particular orientation confirms that the phase is 2-dimensionally oriented (mesophase). It is well known that the mesophase is a 2-dimensionally ordered structure but 3-dimensionally disordered. Again, the crystallite of the mesophase peak particle was measured about 3nm. The MeV proton-induced 2D mesophase patterning of nanocrystallites (3nm) of PET due to irradiation was observed within the above low fluence range and failed in high proton fluence. This is mainly due to the breaking of crystallites, radiation-induced thermal degradation, etc.

Keywords: Ion irradiation, mesophase, nanocrystallites, polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2383 MONDO Neutron Tracker Characterisation by Means of Proton Therapeutical Beams and MonteCarlo Simulation Studies

Authors: G. Traini, V. Giacometti, R. Mirabelli, V. Patera, D. Pinci, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, M. Marafini

Abstract:

The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project aims a precise characterisation of the secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons produced in particle therapy treatments. The detector is composed of a matrix of scintillating fibres (250 um) readout by CMOS Digital-SPAD based sensors. Recoil protons from n-p elastic scattering are detected and used to track neutrons. A prototype was tested with proton beams (Trento Proton Therapy Centre): efficiency, light yield, and track-reconstruction capability were studied. The results of a MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation used to evaluated double scattering efficiency and expected backgrounds will be presented.

Keywords: secondary neutrons, particle therapy, tracking, elastic scattering

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
2382 Optimal Beam for Accelerator Driven Systems

Authors: M. Paraipan, V. M. Javadova, S. I. Tyutyunnikov

Abstract:

The concept of energy amplifier or accelerator driven system (ADS) involves the use of a particle accelerator coupled with a nuclear reactor. The accelerated particle beam generates a supplementary source of neutrons, which allows the subcritical functioning of the reactor, and consequently a safe exploitation. The harder neutron spectrum realized ensures a better incineration of the actinides. The almost generalized opinion is that the optimal beam for ADS is represented by protons with energy around 1 GeV (gigaelectronvolt). In the present work, a systematic analysis of the energy gain for proton beams with energy from 0.5 to 3 GeV and ion beams from deuteron to neon with energies between 0.25 and 2 AGeV is performed. The target is an assembly of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel rods in a bath of lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. The rods length is 150 cm. A beryllium converter with length 110 cm is used in order to maximize the energy released in the target. The case of a linear accelerator is considered, with a beam intensity of 1.25‧10¹⁶ p/s, and a total accelerator efficiency of 0.18 for proton beam. These values are planned to be achieved in the European Spallation Source project. The energy gain G is calculated as the ratio between the energy released in the target to the energy spent to accelerate the beam. The energy released is obtained through simulation with the code Geant4. The energy spent is calculating by scaling from the data about the accelerator efficiency for the reference particle (proton). The analysis concerns the G values, the net power produce, the accelerator length, and the period between refueling. The optimal energy for proton is 1.5 GeV. At this energy, G reaches a plateau around a value of 8 and a net power production of 120 MW (megawatt). Starting with alpha, ion beams have a higher G than 1.5 GeV protons. A beam of 0.25 AGeV(gigaelectronvolt per nucleon) ⁷Li realizes the same net power production as 1.5 GeV protons, has a G of 15, and needs an accelerator length 2.6 times lower than for protons, representing the best solution for ADS. Beams of ¹⁶O or ²⁰Ne with energy 0.75 AGeV, accelerated in an accelerator with the same length as 1.5 GeV protons produce approximately 900 MW net power, with a gain of 23-25. The study of the evolution of the isotopes composition during irradiation shows that the increase in power production diminishes the period between refueling. For a net power produced of 120 MW, the target can be irradiated approximately 5000 days without refueling, but only 600 days when the net power reaches 1 GW (gigawatt).

Keywords: accelerator driven system, ion beam, electrical power, energy gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2381 Comparison of FNTD and OSLD Detectors' Responses to Light Ion Beams Using Monte Carlo Simulations and Exprimental Data

Authors: M. R. Akbari, H. Yousefnia, A. Ghasemi

Abstract:

Al2O3:C,Mg fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) and Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) are becoming two of the applied detectors in ion dosimetry. Therefore, the response of these detectors to hadron beams is highly of interest in radiation therapy (RT) using ion beams. In this study, these detectors' responses to proton and Helium-4 ion beams were compared using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated data for proton beams were compared with Markus ionization chamber (IC) measurement (in water phantom) from M.D. Anderson proton therapy center. Monte Carlo simulations were performed via the FLUKA code (version 2011.2-17). The detectors were modeled in cylindrical shape at various depths of the water phantom without shading each other for obtaining relative depth dose in the phantom. Mono-energetic parallel ion beams in different incident energies (100 MeV/n to 250 MeV/n) were collided perpendicularly on the phantom surface. For proton beams, the results showed that the simulated detectors have over response relative to IC measurements in water phantom. In all cases, there were good agreements between simulated ion ranges in the water with calculated and experimental results reported by the literature. For proton, maximum peak to entrance dose ratio in the simulated water phantom was 4.3 compared with about 3 obtained from IC measurements. For He-4 ion beams, maximum peak to entrance ratio calculated by both detectors was less than 3.6 in all energies. Generally, it can be said that FLUKA is a good tool to calculate Al2O3:C,Mg FNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD detectors responses to therapeutic proton and He-4 ion beams. It can also calculate proton and He-4 ion ranges with a reasonable accuracy.

Keywords: comparison, FNTD and OSLD detectors response, light ion beams, Monte Carlo simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2380 Criteria for Assessing Prostate Structure after Proton Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Authors: Kuplevatsky V., Kuplevatskay, Cherkashin M., Berezina N.

Abstract:

After 6 months, a violation of the differentiation of the structure of the gland due to edema in 100%. 20% retained signs of a tumor according to DWI/ADC data. By 12 months, the reduction in the size of the gland is 100%. In all cases, no diffusion restriction was observed. The study after 18 months showed no significant changes in all (100%) patients. In the study, 24 months after treatment, the size of the gland was stable in all cases (+/- up to 5%). Diffuse decrease in T2VI signals from peripheral zones, without signs of diffusion restriction in 100%. After 30 months, signs of recovery of adenomatous changes in the transient zone were revealed in 85%. After 36 and 42 months, the restoration of organ differentiation was observed in 93% of patients. In 4 patients, by the 48th month, signs of biochemical relapse were clinically noted. According to the MRI data, signs of a local relapse were revealed. After 48 months, there were signs of restoration of organ differentiation, which allowed the use of PI-RADS criteria. The study after 54 months showed no changes compared to the control. 60 months after treatment, 97% of patients showed a restoration of differentiation of the gland structure, which allows evaluating the organ according to PI-RADS criteria Conclusions: The beginning of restoration of the structure of the prostate gland began 24 months after proton radiation therapy, the PI-RADS criteria can be fully applied after 48 months of treatment. Control studies every 6 months without clinical signs of relapse are not advisable. Local control of the prostate tumor after proton radiation therapy was achieved in 95% of patients during the entire follow-up period ( 60 months).

Keywords: proton therapy, prostate cancer, MRI imaging, PI-RADS

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
2379 Secondary Charged Fragments Tracking for On-Line Beam Range Monitoring in Particle Therapy

Authors: G. Traini, G. Battistoni, F. Collamati, E. De Lucia, R. Faccini, C. Mancini-Terracciano, M. Marafini, I. Mattei, S. Muraro, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, E. Solfaroli Camillocci, M. Toppi, S. M. Valle, C. Voena, V. Patera

Abstract:

In Particle Therapy (PT) treatments a large amount of secondary particles, whose emission point is correlated to the dose released in the crossed tissues, is produced. The measurement of the secondary charged fragments component could represent a valid technique to monitor the beam range during the PT treatments, that is a still missing item in the clinical practice. A sub-millimetrical precision on the beam range measurement is required to significantly optimise the technique and to improve the treatment quality. In this contribution, a detector, named Dose Profiler (DP), is presented. It is specifically planned to monitor on-line the beam range exploiting the secondary charged particles produced in PT Carbon ions treatment. In particular, the DP is designed to track the secondary fragments emitted at large angles with respect to the beam direction (mainly protons), with the aim to reconstruct the spatial coordinates of the fragment emission point extrapolating the measured track toward the beam axis. The DP is currently under development within of the INSIDE collaboration (Innovative Solutions for In-beam Dosimetry in hadrontherapy). The tracker is made by six layers (20 × 20 cm²) of BCF-12 square scintillating fibres (500 μm) coupled to Silicon Photo-Multipliers, followed by two plastic scintillator layers of 6 mm thickness. A system of front-end boards based on FPGAs arranged around the detector provides the data acquisition. The detector characterization with cosmic rays is currently undergoing, and a data taking campaign with protons will take place in May 2017. The DP design and the performances measured with using MIPs and protons beam will be reviewed.

Keywords: fragmentation, monitoring, particle therapy, tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
2378 Simulation and Characterization of Compact Magnetic Proton Recoil Spectrometer for Fast Neutron Spectra Measurements

Authors: Xingyu Peng, Qingyuan Hu, Xuebin Zhu, Xi Yuan

Abstract:

Neutron spectrometry has contributed much to the development of nuclear physics since 1932 and has also become an importance tool in several other fields, notably nuclear technology, fusion plasma diagnostics and radiation protection. Compared with neutron fluxes, neutron spectra can provide more detailed information on the internal physical process of neutron sources, such as fast neutron reactors, fusion plasma, fission-fusion hybrid reactors, and so on. However, high performance neutron spectrometer is not so commonly available as it requires the use of large and complex instrumentation. This work describes the development and characterization of a compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer for high-resolution measurements of fast neutron spectra. The compact MPR spectrometer is featured by its large recoil angle, small size permanent analysis magnet, short beam transport line and dual-purpose detector array for both steady state and pulsed neutron spectra measurement. A 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle transport code is developed to simulate the response function of the spectrometer. Simulation results illustrate that the performance of the spectrometer is mainly determined by n-p recoil foil and proton apertures, and an overall energy resolution of 3% is achieved for 14 MeV neutrons. Dedicated experiments using alpha source and mono-energetic neutron beam are employed to verify the simulated response function of the compact MPR spectrometer. These experimental results show a good agreement with the simulated ones, which indicates that the simulation code possesses good accuracy and reliability. The compact MPR spectrometer described in this work is a valuable tool for fast neutron spectra measurements for the fission or fusion devices.

Keywords: neutron spectrometry, magnetic proton recoil spectrometer, neutron spectra, fast neutron

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
2377 Dose Profiler: A Tracking Device for Online Range Monitoring in Particle Therapy

Authors: G. Battistoni, F. Collamati, E. De Lucia, R. Faccini, C. Mancini-Terracciano, M. Marafini, I. Mattei, S. Muraro, V. Patera, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, E. Solfaroli Camillocci, M. Toppi, G. Traini, S. M. Valle, C. Voena

Abstract:

Accelerated charged particles, mainly protons and carbon ions, are presently used in Particle Therapy (PT) to treat solid tumors. The precision of PT exploiting the charged particle high localized dose deposition in tissues and biological effectiveness in killing cancer cells demands for an online dose monitoring technique, crucial to improve the quality assurance of treatments: possible patient mis-positionings and biological changes with respect to the CT scan could negatively affect the therapy outcome. In PT the beam range confined in the irradiated target can be monitored thanks to the secondary radiation produced by the interaction of the projectiles with the patient tissue. The Dose Profiler (DP) is a novel device designed to track charged secondary particles and reconstruct their longitudinal emission distribution, correlated to the Bragg peak position. The feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated by dedicated experimental measurements. The DP has been developed in the framework of the INSIDE project, MIUR, INFN and Centro Fermi, Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche 'E. Fermi', Roma, Italy and will be tested at the Proton Therapy center of Trento (Italy) within the end of 2017. The DP combines a tracker, made of six layers of two-view scintillating fibers with square cross section (0.5 x 0.5 mm2) with two layers of two-view scintillating bars (section 12.0 x 0.6 mm2). The electronic readout is performed by silicon photomultipliers. The sensitive area of the tracking planes is 20 x 20 cm2. To optimize the detector layout, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation based on the FLUKA code has been developed. The complete DP geometry and the track reconstruction code have been fully implemented in the MC. In this contribution, the DP hardware will be described. The expected detector performance computed using a dedicated simulation of a 220 MeV/u carbon ion beam impinging on a PMMA target will be presented, and the result will be discussed in the standard clinical application framework. A possible procedure for real-time beam range monitoring is proposed, following the expectations in actual clinical operation.

Keywords: online range monitoring, particle therapy, quality assurance, tracking detector

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
2376 Development of Partial Sulphonated Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride - Hexafluoro Propylene)–Montmorillonite Nano-Composites as Proton Exchange Membranes

Authors: K. Selvakumar, J. Kalaiselvimary, B. Jansirani, M. Ramesh Prabhu

Abstract:

Proton conducting sulphonated poly (vinylidene fluoride- hexafluoro propylene) PVdF-HFP membranes were modified with nano – sized montmorillonite (MMT) through homogeneous dispersive mixing and solution casting technique for fuel cell applications. The prepared composite membranes were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 1HNMR technique. The suitability of the composite membranes for fuel cell application was evaluated in terms of water uptake, swelling behavior, and proton conductivity. These composites showed good conductivities and durability and expected to be used in the development of proton exchange membrane for fuel cells.

Keywords: composite, proton conduction, sulphonation, water uptake

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
2375 Ground State Properties of Neutron Magic Isotones

Authors: G. Saxena, M. Kaushik

Abstract:

In the present investigation, we have employed RMF+BCS (relativistic mean-field plus BCS) approach to carry out a systematic study for the ground state properties of the entire chains of even-even neutron magic nuclei represented by isotones of traditional neutron magic numbers N = 8, 20, 40, 50, 82, and 126. The main body of the results of our calculations includes the binding energy, deformation, two proton separation energies, rms radii of the proton and neutron distributions as well as the proton and neutron density profiles etc. Several of these results have been given in the form of a series of graphs for a ready reference. In addition, the possible locations of the proton and neutron drip-lines as well as the (Z,N) values for the shell closures as suggested by the detailed analyzes of the single particle spectra, and the two proton and two-neutron separation energies for the different isotonic chains are also discussed in detail.

Keywords: relativistic mean field theory, neutron magic nuclei, shell closure, separation energy, deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
2374 Verification of Dosimetric Commissioning Accuracy of Flattening Filter Free Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Volumetric Modulated Therapy Delivery Using Task Group 119 Guidelines

Authors: Arunai Nambi Raj N., Kaviarasu Karunakaran, Krishnamurthy K.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to create American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 119 (TG 119) benchmark plans for flattening filter free beam (FFF) deliveries of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) in the Eclipse treatment planning system. The planning data were compared with the flattening filter (FF) IMRT & VMAT plan data to verify the dosimetric commissioning accuracy of FFF deliveries. AAPM TG 119 proposed a set of test cases called multi-target, mock prostate, mock head and neck, and C-shape to ascertain the overall accuracy of IMRT planning, measurement, and analysis. We used these test cases to investigate the performance of the Eclipse Treatment planning system for the flattening filter free beam deliveries. For these test cases, we generated two sets of treatment plans, the first plan using 7–9 IMRT fields and a second plan utilizing two arc VMAT technique for both the beam deliveries (6 MV FF, 6MV FFF, 10 MV FF and 10 MV FFF). The planning objectives and dose were set as described in TG 119. The dose prescriptions for multi-target, mock prostate, mock head and neck, and C-shape were taken as 50, 75.6, 50 and 50 Gy, respectively. The point dose (mean dose to the contoured chamber volume) at the specified positions/locations was measured using compact (CC‑13) ion chamber. The composite planar dose and per-field gamma analysis were measured with IMatriXX Evaluation 2D array with OmniPro IMRT Software (version 1.7b). FFF beam deliveries of IMRT and VMAT plans were comparable to flattening filter beam deliveries. Our planning and quality assurance results matched with TG 119 data. AAPM TG 119 test cases are useful to generate FFF benchmark plans. From the obtained data in this study, we conclude that the commissioning of FFF IMRT and FFF VMAT delivery were found within the limits of TG-119 and the performance of the Eclipse treatment planning system for FFF plans were found satisfactorily.

Keywords: flattening filter free beams, intensity modulated radiation therapy, task group 119, volumetric modulated arc therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
2373 Radiative Reactions Analysis at the Range of Astrophysical Energies

Authors: A. Amar

Abstract:

Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model and single folding model at the beam energies up to 17 MeV. We could enhance the optical potential parameters using Esis88 Code, as well as SPI GENOA Code. Linear relationship between volume real potential (V0) and proton energy (Ep) has been obtained. Also, surface imaginary potential WD is proportional to the proton energy (Ep) in the range 0.400 and 17 MeV. The radiative reaction 10B(p,γ)11C has been analyzed using potential model. A comparison between 10B(p,γ)11C and 6Li(p,γ)7Be has been made. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental results in the whole range of energy. The radiative resonance reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be has been studied.

Keywords: elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei, optical potential parameters, potential model, radiative reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
2372 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu

Abstract:

Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation and photons, respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photon absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that photons have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: electrostatic, electron, photon, proton, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
2371 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati

Abstract:

In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, vibration control, piezoelectric layers, elastic foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2370 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter

Abstract:

Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2369 Design and Development of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles for Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator

Authors: Vikas Teotia, Sanjay Malhotra, Elina Mishra, Prashant Kumar, R. R. Singh, Priti Ukarde, P. P. Marathe, Y. S. Mayya

Abstract:

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay is developing low energy high intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) as pre-injector for 1 GeV proton accelerator for accelerator driven sub-critical reactor system (ADSS). LEHIPA consists of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) and DTL (Drift Tube Linac) as major accelerating structures. DTL is RF resonator operating in TM010 mode and provides longitudinal E-field for acceleration of charged particles. The RF design of drift tubes of DTL was carried out to maximize the shunt impedance; this demands the diameter of drift tubes (DTs) to be as low as possible. The width of the DT is however determined by the particle β and trade-off between a transit time factor and effective accelerating voltage in the DT gap. The array of Drift Tubes inside DTL shields the accelerating particle from decelerating RF phase and provides transverse focusing to the charged particles which otherwise tends to diverge due to Columbic repulsions and due to transverse e-field at entry of DTs. The magnetic lenses housed inside DTS controls the transverse emittance of the beam. Quadrupole magnets are preferred over solenoid magnets due to relative high focusing strength of former over later. The availability of small volume inside DTs for housing magnetic quadrupoles has motivated the usage of permanent magnet quadrupoles rather than Electromagnetic Quadrupoles (EMQ). This provides another advantage as joule heating is avoided which would have added thermal loaded in the continuous cycle accelerator. The beam dynamics requires uniformity of integral magnetic gradient to be better than ±0.5% with the nominal value of 2.05 tesla. The paper describes the magnetic design of the PMQ using Sm2Co17 rare earth permanent magnets. The paper discusses the results of five pre-series prototype fabrications and qualification of their prototype permanent magnet quadrupoles and a full scale DT developed with embedded PMQs. The paper discusses the magnetic pole design for optimizing integral Gdl uniformity and the value of higher order multipoles. A novel but simple method of tuning the integral Gdl is discussed.

Keywords: DTL, focusing, PMQ, proton, rate earth magnets

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
2368 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz

Abstract:

A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, numerical simulation, photorefractive crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
2367 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil

Abstract:

An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
2366 Behavior of Castellated Beam Column Due to Cyclic Loads

Authors: Junus Mara, Herman Parung, Jhony Tanijaya, Rudy Djamaluddin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine the behavior of beam-column sub-assemblages castella due to cyclic loading. Knowing these behaviors can if be analyzed the effectiveness of the concrete filler to reduce the damage and improve capacity of beam castella. Test beam consists of beam castella fabricated from normal beam (CB), castella beams with concrete filler between the flange (CCB) and normal beam (NB) as a comparison. Results showed castella beam (CB) has the advantage to increase the flexural capacity and energy absorption respectively 100.5% and 74.3%. Besides advantages, castella beam has the disadvantage that lowering partial ductility and full ductility respectively 12.6% and 18.1%, decrease resistance ratio 29.5% and accelerate the degradation rate of stiffness ratio 31.4%. By the concrete filler between the beam flange to improve the ability of castella beam, then the beam castella have the ability to increase the flexural capacity of 184.78 %, 217.1% increase energy absorption, increase ductility partial and full ductility respectively 27.9 % and 26 %, increases resistance ratio 52.5% and slow the rate of degradation of the stiffness ratio 55.1 %.

Keywords: steel, castella, column beams, cyclic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
2365 Synthesis and Characterization of SiO2/PVA/ SPEEK Composite Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: M. Yusuf Ansari, Asad Abbas

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a very efficient and promising energy conversion device. Although Nafion® is considered as benchmark materials for membrane used in PEM fuel cell, it has limitations that restrict its uses. Alternative materials for the membrane is always a challenging field for researchers. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is one of the promising material for membrane due to its chemical and mechanical stability and lower cost. In this work, SPEEK is synthesized, and property booster such as silica nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are also added to analyse changes in properties such as water uptake, IEC, and conductivity. It has been found that adding PVA support high water uptake and proton conductivity but at large amount of PVA reduces the proton conductivity due to very high water uptake. Adding silica enhances water uptake and proton conductivity.

Keywords: PEM Membrane, sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), silica fumes (SiO2), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
2364 Coulomb-Explosion Driven Proton Focusing in an Arched CH Target

Authors: W. Q. Wang, Y. Yin, D. B. Zou, T. P. Yu, J. M. Ouyang, F. Q. Shao

Abstract:

High-energy-density state, i.e., matter and radiation at energy densities in excess of 10^11 J/m^3, is related to material, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and geophysics. Laser-driven particle beams are better suited to heat the matter as a trigger due to their unique properties of ultrashort duration and low emittance. Compared to X-ray and electron sources, it is easier to generate uniformly heated large-volume material for the proton and ion beams because of highly localized energy deposition. With the construction of state-of-art high power laser facilities, creating of extremely conditions of high-temperature and high-density in laboratories becomes possible. It has been demonstrated that on a picosecond time scale the solid density material can be isochorically heated to over 20 eV by the ultrafast proton beam generated from spherically shaped targets. For the above-mentioned technique, the proton energy density plays a crucial role in the formation of warm dense matter states. Recently, several methods have devoted to realize the focusing of the accelerated protons, involving externally exerted static-fields or specially designed targets interacting with a single or multi-pile laser pulses. In previous works, two co-propagating or opposite direction laser pulses are employed to strike a submicron plasma-shell. However, ultra-high pulse intensities, accurately temporal synchronization and undesirable transverse instabilities for a long time are still intractable for currently experimental implementations. A mechanism of the focusing of laser-driven proton beams from two-ion-species arched targets is investigated by multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When an intense linearly-polarized laser pulse impinges on the thin arched target, all electrons are completely evacuated, leading to a Coulomb-explosive electric-field mostly originated from the heavier carbon ions. The lighter protons in the moving reference frame by the ionic sound speed will be accelerated and effectively focused because of this radially isotropic field. At a 2.42×10^21 W/cm^2 laser intensity, a ballistic proton bunch with its energy-density as high as 2.15×10^17 J/m^3 is produced, and the highest proton energy and the focusing position agree well with that from the theory.

Keywords: Coulomb explosion, focusing, high-energy-density, ion acceleration

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2363 Flexural Behavior for Prefabricated Angle Truss Composite Beams Using Precast Concrete

Authors: Jo Kwang-Won, Lee Ho-Jun, Choi In-Rak, Park Hong-Gun

Abstract:

Prefabricated angle truss composited beam is a kind of concrete encased composite beam. It is prefabricated at factory as Pratt truss with steel members. Double angle is used for top, bottom chords and vertical web member. Moreover, diagonal web member is steel plate. Its sectional shape looks like I-shape. This beam system has two stages. The first is construction stage in which the beam is directly connected to the column for resist construction load. This stage beam consists of Pratt truss and precast concrete. The stability of the beam is verified. The second is service stage. After the connection, cast-in-place concrete is used for composite action. Ultimate flexural capacity is verified and show advantage than RC and steel. In this paper, the beam flexural capacity is verified in both stages. And examined the flexural behavior of the beam.

Keywords: composite beam, prefabrication, angle, precast concrete, pratt truss

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
2362 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
2361 The Effect of Simultaneous Application of Laser Beam and Magnet in Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Herniation

Authors: Alireza Moghtaderi, Negin Khakpour

Abstract:

Disc Herniation is a common complication in the society and it is one of the main reasons for referring to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics. Despite of various methods proposed for treatingthis disease, still there is disagreement on success of these methods especially in non-surgical methods, and thus current study aims at determining effect of laser beam and magnet on treatment of Intervertebral Disc Herniation. During a clinical trial study, 80 patients with Intervertebral Disc Herniation underwent a combined package of treatment including magnet, laser beam, PRP and Prolotherapy during 6 months. Average age of patients was 51.25 ± 10.7 with range of 25 – 71 years. 30 men (37.5%) and 50 women (62.5%) took part in the study. average weight of patients was 64.3 ± 7.2 with range of 49 – 79 kg. highest level of Disc Herniation was L5 – S1 with frequency of 17 cases (21.3%). Disc Herniation was severe in 30 cases before treatment, but it reduced to 3 casesafter treatment. This study indicates effect of combined treatment using non-invasive laser beam and magnet therapy on disco genic diseases and mechanical pains of spine is highly effective.

Keywords: hallux, valgus, botulinum toxin a, pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 20