Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 647

Search results for: pragmatic instruction

647 Interlanguage Pragmatics Instruction: Evidence from EFL Teachers

Authors: Asma Ben Abdallah

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Interlanguage Pragmatics (ILP) Instruction has brought a lot of enlightenment for Foreign Language Teaching and has secured itself a deserved position in SLA research. In the Tunisian context, ILP instruction remains less explored for academics and educational practitioners. In our experience as teachers, both at secondary school and at university levels, the instruction and assessment of pragmatics seem to be contentious. This paper firstly introduces the theoretical models of Interlanguage pragmatics Instruction and focuses on their implications for foreign language teaching. This study builds on the work of Ben Abdallah (2015) that investigated the effects of pragmatic Instruction on Tunisian EFL Learners where pragmatic Instruction has been approached from the perspective of students and their learning strategies. The data for the present study, however, come from Tunisian EFL teachers by investigating their pragmatics practices and their perceptions of pragmatic instruction. The findings indicated that EFL teachers have pragmatic awareness; yet, their reflections revealed that their awareness was mostly on theoretical pragmatic knowledge, and not explicitly brought into practical pragmatic applications. The paper concludes by promoting pragmatics instruction with the suggestion that EFL teachers should teach pragmatics in class.

Keywords: interlanguage pragmatics theory, pragmatics, pragmatic instruction, SLA

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646 Pragmatic Development of Chinese Sentence Final Particles via Computer-Mediated Communication

Authors: Qiong Li

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This study investigated in which condition computer-mediated communication (CMC) could promote pragmatic development. The focal feature included four Chinese sentence final particles (SFPs), a, ya, ba, and ne. They occur frequently in Chinese, and function as mitigators to soften the tone of speech. However, L2 acquisition of SFPs is difficult, suggesting the necessity of additional exposure to or explicit instruction on Chinese SFPs. This study follows this line and aims to explore two research questions: (1) Is CMC combined with data-driven instruction more effective than CMC alone in promoting L2 Chinese learners’ SFP use? (2) How does L2 Chinese learners’ SFP use change over time, as compared to the production of native Chinese speakers? The study involved 19 intermediate-level learners of Chinese enrolled at a private American university. They were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) the control group (N = 10), which was exposed to SFPs through CMC alone, (2) the treatment group (N = 9), which was exposed to SFPs via CMC and data-driven instruction. Learners interacted with native speakers on given topics through text-based CMC over Skype. Both groups went through six 30-minute CMC sessions on a weekly basis, with a one-week interval after the first two CMC sessions and a two-week interval after the second two CMC sessions (nine weeks in total). The treatment group additionally received a data-driven instruction after the first two sessions. Data analysis focused on three indices: token frequency, type frequency, and acceptability of SFP use. Token frequency was operationalized as the raw occurrence of SFPs per clause. Type frequency was the range of SFPs. Acceptability was rated by two native speakers using a rating rubric. The results showed that the treatment group made noticeable progress over time on the three indices. The production of SFPs approximated the native-like level. In contrast, the control group only slightly improved on token frequency. Only certain SFPs (a and ya) reached the native-like use. Potential explanations for the group differences were discussed in two aspects: the property of Chinese SFPs and the role of CMC and data-driven instruction. Though CMC provided the learners with opportunities to notice and observe SFP use, as a feature with low saliency, SFPs were not easily noticed in input. Data-driven instruction in the treatment group directed the learners’ attention to these particles, which facilitated the development.

Keywords: computer-mediated communication, data-driven instruction, pragmatic development, second language Chinese, sentence final particles

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645 Effectiveness of Language Learning Strategy Instruction Based on CALLA on Iranian EFL Language Strategy Use

Authors: Reza Khani, Ziba Hosseini

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Ever since the importance of language learning strategy instruction (LLS) has been distinguished, there has been growing interest on how to teach LLS in language learning classrooms. So thus this study attempted to implement language strategy instruction based on CALLA approach for Iranian EFL learners in a real classroom setting. The study was testing the hypothesis that strategy instruction result in improved linguistic strategy of students. The participant of the study were 240 EFL learners who received language learning instruction for four months. The data collected using Oxford strategy inventory for language learning. The results indicated the instruction had statistically significant effect on language strategy use of intervention group who received instruction.

Keywords: CALLA, language learning strategy, language learning strategy instruction, Iranian EFL language strategy

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644 An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Student Achievement in Differing Science Content Areas

Authors: Edwin Christmann, John Hicks

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This meta-analysis compared the mathematics achievement of students who received either traditional instruction or traditional instruction supplemented with computer-assisted instruction (CAI). From the 27 conclusions, an overall mean effect size of 0.236 was calculated, indicating that, on average, students receiving traditional instruction supplemented with CAI attained higher mathematics achievement than did 59.48 percent of those receiving traditional instruction per se.

Keywords: CAI, science, meta-analysis, traditional

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643 Functions and Pragmatic Aspects of English Nonsense

Authors: Natalia V. Ursul

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In linguistic studies, the question of nonsense is attracting increasing interest. Nonsense is usually defined as spoken or written words that have no meaning. However, this definition is likely to be outdated as any speech act is generated due to the speaker’s pragmatic reasons, thus it cannot be purely illogical or meaningless. In the current paper a new working definition of nonsense as a linguistic medium will be formulated; moreover, the pragmatic peculiarities of newly coined linguistic patterns and possible ways of their interpretation will be discussed.

Keywords: nonsense, nonse verse, pragmatics, speech act

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642 Using Metacognitive Strategies in Reading Comprehension by EFL Students

Authors: Simin Sadeghi-Saeb

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Metacognitive strategies consistently play important roles in reading comprehension. The metacognitive strategies involve the active monitoring and consequent regulation and orchestration of the cognitive processes in relation to the cognitive objects or data on which they bear. In this paper, the effect of instruction in using metacognitive strategies on reading academic materials, type of metacognitive strategies were mostly used by college university students before and after the instruction and the level they use those strategies before and after the instruction were studied. For these aims, 50 female college students were chosen. Then, they were divided randomly into two groups, experimental and control groups. At first session, students in both groups took the standard TOFEL exam. After the pre-test had been administered, the instruction began. After treatment, a post-test was taken. It is useful to state that after pre-test and post-test the same questionnaire was handed to the students of experimental group. The results of this research show that the instruction of metacognitive strategies has positive effect on the students' scores in reading comprehension tests. Furthermore, it showed that before and after the instruction, the students' usage of metacognitive strategies changed. Also, it demonstrated that the instruction affected the students' level of metacognitive strategies' usage.

Keywords: EFL students, English reading comprehension, instruction, metacognitive strategies

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641 The Development of Web Based Instruction on Puppet Show

Authors: Piyanut Sujit

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The purposes of this study were to: 1) create knowledge and develop web based instruction on the puppet show, 2) evaluate the effectiveness of the web based instruction on the puppet show by using the criteria of 80/80, and 3) compare and analyze the achievement of the students before and after learning with web based instruction on the puppet show. The population of this study included 53 students in the Program of Library and Information Sciences who registered in the subject of Reading and Reading Promotion in semester 1/2011, Suansunandha Rajabhat University. The research instruments consisted of web based instruction on the puppet show, specialist evaluation form, achievement test, and tests during the lesson. The research statistics included arithmetic mean, variable means, standard deviation, and t-test in SPSS for Windows. The results revealed that the effectiveness of the developed web based instruction was 84.67/80.47 which was higher than the set criteria at 80/80. The student achievement before and after learning showed statistically significant difference at 0.05 as in the hypothesis.

Keywords: puppet, puppet show, web based instruction, library and information sciences

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640 A Study on the Implementation of Differentiating Instruction Based on Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Yong Wook Kim

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The diversity of students in regular classrooms is increasing due to expand inclusive education and increase multicultural students in South Korea. In this diverse classroom environment, the universal design for learning (UDL) has been proposed as a way to meet both the educational need and social expectation of student achievement. UDL offers a variety of practical teaching methods, one of which is a differentiating instruction. The differentiating instruction has been pointed out resource limitation, organizational resistance, and lacks easy-to-implement framework. However, through the framework provided by the UDL, differentiating instruction is able to be flexible in their implementation. In practice, the UDL and differentiating instruction are complementary, but there is still a lack of research that suggests specific implementation methods that apply both concepts at the same time. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of differentiating instruction strategies according to learner characteristics (readiness, interest, learning profile), components of differentiating instruction (content, process, performance, learning environment), especially UDL principles (representation, behavior and expression, participation) existed in differentiating instruction, and implementation of UDL-based differentiating instruction through the Planning for All Learner (PAL) and UDL Lesson Plan Cycle. It is meaningful that such a series of studies can enhance the possibility of more concrete and realistic UDL-based teaching and learning strategies in the classroom, especially in inclusive settings.

Keywords: universal design for learning, differentiating instruction, UDL lesson plan, PAL

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639 The Formation of the Diminutive in Colloquial Jordanian Arabic

Authors: Yousef Barahmeh

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This paper is a linguistic and pragmatic analysis of the use of the diminutive in Colloquial Jordanian Arabic (CJA). It demonstrates a peculiar form of the diminutive in CJA inflected by means of feminine plural ends with -aat suffix. The analysis shows that the pragmatic function(s) of the diminutive in CJA refers primarily to ‘littleness’ while the morphological inflection conveys the message of ‘the plethora’. Examples of this linguistic phenomenon are intelligible and often include a large number of words that are culture-specific to the rural dialect in the north of Jordan. In both cases, the diminutive in CJA is an adaptive strategy relative to its pragmatic and social contexts.

Keywords: Colloquial Jordanian Arabic, diminutive, morphology, pragmatics

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638 The Student's Satisfaction toward Web Based Instruction on Puppet Show

Authors: Piyanut Suchit

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The purposes of this study was to investigate students’ satisfaction learning with the web based instruction on the puppet show. The population of this study includes 53 students in the Program of Library and Information Sciences who registered in the subject of Puppet for Assisting Learning Development in semester 2/2011, Suansunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. The research instruments consist of web based instruction on the puppet show, and questionnaires for students’ satisfaction. The research statistics includes arithmetic mean, and standard deviation. The results revealed that the students reported very high satisfaction with mean = 4.63, SD = 0.52, on the web based instruction.

Keywords: puppet show, web based instruction, satisfaction, Suansunandha Rajabhat University

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637 Pragmatic Competence in Pakistani English Language Learners

Authors: Ghazala Kausar

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This study investigates Pakistani first year university students’ perception of the role of pragmatics in their general approach to learning English. The research is triggered by National Curriculum’s initiative to provide holistic opportunities to the students for language development and to equip them with competencies to use English language in academic and social contexts (New English National Curriculum for I-XII). The traditional grammar translation and examination oriented method is believed to reduce learners to silent listener (Zhang, 2008: Zhao 2009). This lead to the inability of the students to interpret discourse by relating utterances to their meaning, understanding the intentions of the users and how language is used in specific setting (Bachman & Palmer, 1996, 2010). Pragmatic competence is a neglected area as far as teaching and learning English in Pakistan is concerned. This study focuses on the different types of pragmatic knowledge, learners perception of such knowledge and learning strategies employed by different learners to process the learning in general and pragmatic in particular. This study employed three data collecting tools; a questionnaire, discourse completion task and interviews to elicit data from first year university students regarding their perception of pragmatic competence. Results showed that Pakistani first year university learners have limited pragmatic knowledge. Although they acknowledged the importance of linguistic knowledge for linguistic competence in the students but argued that insufficient English proficiency, limited knowledge of pragmatics, insufficient language material and tasks were major reasons of pragmatic failure.

Keywords: pragmatic competence, Pakistani college learners, linguistic competence

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636 Cross-Tier Collaboration between Preservice and Inservice Language Teachers in Designing Online Video-Based Pragmatic Assessment

Authors: Mei-Hui Liu

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This paper reports the progression of language teachers’ learning to assess students’ speech act performance via online videos in a cross-tier professional growth community. This yearlong research project collected multiple data sources from several stakeholders, including 12 preservice and 4 inservice English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers, 4 English professionals, and 82 high school students. Data sources included surveys, (focus group) interviews, online reflection journals, online video-based assessment items/scores, and artifacts related to teacher professional learning. The major findings depicted the effectiveness of this proposed learning module on language teacher development in pragmatic assessment as well as its impact on student learning experience. All these teachers appreciated this professional learning experience which enhanced their knowledge in assessing students’ pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic performance in an English speech act (i.e., making refusals). They learned how to design online video-based assessment items by attending to specific linguistic structures, semantic formula, and sociocultural issues. They further became aware of how to sharpen pragmatic instructional skills in the near future after putting theories into online assessment and related classroom practices. Additionally, data analysis revealed students’ achievement in and satisfaction with the designed online assessment. Yet, during the professional learning process most participating teachers encountered challenges in reaching a consensus on selecting appropriate video clips from available sources to present the sociocultural values in English-speaking refusal contexts. Also included was to construct test items which could testify the influence of interlanguage transfer on students’ pragmatic performance in various conversational scenarios. With pedagogical implications and research suggestions, this study adds to the increasing amount of research into integrating preservice and inservice EFL teacher education in pragmatic assessment and relevant instruction. Acknowledgment: This research project is sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology in the Republic of China under the grant number of MOST 106-2410-H-029-038.

Keywords: cross-tier professional development, inservice EFL teachers, pragmatic assessment, preservice EFL teachers, student learning experience

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635 Gaming Mouse Redesign Based on Evaluation of Pragmatic and Hedonic Aspects of User Experience

Authors: Thedy Yogasara, Fredy Agus

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In designing a product, it is currently crucial to focus not only on the product’s usability based on performance measures, but also on user experience (UX) that includes pragmatic and hedonic aspects of product use. These aspects play a significant role in fulfillment of user needs, both functionally and psychologically. Pragmatic quality refers to as product’s perceived ability to support the fulfillment of behavioral goals. It is closely linked to functionality and usability of the product. In contrast, hedonic quality is product’s perceived ability to support the fulfillment of psychological needs. Hedonic quality relates to the pleasure of ownership and use of the product, including stimulation for personal development and communication of user’s identity to others through the product. This study evaluates the pragmatic and hedonic aspects of gaming mice G600 and Razer Krait using AttrakDiff tool to create an improved design that is able to generate positive UX. AttrakDiff is a method that measures pragmatic and hedonic scores of a product with a scale between -3 to +3 through four attributes (i.e. Pragmatic Quality, Hedonic Quality-Identification, Hedonic Quality-Stimulation, and Attractiveness), represented by 28 pairs of opposite words. Based on data gathered from 15 participants, it is identified that gaming mouse G600 needs to be redesigned because of its low grades (pragmatic score: -0.838, hedonic score: 1, attractiveness score: 0.771). The redesign process focuses on the attributes with poor scores and takes into account improvement suggestions collected from interview with the participants. The redesigned mouse G600 is evaluated using the previous method. The result shows higher scores in pragmatic quality (1.929), hedonic quality (1.703), and attractiveness (1.667), indicating that the redesigned mouse is more capable of creating pleasurable experience of product use.

Keywords: AttrakDiff, hedonic aspect, pragmatic aspect, product design, user experience

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634 Accentuation Moods of Blaming Utterances in Egyptian Arabic: A Pragmatic Study of Prosodic Focus

Authors: Reda A. H. Mahmoud

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This paper investigates the pragmatic meaning of prosodic focus through four accentuation moods of blaming utterances in Egyptian Arabic. Prosodic focus results in various pragmatic meanings when the speaker utters the same blaming expression in different emotional moods: the angry, the mocking, the frustrated, and the informative moods. The main objective of this study is to interpret the meanings of these four accentuation moods in relation to their illocutionary forces and pre-locutionary effects, the integrated features of prosodic focus (e.g., tone movement distributions, pitch accents, lengthening of vowels, deaccentuation of certain syllables/words, and tempo), and the consonance between the former prosodic features and certain lexico-grammatical components to communicate the intentions of the speaker. The data on blaming utterances has been collected via elicitation and pre-recorded material, and the selection of blaming utterances is based on the criteria of lexical and prosodic regularity to be processed and verified by three computer programs, Praat, Speech Analyzer, and Spectrogram Freeware. A dual pragmatic approach is established to interpret expressive blaming utterance and their lexico-grammatical distributions into intonational focus structure units. The pragmatic component of this approach explains the variable psychological attitudes through the expressions of blaming and their effects whereas the analysis of prosodic focus structure is used to describe the intonational contours of blaming utterances and other prosodic features. The study concludes that every accentuation mood has its different prosodic configuration which influences the listener’s interpretation of the pragmatic meanings of blaming utterances.

Keywords: pragmatics, pragmatic interpretation, prosody, prosodic focus

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633 Pragmatic Survey of Precedence as Linguistic 'Déjà Vu' in Political Text and Talk

Authors: Zarine Avetisyan

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Both in language and literature there exists the theory of recurrence of text and talk chunks which brings us to the notion of precedence. It must be stated that precedence as a pragma-linguistic phenomenon is yet underknown and it is the main objective of the present research to revisit and reveal it thoroughly. In line with the main research objective, analysis of political text and talk provides abundant relevant data for the illustration of the phenomenon of precedence. The analysis focuses on certain pragmatic universals (e.g. intention) and categories (e.g. speech techniques) which lead to the disclosure of the present object of study.

Keywords: intention, precedence, political discourse, pragmatic universals

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632 A Development of Creative Instruction Model through Digital Media

Authors: Kathaleeya Chanda, Panupong Chanplin, Suppara Charoenpoom

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This purposes of the development of creative instruction model through digital media are to: 1) enable learners to learn from instruction media application; 2) help learners implementing instruction media correctly and appropriately; and 3) facilitate learners to apply technology for searching information and practicing skills to implement technology creatively. The sample group consists of 130 cases of secondary students studying in Bo Kluea School, Bo Kluea Nuea Sub-district, Bo Kluea District, Nan Province. The probability sampling was selected through the simple random sampling and the statistics used in this research are percentage, mean, standard deviation and one group pretest – posttest design. The findings are summarized as follows: The congruence index of instruction media for occupation and technology subjects is appropriate. By comparing between learning achievements before implementing the instruction media and learning achievements after implementing the instruction media, it is found that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. For the learning achievements from instruction media implementation, pretest mean is 16.24 while posttest mean is 26.28. Besides, pretest and posttest results are compared and differences of mean are tested, the test results show that the posttest achievements are higher than the pretest achievements with statistical significance at the level of .05. This can be interpreted that the learners achieve better learning progress.

Keywords: teaching learning model, digital media, creative instruction model, Bo Kluea school

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631 Effects of Bilingual Education in the Teaching and Learning Practices in the Continuous Improvement and Development of k12 Program

Authors: Miriam Sebastian

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This research focused on the effects of bilingual education as medium of instruction to the academic performance of selected intermediate students of Miriam’s Academy of Valenzuela Inc. . An experimental design was used, with language of instruction as the independent variable and the different literacy skills as dependent variables. The sample consisted of experimental students comprises of 30 students were exposed to bilingual education (Filipino and English) . They were given pretests and were divided into three groups: Monolingual Filipino, Monolingual English, and Bilingual. They were taught different literacy skills for eight weeks and were then administered the posttests. Data was analyzed and evaluated in the light of the central processing and script-dependent hypotheses. Based on the data, it can be inferred that monolingual instruction in either Filipino or English had a stronger effect on the students’ literacy skills compared to bilingual instruction. Moreover, mother tongue-based instruction, as compared to second-language instruction, had stronger effect on the preschoolers’ literacy skills. Such results have implications not only for mother tongue-based (MTB) but also for English as a second language (ESL) instruction in the country

Keywords: bilingualism, effects, monolingual, function, multilingual, mother tongue

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630 Instruction and Learning Design Consideration for the Development of Mobile Learning Application

Authors: M. Sarrab, M. Elbasir

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Most of mobile learning applications currently available are developed for the formal education and learning environment. Those applications are characterized by the improvement of the interaction process between instructors and learners to provide more collaboration and flexibility in the learning process. Despite the long history and large amount of research on Instruction design model and mobile learning there is no complete and well defined set of steps to follow in designing mobile learning applications. Based on this scenario, this paper focuses on identifying instruction design phases considerations and influencing factors in developing mobile learning application. This set of instruction design steps includes analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation and continuous has been built from a literature study with focus on standards for learning and mobile application software quality and guidelines. The effort is part of an Omani-funded research project investigating the development, adoption and dissemination of mobile learning in Oman.

Keywords: instruction design, mobile learning, mobile application

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629 The Philippines’ War on Drugs: a Pragmatic Analysis on Duterte's Commemorative Speeches

Authors: Ericson O. Alieto, Aprillete C. Devanadera

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The main objective of the study is to determine the dominant speech acts in five commemorative speeches of President Duterte. This study employed Speech Act Theory and Discourse analysis to determine how the speech acts features connote the pragmatic meaning of Duterte’s speeches. Identifying the speech acts is significant in elucidating the underlying message or the pragmatic meaning of the speeches. From the 713 sentences or utterances from the speeches, assertive with 208 occurrences from the corpus or 29% is the dominant speech acts. It was followed by expressive with 177 or 25% occurrences, directive accounts for 152 or 15% occurrences. While commisive accounts for 104 or 15% occurrences and declarative got the lowest percentage of occurrences with 72 or 10% only. These sentences when uttered by Duterte carry a certain power of language to move or influence people. Thus, the present study shows the fundamental message perceived by the listeners. Moreover, the frequent use of assertive and expressive not only explains the pragmatic message of the speeches but also reflects the personality of President Duterte.

Keywords: commemorative speech, discourse analysis, duterte, pragmatics

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628 A Religious Book Translation by Pragmatic Approach: The Vajrachedika-Prajna-Paramita Sutra

Authors: Yoon-Cheol Park

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This research focuses on examining the Chinese character-Korean language translation of the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra by a pragmatic approach. The background of this research is that there were no previous researches which looked into the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita translation by pragmatic approach until now. Even though it is composed of conversational structures between Buddha and his disciple unlike other Buddhist sutras, most of its translation could find the traces to have pursued literal translation and still has now overlooked pragmatic elements in it. Accordingly, it is meaningful to examine the messages through speaker and hearer relation and between speaker intention and utterance meaning. Practically, the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra includes pragmatic elements, such as speech acts, presupposition, conversational implicature, the cooperative principle and politeness. First, speech acts in its sutra text show the translation to reveal obvious performance meanings of language to the target text. And presupposition in their dialogues is conveyed by paraphrasing or substituting abstruse language with easy expressions. Conversational implicature in utterances makes it possible to understand the meanings of holy words by relying on utterance contexts. In particular, relevance results in an increase of readability in the translation owing to previous utterance contexts. Finally, politeness in the target text is conveyed with natural stylistics through the honorific system of the Korean language. These elements mean that the pragmatic approach can function as a useful device in conveying holy words in a specific, practical and direct way depending on utterance contexts. Therefore, we expect that taking a pragmatic approach in translating the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita sutra will provide a theoretical foundation for seeking better translation methods than the literal translations of the past. And it implies that the translation of Buddhist sutra needs to convey messages by translation methods which take into account the characteristic of sutra text like the Vajrachedika-prajna-paramita.

Keywords: buddhist sutra, Chinese character-Korean language translation, pragmatic approach, utterance context

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627 An Analysis of Instruction Checklist Based on Universal Design for Learning

Authors: Yong Wook Kim

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The purpose of this study is to develop an instruction analysis checklist applicable to inclusive setting based on the Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. To do this, two self-validation reviews, two expert validity reviews, and two usability evaluations were conducted based on the Universal Design for Learning Guideline 2.0. After validation and usability evaluation, a total of 36 items consisting of 4 items for each instruction was developed. In all questions, examples are presented for the purpose of reinforcing concrete. All the items were judged by the 3-point scale. The observation results were provided through a radial chart allowing SWOT analysis of the universal design for learning of teachers. The developed checklist provides a description of the principles and guidelines in the checklist itself as it requires a thorough understanding by the observer of the universal design for learning through prior education. Based on the results of the study, the instruction criteria, the specificity of the criteria, the number of questions, and the method of arrangement were discussed. As a future research, this study proposed the characteristics of application of universal design for learning for each subject, the comparison with the observation results through the self-report teaching tool, and the continual revision and supplementation of the lecture checklist.

Keywords: inclusion, universal design for learning, instruction analysis, instruction checklist

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626 Pragmatic Strategies of Selected Online Articles on the Buhari/Jubril Dilemma

Authors: Oluwaseun Amusa

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The online space has continued to be a platform for not only private and mundane discussions but also a tribune for voicing critical political and national opinions. Nigerians and the international community have employed the online media, as well as other media platforms to articulate their thoughts on the claims which favour possibilities of the demise of the incumbent president of Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari, after a prolonged illness in year 2007 and the ploy of a Jubril of Sudan clone in his place. This study thus examines the pragmatic strategies employed in the online articles on the national dilemma caused by the Buhari/Jubril claims and refutals, in response to the lacuna in the literature on such analytical investigations on the subject. Two online articles titled, 'Buhari: The real, the fake and the dead' and 'Taking the Buhari/Jubril story seriously', authored by two Nigerian writers, Tunde Odesola and Abimbola Adelakun, respectively and retrieved online from 360nobs.com and Nairaland blogs, on December 3, 2018, and December 7, 2018, respectively, served as data for the study. The data were analysed using the Stance Theory and the Pragmatic Act Theory. Findings showed that the writers employed stance acts, rhetorical questions, metaphors, histo-political allusions, name-calling, and derogatives, in achieving the pragmeme of disabusing. This results in a pragmatic reconstruction of readers' views on the issue.

Keywords: Buhari/Jubril claims, online articles, pragmatic strategies, stance theory

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625 The Effect of Computer-Mediated vs. Face-to-Face Instruction on L2 Pragmatics: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Marziyeh Yousefi, Hossein Nassaji

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This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis of studies on the effects of instruction mode on learning second language pragmatics during the last decade (from 2006 to 2016). After establishing related inclusion/ exclusion criteria, 39 published studies were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Studies were later coded for face-to-face and computer-assisted mode of instruction. Statistical procedures were applied to obtain effect sizes. It was found that Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning studies generated larger effects than Face-to-Face instruction.

Keywords: meta-analysis, effect size, L2 pragmatics, comprehensive meta-analysis, face-to-face, computer-assisted language learning

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624 Impact of Using Peer Instruction and PhET Simulations on the Motivation and Physics Anxiety

Authors: Jaypee Limueco

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This research focused on the impact of Peer Instruction and PhET Simulations on the level of motivation and Physics anxiety of Grade 9 students. Two groups of students were used in the study. The experimental group involved 65 registered students while the control group has 64 registered students. To determine the level of motivation of students in learning physics, the Physics Motivation Questionnaire was administered. On the other hand, to determine the level of Physics anxiety of the students in each group, Physics Anxiety Rating Scale was used. Peer Instruction supplemented with PhET simulations was implemented in the experimental group while the traditional lecture method was used in the control group. Both instruments were again administered after the implementation of the two different teaching approaches. “Wilcoxon Signed Rank test” was used to test the significant difference between pretest and posttest of each group. “Mann Whitney U” was used to test if significant differences exist between each group before and after instruction. Results showed that there is no significant difference between the level of motivation and anxiety of the experimental and control group before the implementation at p<0.05 significance level. It implies that the students have the same level of motivation and physics anxiety before instruction. However, the results of both tests have significant differences between the groups after instruction. It is also found that there is a significant positive change in the responses of the students in the experimental group while no change was evident on the control. The result of the analysis of the Mann Whitney U shows that the change in the attributes of the students is caused by the treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that Peer Instruction and PhET simulation helped in alleviating motivation of students and minimizing their anxiety towards Physics.

Keywords: anxiety, motivation, peer instruction, PhET simulations

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623 Pragmatic Discourse Functions of Locative Enclitics: A Descriptive Study of Luganda Locative Enclitics

Authors: Moureen Nanteza

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This paper examines the pragmatic inferences of locative enclitics in Luganda (JE 15). Locative enclitics are words which cannot stand alone but are attached to a verb to make meaning. Their status is ambiguous between free word and affix, hence motivating their analysis as enclitics. The enclitics are attached on the post-final position of their hosts. Although the locative enclitics occur regularly in some Bantu languages (Luganda, Runyankore-Rukiga, Runyoro-Rutooro, Lunda, Ikizu, Fwe, Chichewa, Kinyarwanda among others), they have not been widely studied in the literature. The paper looks at verbal locative enclitics only but the locative enclitics also appear in other word categories in Luganda. This study is descriptive, with a qualitative approach. The data used in this study was collected through reviewing documents in Luganda - novels and plays and also the spoken discourses. In this study, the enclitic in Luganda serves many non-locative discourse-pragmatic functions which include showing urgency, politeness, showing the idea of ‘instead of’ and also emphasis. It has also been observed that enclitics are widely used in the urban youth languages (‘Luyaaye’) but this was not the focus of the current study. The results from the study offer explanations of key areas of syntax, morphology, and pragmatics relating to the form and functions of locative enclitics and the whole system of locative marking in Luganda and other Bantu languages.

Keywords: Bantu, locative enclitics, Luganda, pragmatic inferences

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622 Comparison Learning Vocabulary Implicitly and Explicitly

Authors: Akram Hashemi

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This study provided an empirical evidence for learners of elementary level of language proficiency to investigate the potential role of contextualization in vocabulary learning. Prior to the main study, pilot study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the researcher-made pretest and posttest. After manifesting the homogeneity of the participants, the participants (n = 90) were randomly assigned into three equal groups, i.e., two experimental groups and a control group. They were pretested by a vocabulary test, in order to test participants' pre-knowledge of vocabulary. Then, vocabulary instruction was provided through three methods of visual instruction, the use of context and the use of conventional techniques. At the end of the study, all participants took the same posttest in order to assess their vocabulary gain. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is a significant difference between learning vocabulary visually and learning vocabulary contextually. The results of paired sample t-test showed that different teaching strategies have significantly different impacts on learners’ vocabulary gains. Also, the contextual strategy was significantly more effective than visual strategy in improving students’ performance in vocabulary test.

Keywords: vocabulary instruction, explicit instruction, implicit instruction, strategy

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621 Addressing Differentiation Using Mobile-Assisted Language Learning

Authors: Ajda Osifo, Fatma Elshafie

Abstract:

Mobile-assisted language learning favors social-constructivist and connectivist theories to learning and adaptive approaches to teaching. It offers many opportunities to differentiated instruction in meaningful ways as it enables learners to become more collaborative, engaged and independent through additional dimensions such as web-based media, virtual learning environments, online publishing to an imagined audience and digitally mediated communication. MALL applications can be a tool for the teacher to personalize and adjust instruction according to the learners’ needs and give continuous feedback to improve learning and performance in the process, which support differentiated instruction practices. This paper explores the utilization of Mobile Assisted Language Learning applications as a supporting tool for effective differentiation in the language classroom. It reports overall experience in terms of implementing MALL to shape and apply differentiated instruction and expand learning options. This session is structured in three main parts: first, a review of literature and effective practice of academically responsive instruction will be discussed. Second, samples of differentiated tasks, activities, projects and learner work will be demonstrated with relevant learning outcomes and learners’ survey results. Finally, project findings and conclusions will be given.

Keywords: academically responsive instruction, differentiation, mobile learning, mobile-assisted language learning

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620 [Keynote Talk]: Pragmatic Leadership in School Organization and Research in Physical Education Professional Development

Authors: Ellie Abdi

Abstract:

This paper is a review of a recently published book (April 2018) by Dr. Ellie Abdi. The book divides into two sections of 1) leadership in school organization and 2) pragmatic research in physical education professional development. The first part of the book explores school organizational development in terms of 1) communication development, 2) community development, and 3) decision making development. It concludes to acknowledge that decision making is the heart of educational management. This is while communication and community are essential to the development of the school organization. The role of a leader in a professional learning community (PLC) is acknowledged with the organizational development plan and moves onto 5 overall objectives of a professional development plan. It clarifies that professional learning community (PLC) benefits both students and professionals in education. Furthermore, professional development needs to be involved in opportunities to value diversity and foundations of learning, in addition to search for veteran teachers who offer a rich combination of experience and perspective. School educational platform in terms of teacher training in physical education is discussed in the second part. The book reviews that well-designed programs are powerful and constructive ways to identify the strength and weaknesses of teachers. Post-positivism, constructivism, advocacy/participatory, and pragmatism in teacher education are also disclosed. The book specifically unfolds pragmatic research in professional development of physical education. It provides researchers, doctoral, and masters level students with defined examples. In summary, the book shows how appropriate it is when many different traditions are displayed in a pragmatic way, following the stages of research from development to dissemination.

Keywords: leadership, physical education, pragmatic, professional development

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619 Emotional Intelligence in Educational Arena and Its Pragmatic Concerns

Authors: Mehar Fatima

Abstract:

This study intends to make analysis of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the process of pedagogy and look into its repercussions in different educational institutions including school, college, and university in the capital state of India, Delhi in 2015. Field of education is a complex area with challenging issues in a modern society. Education is the breeding ground for nurturing human souls, and personalities. Since antiquity, man has been in search of truth, wisdom, contentment, peace. His efforts have brought him to acquire these through hardship, evidently through the process of teaching and learning. Computer aids and artificial intelligence have made life easy but complex. Efficient pedagogy involves direct human intervention despite the flux of technological advancements. Time and again, pedagogical practices demand sincere human efforts to understand and improve upon life’s many pragmatic concerns. Apart from the intense academic scientific approaches, EI in academia plays a vital role in the growth of education, positively achieving national progression; ‘pedagogy of pragmatic purpose.’ Use of literature is found to be one of the valuable pragmatic tools of Emotional Intelligence. This research examines the way literature provides useful influence in building better practices in teaching-learning process. The present project also scrutinizes various pieces of world literature and translation, incorporating efforts of intellectuals in promoting comprehensive amity. The importance of EI in educational arena with its pragmatic uses was established by the study of interviews, and questionnaire collected from teachers and students. In summary the analysis of obtained empirical data makes it possible to accomplish that the use Emotional Intelligence in academic scenario yields multisided positive pragmatic outcomes; positive attitude, constructive aptitude, value-added learning, enthusiastic participation, creative thinking, lower apprehension, diminished fear, leading to individual as well as collective advancement, progress, and growth of pedagogical agents.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, human efforts, pedagogy, pragmatic concerns

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618 Relational Attention Shift on Images Using Bu-Td Architecture and Sequential Structure Revealing

Authors: Alona Faktor

Abstract:

In this work, we present a NN-based computational model that can perform attention shifts according to high-level instruction. The instruction specifies the type of attentional shift using explicit geometrical relation. The instruction also can be of cognitive nature, specifying more complex human-human interaction or human-object interaction, or object-object interaction. Applying this approach sequentially allows obtaining a structural description of an image. A novel data-set of interacting humans and objects is constructed using a computer graphics engine. Using this data, we perform systematic research of relational segmentation shifts.

Keywords: cognitive science, attentin, deep learning, generalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 92