Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2403

Search results for: secondary neutrons

2403 MONDO Neutron Tracker Characterisation by Means of Proton Therapeutical Beams and MonteCarlo Simulation Studies

Authors: G. Traini, V. Giacometti, R. Mirabelli, V. Patera, D. Pinci, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, M. Marafini

Abstract:

The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project aims a precise characterisation of the secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons produced in particle therapy treatments. The detector is composed of a matrix of scintillating fibres (250 um) readout by CMOS Digital-SPAD based sensors. Recoil protons from n-p elastic scattering are detected and used to track neutrons. A prototype was tested with proton beams (Trento Proton Therapy Centre): efficiency, light yield, and track-reconstruction capability were studied. The results of a MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation used to evaluated double scattering efficiency and expected backgrounds will be presented.

Keywords: secondary neutrons, particle therapy, tracking, elastic scattering

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2402 A Theoretical Study of Accelerating Neutrons in LINAC Using Magnetic Gradient Method

Authors: Chunduru Amareswara Prasad

Abstract:

The main aim of this proposal it to reveal the secrets of the universe by accelerating neutrons. The proposal idea in its abridged version speaks about the possibility of making neutrons accelerate with help of thermal energy and magnetic energy under controlled conditions. Which is helpful in revealing the hidden secrets of the universe namely dark energy and in finding properties of Higgs boson. The paper mainly speaks about accelerating neutrons to near velocity of light in a LINAC, using magnetic energy by magnetic pressurizers. The center of mass energy of two colliding neutron beams is 94 GeV (~0.5c) can be achieved using this method. The conventional ways to accelerate neutrons has some constraints in accelerating them electromagnetically as they need to be separated from the Tritium or Deuterium nuclei. This magnetic gradient method provides efficient and simple way to accelerate neutrons.

Keywords: neutron, acceleration, thermal energy, magnetic energy, Higgs boson

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2401 Evaluation of the Photo Neutron Contamination inside and outside of Treatment Room for High Energy Elekta Synergy® Linear Accelerator

Authors: Sharib Ahmed, Mansoor Rafi, Kamran Ali Awan, Faraz Khaskhali, Amir Maqbool, Altaf Hashmi

Abstract:

Medical linear accelerators (LINAC’s) used in radiotherapy treatments produce undesired neutrons when they are operated at energies above 8 MeV, both in electron and photon configuration. Neutrons are produced by high-energy photons and electrons through electronuclear (e, n) a photonuclear giant dipole resonance (GDR) reactions. These reactions occurs when incoming photon or electron incident through the various materials of target, flattening filter, collimators, and other shielding components in LINAC’s structure. These neutrons may reach directly to the patient, or they may interact with the surrounding materials until they become thermalized. A work has been set up to study the effect of different parameter on the production of neutron around the room by photonuclear reactions induced by photons above ~8 MeV. One of the commercial available neutron detector (Ludlum Model 42-31H Neutron Detector) is used for the detection of thermal and fast neutrons (0.025 eV to approximately 12 MeV) inside and outside of the treatment room. Measurements were performed for different field sizes at 100 cm source to surface distance (SSD) of detector, at different distances from the isocenter and at the place of primary and secondary walls. Other measurements were performed at door and treatment console for the potential radiation safety concerns of the therapists who must walk in and out of the room for the treatments. Exposures have taken place from Elekta Synergy® linear accelerators for two different energies (10 MV and 18 MV) for a given 200 MU’s and dose rate of 600 MU per minute. Results indicates that neutron doses at 100 cm SSD depend on accelerator characteristics means jaw settings as jaws are made of high atomic number material so provides significant interaction of photons to produce neutrons, while doses at the place of larger distance from isocenter are strongly influenced by the treatment room geometry and backscattering from the walls cause a greater doses as compare to dose at 100 cm distance from isocenter. In the treatment room the ambient dose equivalent due to photons produced during decay of activation nuclei varies from 4.22 mSv.h−1 to 13.2 mSv.h−1 (at isocenter),6.21 mSv.h−1 to 29.2 mSv.h−1 (primary wall) and 8.73 mSv.h−1 to 37.2 mSv.h−1 (secondary wall) for 10 and 18 MV respectively. The ambient dose equivalent for neutrons at door is 5 μSv.h−1 to 2 μSv.h−1 while at treatment console room it is 2 μSv.h−1 to 0 μSv.h−1 for 10 and 18 MV respectively which shows that a 2 m thick and 5m longer concrete maze provides sufficient shielding for neutron at door as well as at treatment console for 10 and 18 MV photons.

Keywords: equivalent doses, neutron contamination, neutron detector, photon energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
2400 The Monitor for Neutron Dose in Hadrontherapy Project: Secondary Neutron Measurement in Particle Therapy

Authors: V. Giacometti, R. Mirabelli, V. Patera, D. Pinci, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, G. Traini, M. Marafini

Abstract:

The particle therapy (PT) is a very modern technique of non invasive radiotherapy mainly devoted to the treatment of tumours untreatable with surgery or conventional radiotherapy, because localised closely to organ at risk (OaR). Nowadays, PT is available in about 55 centres in the word and only the 20\% of them are able to treat with carbon ion beam. However, the efficiency of the ion-beam treatments is so impressive that many new centres are in construction. The interest in this powerful technology lies to the main characteristic of PT: the high irradiation precision and conformity of the dose released to the tumour with the simultaneous preservation of the adjacent healthy tissue. However, the beam interactions with the patient produce a large component of secondary particles whose additional dose has to be taken into account during the definition of the treatment planning. Despite, the largest fraction of the dose is released to the tumour volume, a non-negligible amount is deposed in other body regions, mainly due to the scattering and nuclear interactions of the neutrons within the patient body. One of the main concerns in PT treatments is the possible occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN). While SMNs can be developed up to decades after the treatments, their incidence impacts directly life quality of the cancer survivors, in particular in pediatric patients. Dedicated Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) are used to predict the normal tissue toxicity including the risk of late complications induced by the additional dose released by secondary neutrons. However, no precise measurement of secondary neutrons flux is available, as well as their energy and angular distributions: an accurate characterization is needed in order to improve TPS and reduce safety margins. The project MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) is devoted to the construction of a secondary neutron tracker tailored to the characterization of that secondary neutron component. The detector, based on the tracking of the recoil protons produced in double-elastic scattering interactions, is a matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in layer x-y oriented. The final size of the object is 10 x 10 x 20 cm3 (squared 250µm scint. fibres, double cladding). The readout of the fibres is carried out with a dedicated SPAD Array Sensor (SBAM) realised in CMOS technology by FBK (Fondazione Bruno Kessler). The detector is under development as well as the SBAM sensor and it is expected to be fully constructed for the end of the year. MONDO will make data tacking campaigns at the TIFPA Proton Therapy Center of Trento, at the CNAO (Pavia) and at HIT (Heidelberg) with carbon ion in order to characterize the neutron component and predict the additional dose delivered on the patients with much more precision and to drastically reduce the actual safety margins. Preliminary measurements with charged particles beams and MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation will be presented.

Keywords: secondary neutrons, particle therapy, tracking detector, elastic scattering

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2399 Simulation Study of Multiple-Thick Gas Electron Multiplier-Based Microdosimeters for Fast Neutron Measurements

Authors: Amir Moslehi, Gholamreza Raisali

Abstract:

Microdosimetric detectors based on multiple-thick gas electron multiplier (multiple-THGEM) configurations are being used in various fields of radiation protection and dosimetry. In the present work, microdosimetric response of these detectors to fast neutrons has been investigated by Monte Carlo method. Three similar microdosimeters made of A-150 and rexolite as the wall materials are designed; the first based on single-THGEM, the second based on double-THGEM and the third is based on triple-THGEM. Sensitive volume of the three microdosimeters is a right cylinder of 5 mm height and diameter which is filled with the propane-based tissue-equivalent (TE) gas. The TE gas with 0.11 atm pressure at the room temperature simulates 1 µm of tissue. Lineal energy distributions for several neutron energies from 10 keV to 14 MeV including 241Am-Be neutrons are calculated by the Geant4 simulation toolkit. Also, mean quality factor and dose-equivalent value for any neutron energy has been determined by these distributions. Obtained data derived from the three microdosimeters are in agreement. Therefore, we conclude that the multiple-THGEM structures present similar microdosimetric responses to fast neutrons.

Keywords: fast neutrons, geant4, multiple-thick gas electron multiplier, microdosimeter

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2398 Production of Neutrons by High Intensity Picosecond Laser Interacting with Thick Solid Target at XingGuangIII

Authors: Xi Yuan, Xuebin Zhu, Bojun Li

Abstract:

This work describes the experiment to produce high-intensity pulsed neutron beams on XingGuangIII laser facility. The high-intensity laser is utilized to drive protons and deuterons, which hit a thick solid target to produce neutrons. The pulse duration of the laser used in the experiment is about 0.8 ps, and the laser energy is around 100 J. Protons and deuterons are accelerated from a 10-μm-thick deuterated polyethylene (CD₂) foil and diagnosed by a Thomson parabola ion-spectrometer. The energy spectrum of neutrons generated via ⁷Li(d,n) and ⁷Li(p,n) reaction when proton and deuteron beams hit a 5-mm-thick LiF target is measured by a scintillator-based time-of-flight spectrometer. Results from the neuron measurements show that the maximum neutron energy is about 12.5 MeV and the neutron yield is up to 2×10⁹/pulse. The high-intensity pulsed neutron beams demonstrated in this work can provide a valuable neutron source for material research, fast neutron induced fission research, and so on.

Keywords: picosecond laser driven, fast neutron, time-of-flight spectrometry, XinggungIII

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2397 Calculation of Secondary Neutron Dose Equivalent in Proton Therapy of Thyroid Gland Using FLUKA Code

Authors: M. R. Akbari, M. Sadeghi, R. Faghihi, M. A. Mosleh-Shirazi, A. R. Khorrami-Moghadam

Abstract:

Proton radiotherapy (PRT) is becoming an established treatment modality for cancer. The localized tumors, the same as undifferentiated thyroid tumors are insufficiently handled by conventional radiotherapy, while protons would propose the prospect of increasing the tumor dose without exceeding the tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissues. In spite of relatively high advantages in giving localized radiation dose to the tumor region, in proton therapy, secondary neutron production can have significant contribution on integral dose and lessen advantages of this modality contrast to conventional radiotherapy techniques. Furthermore, neutrons have high quality factor, therefore, even a small physical dose can cause considerable biological effects. Measuring of this neutron dose is a very critical step in prediction of secondary cancer incidence. It has been found that FLUKA Monte Carlo code simulations have been used to evaluate dose due to secondaries in proton therapy. In this study, first, by validating simulated proton beam range in water phantom with CSDA range from NIST for the studied proton energy range (34-54 MeV), a proton therapy in thyroid gland cancer was simulated using FLUKA code. Secondary neutron dose equivalent of some organs and tissues after the target volume caused by 34 and 54 MeV proton interactions were calculated in order to evaluate secondary cancer incidence. A multilayer cylindrical neck phantom considering all the layers of neck tissues and a proton beam impinging normally on the phantom were also simulated. Trachea (accompanied by Larynx) had the greatest dose equivalent (1.24×10-1 and 1.45 pSv per primary 34 and 54 MeV protons, respectively) among the simulated tissues after the target volume in the neck region.

Keywords: FLUKA code, neutron dose equivalent, proton therapy, thyroid gland

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2396 Modification of Electrical and Switching Characteristics of a Non Punch-Through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor by Gamma Irradiation

Authors: Hani Baek, Gwang Min Sun, Chansun Shin, Sung Ho Ahn

Abstract:

Fast neutron irradiation using nuclear reactors is an effective method to improve switching loss and short circuit durability of power semiconductor (insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) and insulated gate transistors (IGT), etc.). However, not only fast neutrons but also thermal neutrons, epithermal neutrons and gamma exist in the nuclear reactor. And the electrical properties of the IGBT may be deteriorated by the irradiation of gamma. Gamma irradiation damages are known to be caused by Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect and Single Event Effect (SEE), Displacement Damage. Especially, the TID effect deteriorated the electrical properties such as leakage current and threshold voltage of a power semiconductor. This work can confirm the effect of the gamma irradiation on the electrical properties of 600 V NPT-IGBT. Irradiation of gamma forms lattice defects in the gate oxide and Si-SiO2 interface of the IGBT. It was confirmed that this lattice defect acts on the center of the trap and affects the threshold voltage, thereby negatively shifted the threshold voltage according to TID. In addition to the change in the carrier mobility, the conductivity modulation decreases in the n-drift region, indicating a negative influence that the forward voltage drop decreases. The turn-off delay time of the device before irradiation was 212 ns. Those of 2.5, 10, 30, 70 and 100 kRad(Si) were 225, 258, 311, 328, and 350 ns, respectively. The gamma irradiation increased the turn-off delay time of the IGBT by approximately 65%, and the switching characteristics deteriorated.

Keywords: NPT-IGBT, gamma irradiation, switching, turn-off delay time, recombination, trap center

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2395 Optimal Secondary Prevention and Background Risk

Authors: Mohamed Anouar Razgallah

Abstract:

This paper examines in the context of a one-period model the impact of background risk on the optimal secondary prevention. We conduct our study based on various configurations of the background risk. We intend to show that in most cases the level of secondary prevention effort varied after the introduction of background risk, however, in very few cases this level remains constant.

Keywords: secondary prevention, primary prevention, background risk, ecomomics

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2394 Secondary Metabolites from Turkish Marine-Derived Fungi Hypocrea nigricans

Authors: H. Heydari, B. Konuklugil, P. Proksch

Abstract:

Marine-derived fungi can produce interesting bioactive secondary metabolites that can be considered the potential for drug development. Turkey is a country of a peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea at the north, the Aegean Sea at the west, and the Mediterranean Sea at the south. Despite the approximately 8400 km of coastline, studies on marine secondary metabolites and their biological activity are limited. In our ongoing search for new natural products with different bioactivities produced by the marine-derived fungi, we have investigated secondary metabolites of Turkish collection of the marine sea slug (Peltodoris atromaculata) associated fungi Hypocrea nigricans collected from Seferihisar in the Egean sea. According to the author’s best knowledge, no study was found on this fungal species in terms of secondary metabolites. Isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the culture of Hypocrea nigricans were (isodihydroauroglaucin,tetrahydroauroglaucin and dihydroauroglaucin. The structures of the compounds were established based on an NMR and MS analysis. Structural elucidation of another isolated secondary metabolite/s continues.

Keywords: Hypocrea nigricans, isolation, marine fungi, secondary metabolites

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2393 The Use of Secondary Crystallization in Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Nikol Žižková, Šárka Keprdová, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the study of the properties of cement-based composites produced using secondary crystallization (crystalline additive). In this study, cement mortar made with secondary crystallization was exposed to an aggressive environment and the influence of secondary crystallization on the degradation of the cementitious composite was investigated. The results indicate that the crystalline additive contributed to increasing the resistance of the cement-based composite to the attack of the selected environments (sodium sulphate solution and ammonium chloride solution).

Keywords: secondary crystallization, cement-based composites, durability, degradation of the cementitious composite

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2392 Effect of PMMA Shield on the Patient Dose Equivalent from Photoneutrons Produced by High Energy Medical Linacs

Authors: Seyed Mehdi Hashemi, Gholamreza Raisali, Mehran Taheri

Abstract:

One of the important problems of using high energy linacs at IMRT is the production of photoneutrons. Besides the clinically useful photon beams, high-energy photon beams from medical linacs produce secondary neutrons. These photoneutrons increase the patient dose and may cause secondary malignancies. The effect of the shield on the reduction of photoneutron dose equivalent produced by a high energy medical linac at the patient plane is investigated in this study. To determine the photoneutron dose equivalent received to the patient a Varian linac working at 18 MV photon mode investigated. Photoneutron dose equivalent measured with Polycarbonate films of 0.25 mm thick. PC films placed at distances of 0, 10, 20, and 50 cm from the center of X-ray field on the patient couch. The results show that by increasing the distance from the center of the X-ray beam towards the periphery, the photoneutron dose equivalent decreases rapidly for both open and shielded fields and that by inserting the shield in the path of the X-ray beam, the photoneutron dose equivalent was decreased obviously compared to open field. Results show the shield, significantly reduces photoneutron dose equivalent to the patient. Results can be readily generalized to other models of medical linacs. It may be concluded that using this kind of shield can help more safe, inexpensive and efficient employment of high energy linacs in radiotherapy and IMRT.

Keywords: photoneutron, Linac, PMMA shield, equivalent dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
2391 Sampling Effects on Secondary Voltage Control of Microgrids Based on Network of Multiagent

Authors: M. J. Park, S. H. Lee, C. H. Lee, O. M. Kwon

Abstract:

This paper studies a secondary voltage control framework of the microgrids based on the consensus for a communication network of multiagent. The proposed control is designed by the communication network with one-way links. The communication network is modeled by a directed graph. At this time, the concept of sampling is considered as the communication constraint among each distributed generator in the microgrids. To analyze the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids, by using Lyapunov theory and some mathematical techniques, the sufficient condition for such problem will be established regarding linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, some simulation results are given to illustrate the necessity of the consideration of the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids.

Keywords: microgrids, secondary control, multiagent, sampling, LMI

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2390 Emotional Intelligence and General Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Career Commitment of Secondary School Teachers in Nigeria

Authors: Moyosola Jude Akomolafe

Abstract:

Career commitment among employees is crucial to the success of any organization. However, career commitment has been reported to be very low among teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria. This study, therefore, examined the contributions of emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy to career commitment of among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted for the study. It made use of stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting two hundred and fifty (250) secondary schools teachers for the study. Three standardized instruments namely: The Big Five Inventory (BFI), Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Career Commitment Scale (CCS) were adopted for the study. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected were analyzed through Multiple Regression Analysis to investigate the predicting capacity of emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy on career commitment of secondary school teachers. The results showed that the variables when taken as a whole significantly predicted career commitment among secondary school teachers. The relative contribution of each variable revealed that emotional intelligence and general self-efficacy significantly predicted career commitment among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. The researcher recommended that secondary school teachers should be exposed to emotional intelligence and self-efficacy training to enhance their career commitment.

Keywords: career commitment, emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy, secondary school teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2389 Thermal Neutron Detection Efficiency as a Function of Film Thickness for Front and Back Irradiation Detector Devices Coated with ¹⁰B, ⁶LiF, and Pure Li Thin Films

Authors: Vedant Subhash

Abstract:

This paper discusses the physics of the detection of thermal neutrons using thin-film coated semiconductor detectors. The thermal neutron detection efficiency as a function of film thickness is calculated for the front and back irradiation detector devices coated with ¹⁰B, ⁶LiF, and pure Li thin films. The detection efficiency for back irradiation devices is 4.15% that is slightly higher than that for front irradiation detectors, 4.0% for ¹⁰B films of thickness 2.4μm. The theoretically calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency using ¹⁰B film thickness of 1.1 μm for the back irradiation device is 3.0367%, which has an offset of 0.0367% from the experimental value of 3.0%. The detection efficiency values are compared and proved consistent with the given calculations.

Keywords: detection efficiency, neutron detection, semiconductor detectors, thermal neutrons

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2388 Polymer Industrial Floors: The Possibility of Using Secondary Raw Materials from Solar Panels

Authors: J. Kosikova, B. Vacenovska, M. Vyhnankova

Abstract:

The paper reports on the subject of recycling and further use of secondary raw materials obtained from solar panels, which is becoming a very up to date topic in recent years. Recycling these panels is very difficult and complex, and the use of resulting secondary raw materials is still not fully resolved. Within the research carried out at the Brno University of Technology, new polymer materials used for industrial floors are being developed. Secondary raw materials are incorporated into these polymers as fillers. One of the tested filler materials was glass obtained from solar panels. The following text describes procedures and results of the tests that were performed on these materials, confirming the possibility of the use of solar panel glass in industrial polymer flooring systems.

Keywords: fillers, industrial floors, recycling, secondary raw material, solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2387 Predominance of Teaching Models Used by Math Teachers in Secondary Education

Authors: Verónica Diaz Quezada

Abstract:

This research examines the teaching models used by secondary math teachers when teaching logarithmic, quadratic and exponential functions. For this, descriptive case studies have been carried out on 5 secondary teachers. These teachers have been chosen from 3 scientific-humanistic and technical schools, in Chile. Data have been obtained through non-participant class observation and the application of a questionnaire and a rubric to teachers. According to the results, the didactic model that prevails is the one that starts with an interactive strategy, moves to a more content-based structure, and ends with a reinforcement stage. Nonetheless, there is always influence from teachers, their methods, and the group of students.

Keywords: teaching models, math teachers, functions, secondary education

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2386 Analysis of the Spatial Distribution of Public Girls’ and Boys’ Secondary Schools in Riyadh

Authors: Nasser Marshad Alzeer

Abstract:

This study examines the spatial distribution of secondary schools in Riyadh. It considers both public girls and boys sector provision and assesses the efficiency of the spatial distribution of secondary schools. Since the establishment of the Ministry of Education (MOE) in 1953 and General Presidency for Female Education, (GPFE) in 1960, there has been a great expansion of education services in Saudi Arabia, particularly during the 1980s. However, recent years have seen much slower rates of increase in the public education sector but the population continues to grow rapidly. This study investigates the spatial distribution of schools through the use of questionnaire surveys and applied GIS. Overall, the results indicate a shortage of public secondary schools, especially in the north of the city. It is clear that there is overcrowding in the majority of secondary schools. The establishment of new schools has been suggested to solve the problem of overcrowding. A number of socio-economic and demographic factors are associated with differences in the utilization of the public secondary schools. A GIS was applied in this study in order to assess the spatial distribution of secondary schools including the modification of existing catchment area boundaries and locating new schools. This modification could also reduce the pupil pressure on certain schools and further benefits could probably be gained.

Keywords: analysis, distribution, Saudi, GIS, schools

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2385 Calibration of Mini TEPC and Measurement of Lineal Energy in a Mixed Radiation Field Produced by Neutrons

Authors: I. C. Cho, W. H. Wen, H. Y. Tsai, T. C. Chao, C. J. Tung

Abstract:

Tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a useful instrument used to measure radiation single-event energy depositions in a subcellular target volume. The quantity of measurements is the microdosimetric lineal energy, which determines the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for radiation therapy or the radiation-weighting factor, WR, for radiation protection. TEPC is generally used in a mixed radiation field, where each component radiation has its own RBE or WR value. To reduce the pile-up effect during radiotherapy measurements, a miniature TEPC (mini TEPC) with cavity size in the order of 1 mm may be required. In the present work, a homemade mini TEPC with a cylindrical cavity of 1 mm in both the diameter and the height was constructed to measure the lineal energy spectrum of a mixed radiation field with high- and low-LET radiations. Instead of using external radiation beams to penetrate the detector wall, mixed radiation fields were produced by the interactions of neutrons with TEPC walls that contained small plugs of different materials, i.e. Li, B, A150, Cd and N. In all measurements, mini TEPC was placed at the beam port of the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR). Measurements were performed using the propane-based tissue-equivalent gas mixture, i.e. 55% C3H8, 39.6% CO2 and 5.4% N2 by partial pressures. The gas pressure of 422 torr was applied for the simulation of a 1 m diameter biological site. The calibration of mini TEPC was performed using two marking points in the lineal energy spectrum, i.e. proton edge and electron edge. Measured spectra revealed high lineal energy (> 100 keV/m) peaks due to neutron-capture products, medium lineal energy (10 – 100 keV/m) peaks from hydrogen-recoil protons, and low lineal energy (< 10 keV/m) peaks of reactor photons. For cases of Li and B plugs, the high lineal energy peaks were quite prominent. The medium lineal energy peaks were in the decreasing order of Li, Cd, N, A150, and B. The low lineal energy peaks were smaller compared to other peaks. This study demonstrated that internally produced mixed radiations from the interactions of neutrons with different plugs in the TEPC wall provided a useful approach for TEPC measurements of lineal energies.

Keywords: TEPC, lineal energy, microdosimetry, radiation quality

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2384 Customization of Moodle Open Source LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools’ Use

Authors: Ellen A. Kalinga

Abstract:

Moodle is an open source learning management system that enables creation of a powerful and flexible learning environment. Many organizations, especially learning institutions have customized Moodle open source LMS for their own use. In general open source LMSs are of great interest due to many advantages they offer in terms of cost, usage and freedom to customize to fit a particular context. Tanzania Secondary School e-Learning (TanSSe-L) system is the learning management system for Tanzania secondary schools. TanSSe-L system was developed using a number of methods, one of them being customization of Moodle Open Source LMS. This paper presents few areas on the way Moodle OS LMS was customized to produce a functional TanSSe-L system fitted to the requirements and specifications of Tanzania secondary schools’ context.

Keywords: LMS, Moodle, e-learning, Tanzania, secondary school

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2383 Simulation of Hydrogenated Boron Nitride Nanotube’s Mechanical Properties for Radiation Shielding Applications

Authors: Joseph E. Estevez, Mahdi Ghazizadeh, James G. Ryan, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

Radiation shielding is an obstacle in long duration space exploration. Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) have attracted attention as an additive to radiation shielding material due to B10’s large neutron capture cross section. The B10 has an effective neutron capture cross section suitable for low energy neutrons ranging from 10-5 to 104 eV and hydrogen is effective at slowing down high energy neutrons. Hydrogenated BNNTs are potentially an ideal nanofiller for radiation shielding composites. We use Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation via Material Studios Accelrys 6.0 to model the Young’s Modulus of Hydrogenated BNNTs. An extrapolation technique was employed to determine the Young’s Modulus due to the deformation of the nanostructure at its theoretical density. A linear regression was used to extrapolate the data to the theoretical density of 2.62g/cm3. Simulation data shows that the hydrogenated BNNTs will experience a 11% decrease in the Young’s Modulus for (6,6) BNNTs and 8.5% decrease for (8,8) BNNTs compared to non-hydrogenated BNNT’s. Hydrogenated BNNTs are a viable option as a nanofiller for radiation shielding nanocomposite materials for long range and long duration space exploration.

Keywords: boron nitride nanotube, radiation shielding, young modulus, atomistic modeling

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2382 Leveraging Reasoning through Discourse: A Case Study in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms

Authors: Cory A. Bennett

Abstract:

Teaching and learning through the use of discourse support students’ conceptual understanding by attending to key concepts and relationships. One discourse structure used in primary classrooms is number talks wherein students mentally calculate, discuss, and reason about the appropriateness and efficiency of their strategies. In the secondary mathematics classroom, the mathematics understudy does not often lend itself to mental calculations yet learning to reason, and articulate reasoning, is central to learning mathematics. This qualitative case study discusses how one secondary school in the Middle East adapted the number talk protocol for secondary mathematics classrooms. Several challenges in implementing ‘reasoning talks’ became apparent including shifting current discourse protocols and practices to a more student-centric model, accurately recording and probing student thinking, and specifically attending to reasoning rather than computations.

Keywords: discourse, reasoning, secondary mathematics, teacher development

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2381 Application of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of English Language in Nigerian Secondary Schools

Authors: Richard Ayobayowa Foyewa

Abstract:

This work examined the application of ICT in the teaching and learning of English language in Nigerian secondary schools. The definition of ICT was given briefly before areas in which the ICT could be applied in teaching and learning of English language were observed. Teachers’ attitudes towards the use of the computer and Internet facilities were also observed. The conclusion drawn was that ICT is very relevant in the teaching and learning of English language in Nigerian secondary schools. It was therefore recommended that teachers who are not computer literate should go for the training without further delay; government should always employ English language teachers who are computer literates. Government should make fund available in schools for the training and re-training of English language teachers in various computer programmes and in making internet facilities available in secondary schools.

Keywords: ICT, Nigerian secondary schools, teaching and learning of English

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2380 The Impact of School Environment and Peer Relation on Anti-Social Behaviour of Students in Science Secondary Schools in Katsina State

Authors: Umar Mamman

Abstract:

The study investigated the impact of school environment and peer relations on antisocial behaviour of the students of science secondary schools in Katsina State. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: to determine whether school influences antisocial behaviour among science secondary school students, and to determine whether peer relation influences anti-social behaviour among science secondary school students. The study population composed of all the students in science secondary schools in Katsina State. The study used a sample of 378 students and 18 teachers randomly selected from eleven science secondary schools in Katsina state. Three instruments were used to collect data for the study, thus: socio-economic status background questionnaire, antisocial process screening device (APSD), and inventory of parent and peer relationship questionnaire. The study findings revealed that school environment has significant effect on antisocial behaviour of the students in science secondary school (F (7, 372) = 52.08, p ≤ .01), and there is a significant effect of peer relation on antisocial behaviour of the students in science secondary school (F (7, 372) = 14.229, p ≤ .01). Based on these findings the following major recommendations were made: School environment should be made attractive and conducive for learning and character development. Teachers, as role model, should desist from indecent acts. School environment should be made learner-centered and friendly. Functional guidance and counselling outfits need to be provided in all secondary schools in Katsina state.

Keywords: school environment, peer relation, anti-social behaviour, psychology

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2379 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock-Induced Self Impinging Secondary Jets

Authors: S. Vignesh, N. Vishnu, S. Vigneshwaran, M. Vishnu Anand, Dinesh Kumar Babu, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The study of the primary flow velocity and the self impinging secondary jet flow mixing is important from both the fundamental research and the application point of view. Real industrial configurations are more complex than simple shear layers present in idealized numerical thrust-vectoring models due to the presence of combustion, swirl and confinement. Predicting the flow features of self impinging secondary jets in a supersonic primary flow is complex owing to the fact that there are a large number of parameters involved. Earlier studies have been highlighted several key features of self impinging jets, but an extensive characterization in terms of jet interaction between supersonic flow and self impinging secondary sonic jets is still an active research topic. In this paper numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional k-omega standard turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced self impinging secondary flow sonic jets using non-reacting flows. Efforts have been taken for examining the flow features of TVC system with various secondary jets at different divergent locations and jet impinging angles with the same inlet jet pressure and mass flow ratio. The results from the parametric studies reveal that in addition to the primary to the secondary mass flow ratio the characteristics of the self impinging secondary jets having bearing on an efficient thrust vectoring. We concluded that the self impinging secondary jet nozzles are better than single jet nozzle with the same secondary mass flow rate owing to the fact fixing of the self impinging secondary jet nozzles with proper jet angle could facilitate better thrust vectoring for any supersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, supersonic to sonic jet interaction, TVC in aerospace vehicles

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2378 A Comparative Study of Secondary Education Curriculum of Iran with Some Developed Countries in the World

Authors: Seyyed Abdollah Hojjati

Abstract:

Review in the areas of secondary education; it is a kind of comparative requires very careful scrutiny in educational structure of different countries,In upcoming review of the basic structure of our educational system in Islamic republic of Iran with somedeveloped countries in the world, Analyzing of strengthsand weaknesses in main areas, A simple review of the above methods do not consider this particular community, Modifythe desired result can be expressed in the secondary school curriculum and academic guidance of under graduate students in a skill-driven and creativity growth, It not just improves the health and dynamism of this period and increases the secondary teachers' authority and the relationship between teacher and student in this course will be meaningful and attractive, But with reduced of false prosperity and guaranteed institutes and quizzes, areas will be provided for students to enjoy the feeling ofthe psychological comfort and to have the highest growth of creativity .

Keywords: comparative, curriculum of secondary education, curriculum, Iran, developed countries

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2377 Estimation of Transition and Emission Probabilities

Authors: Aakansha Gupta, Neha Vadnere, Tapasvi Soni, M. Anbarsi

Abstract:

Protein secondary structure prediction is one of the most important goals pursued by bioinformatics and theoretical chemistry; it is highly important in medicine and biotechnology. Some aspects of protein functions and genome analysis can be predicted by secondary structure prediction. This is used to help annotate sequences, classify proteins, identify domains, and recognize functional motifs. In this paper, we represent protein secondary structure as a mathematical model. To extract and predict the protein secondary structure from the primary structure, we require a set of parameters. Any constants appearing in the model are specified by these parameters, which also provide a mechanism for efficient and accurate use of data. To estimate these model parameters there are many algorithms out of which the most popular one is the EM algorithm or called the Expectation Maximization Algorithm. These model parameters are estimated with the use of protein datasets like RS126 by using the Bayesian Probabilistic method (data set being categorical). This paper can then be extended into comparing the efficiency of EM algorithm to the other algorithms for estimating the model parameters, which will in turn lead to an efficient component for the Protein Secondary Structure Prediction. Further this paper provides a scope to use these parameters for predicting secondary structure of proteins using machine learning techniques like neural networks and fuzzy logic. The ultimate objective will be to obtain greater accuracy better than the previously achieved.

Keywords: model parameters, expectation maximization algorithm, protein secondary structure prediction, bioinformatics

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2376 A Study on Pakistani Students’ Attitude towards Learning Mathematics and Science at Secondary Level

Authors: Aroona Hashmi

Abstract:

Student’s success in Mathematics and Science depends upon their learning attitude towards both subjects. It also influences the participation rate of the learner. The present study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitude towards Mathematics and Science at Secondary level. Students of the both gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 276 students and 20 teachers from 10 Government schools from Lahore District. Questionnaire and interview were selected as tool for data collection. The results showed that Pakistani students’ positive attitude towards learning Mathematics and Science. There was a significance difference between the students’ attitude towards learning Mathematics and no significance difference was found in the students’ attitude towards learning Science at Secondary level.

Keywords: attitude, mathematics, science, secondary level

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2375 Compensation Analysis on Secondary Public Hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai

Authors: Wei Fang, Jian Jun Gu, Di Xue

Abstract:

Objective: To analyze the employee compensation status of secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in order to provide information for compensation reform of public hospitals in Shanghai and as well as in China. Methods: We surveyed all 15 secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai to collect hospital annual compensation data for their employees and to investigate their suggestions for compensation reform in public hospitals in China. We also collected related annual compensation data of employees in Shanghai and of physicians in the USA from Shanghai statistical Yearbook 2013 and from Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Results: The average annual compensation for the employees in secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai in 2012 was 2.65 times of that for overall employees in Shanghai. The physician’s compensation in these public hospitals was relatively lower than that in the USA. Conclusion: The physicians’ compensation in the secondary public hospitals of Pudong New Area in Shanghai should be increased rationally and new compensation reform in public hospitals in Shanghai should be carefully designed.

Keywords: human resource, compensation, public hospital, Shanghai

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2374 Scoliosis Effect towards of Incidence of the Secondary Osteoarthritis on the Knee in Athletes at the National Sports Cibubur Hospital on July 2013-April 2014

Authors: Basuki Supartono, Nunuk Nugrohowati, Ryan Gamma Andiraldi

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis of the knee can occur due to scoliosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of scoliosis cause secondary osteoarthritis on the knee. This research use an analytic cross-sectional design. The total sample of 92 athletes scoliosis taken by simple random sampling technique. The data obtained were analyzing with Chi-square test, Fisher and Prevalence Ratio. The results of analysis show that there are influences on the incidence of scoliosis secondary osteoarthritis on the knee in athletes at the National Sports Hospital. Based on the criteria in the Cobbs angle had the results (p = 0.022 (p <0.05)), moderate Cobbs angle degree were 7.5 times more at risk of causing secondary osteoarthritis on the knee than a mild degree. While the shape of the curve scoliosis is getting results (p = 0.038 (p <0.05)), the shape of the S curve scoliosis 3.2 times more at risk of causing secondary osteoarthritis on the knee than the curve C. It can be concluded that there is significant influence between the Cobbs angle, shape of the curve scoliosis on the incidence of secondary osteoarthritis on the knee in National Sports Cibubur Hospital on July 2013- April 2014

Keywords: Cobbs angle, curve shape scoliosis, secondary osteoarthritis on the knee, analytic cross-sectional design

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