Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15009

Search results for: ocean floating photovoltaic system

15009 Evolution of Floating Photovoltaic System Technology and Future Prospect

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Han-Sang Jeong


Floating photovoltaic system is a technology that combines photovoltaic power generation with floating structure. However, since floating technology has not been utilized in photovoltaic generation, there are no standardized criteria. It is separately developed and used by different installation bodies. This paper aims to discuss the change of floating photovoltaic system technology based on examples of floating photovoltaic systems installed in Korea.

Keywords: floating photovoltaic system, floating PV installation, ocean floating photovoltaic system, tracking type floating photovoltaic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
15008 Study and Experimental Analysis of a Photovoltaic Pumping System under Three Operating Modes

Authors: Rekioua D., Mohammedi A., Rekioua T., Mehleb Z.


Photovoltaic water pumping systems is considered as one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications, the economy and reliability of solar electric power made it an excellent choice for remote water pumping. Two conventional techniques are currently in use; the first is the directly coupled technique and the second is the battery buffered photovoltaic pumping system. In this paper, we present different performances of a three operation modes of photovoltaic pumping system. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of different parameters influencing the photovoltaic pumping system performances, such as pumping head, System configuration and climatic conditions. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Keywords: batteries charge mode, photovoltaic pumping system, pumping head, submersible pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
15007 Wave Energy: Efficient Conversion of the Big Waves

Authors: Md. Moniruzzaman


The energy of ocean waves across a large part of the earth is inexhaustible. The whole world will benefit if this endless energy can be used in an easy way. The coastal countries will easily be able to meet their own energy needs. The purpose of this article is to use the infinite energy of the ocean wave in a simple way. i.e. a method of efficient use of wave energy. The paper starts by discussing various forces acting on a floating object and, afterward, about the method. And then a calculation for a 73.39MW hydropower from the tidal wave. Used some sketches/pictures. Finally, the conclusion states the possibilities and advantages.

Keywords: anchor, electricity, floating object, pump, ship city, wave energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 6
15006 Application Case and Result Consideration About Basic and Working Design of Floating PV Generation System Installed in the Upstream of Dam

Authors: Jang-Hwan Yin, Hae-Jeong Jeong, Hyo-Geun Jeong


K-water (Korea Water Resources Corporation) conducted basic and working design about floating PV generation system installed above water in the upstream of dam to develop clean energy using water with importance of green growth is magnified ecumenically. PV Generation System on the ground applied considerably until now raise environmental damage by using farmland and forest land, PV generation system on the building roof is already installed at almost the whole place of business and additional installation is almost impossible. Installation space of PV generation system is infinite and efficient national land use is possible because it is installed above water. Also, PV module's efficiency increase by natural water cooling method and no shade. So it is identified that annual power generation is more than PV generation system on the ground by operating performance data. Although it is difficult to design and construct by high cost, little application case, difficult installation of floater, mooring device, underwater cable, etc. However, it has been examined cost reduction plan such as structure weight lightening, floater optimal design, etc. This thesis described basic and working design result systematically about K-water's floating PV generation system development and suggested optimal design method of floating PV generation system. Main contents are photovoltaic array location select, substation location select related underwater cable, PV module and inverter design, transmission and substation equipment design, floater design related structure weight lightening, mooring system design related water level fluctuation, grid connecting technical review, remote control and monitor equipment design, etc. This thesis will contribute to optimal design and business extension of floating PV generation system, and it will be opportunity revitalize clean energy development using water.

Keywords: PV generation system, clean energy, green growth, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
15005 Preliminary Evaluation of Passive UHF-Band RFID for Identifying Floating Objects on the Sea

Authors: Yasuhiro Sato, Kodai Noma, Kenta Sawada, Kazumasa Adachi, Yoshinori Matsuura, Saori Iwanaga


RFID system is used to identify objects such as passenger identification in public transportation, instead of linear or 2-dimensional barcodes. Key advantages of RFID system are to identify objects without physical contact, and to write arbitrary information into RFID tag. These advantages may help to improve maritime safety and efficiency of activity on the sea. However, utilization of RFID system for maritime scenes has not been considered. In this paper, we evaluate the availability of a generic RFID system operating on the sea. We measure RSSI between RFID tag floating on the sea and RFID antenna, and check whether a RFID reader can access a tag or not, while the distance between a floating buoy and the ship, and the angle are changed. Finally, we discuss the feasibility and the applicability of RFID system on the sea through the results of our preliminary experiment.

Keywords: RFID, experimental evaluation, RSSI, maritime use

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
15004 On the Optimization of a Decentralized Photovoltaic System

Authors: Zaouche Khelil, Talha Abdelaziz, Berkouk El Madjid


In this paper, we present a grid-tied photovoltaic system. The studied topology is structured around a seven-level inverter, supplying a non-linear load. A three-stage step-up DC/DC converter ensures DC-link balancing. The presented system allows the extraction of all the available photovoltaic power. This extracted energy feeds the local load; the surplus energy is injected into the electrical network. During poor weather conditions, where the photovoltaic panels cannot meet the energy needs of the load, the missing power is supplied by the electrical network. At the common connexion point, the network current shows excellent spectral performances.

Keywords: seven-level inverter, multi-level DC/DC converter, photovoltaic, non-linear load

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
15003 Design and Development of Sustained Release Floating Tablet of Stavudine

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere


The purpose of the present study was to prolong the gastric residence time of Stavudine by developing gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Moreover, to study influence of different polymers on its release rate using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, citric acid. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using PVP K-30 as a binder and the other polymers include Pullulan Gum, HPMC K100M, six different formulations with the varying concentrations of polymers were prepared and the tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, Haunsner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility index, post compression physical characteristics, in vitro release, buoyancy, floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) and swelling index. All the formulations showed good floating lag time i.e. less than 3 mins. The batch containing combination of Pullulan Gum and HPMC 100M (i.e. F-6) showed total floating lag time more than 12 h., the highest swelling index among all the prepared batches. The drug release was found to follow zero order kinetics.

Keywords: Suavudine, floating, total floating time (TFT), gastric residence

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
15002 Protection of Floating Roof Petroleum Storage Tanks against Lightning Strokes

Authors: F. M. Mohamed, A. Y. Abdelaziz


The subject of petroleum storage tank fires has gained a great deal of attention due to the high cost of petroleum, and the consequent disruption of petroleum production; therefore, much of the current research has focused on petroleum storage tank fires. Also, the number of petroleum tank fires is oscillating between 15 and 20 fires per year. About 33% of all tank fires are attributed to lightning. Floating roof tanks (FRT’s) are especially vulnerable to lightning. To minimize the likelihood of a fire, the API RP 545 recommends three major modifications to floating roof tanks. This paper was inspired by a stroke of lightning that ignited a fire in a crude oil storage tank belonging to an Egyptian oil company, and is aimed at providing an efficient lightning protection system to the tank under study, in order to avoid the occurrence of such phenomena in the future and also, to give valuable recommendations to be applied to floating roof tank projects.

Keywords: crude oil, fire, floating roof tank, lightning protection system

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
15001 GPU Based Real-Time Floating Object Detection System

Authors: Jie Yang, Jian-Min Meng


A GPU-based floating object detection scheme is presented in this paper which is designed for floating mine detection tasks. This system uses contrast and motion information to eliminate as many false positives as possible while avoiding false negatives. The GPU computation platform is deployed to allow detecting objects in real-time. From the experimental results, it is shown that with certain configuration, the GPU-based scheme can speed up the computation up to one thousand times compared to the CPU-based scheme.

Keywords: object detection, GPU, motion estimation, parallel processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
15000 Optimal Operation of a Photovoltaic Induction Motor Drive Water Pumping System

Authors: Nelson K. Lujara


The performance characteristics of a photovoltaic induction motor drive water pumping system with and without maximum power tracker is analyzed and presented. The analysis is done through determination and assessment of critical loss components in the system using computer aided design (CAD) tools for optimal operation of the system. The results can be used to formulate a well-calibrated computer aided design package of photovoltaic water pumping systems based on the induction motor drive. The results allow the design engineer to pre-determine the flow rate and efficiency of the system to suit particular application.

Keywords: photovoltaic, water pumping, losses, induction motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
14999 Optimum Design of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, Rachid El Bachtiri


The solar power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The implementation of these systems allows to protect the environment and reduce the CO2 gas emission compared to systems trained by diesel generators. This paper presents a comparative study between the photovoltaic pumping system driven by DC motor, and AC motor to define the optimum design of this application. The studied system consists of PV array, DC-DC Boost Converter, inverter, motor-pump set and storage tank. The comparison was carried out to define the characteristics and the performance of each system. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB/ Simulink. The results show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

Keywords: photovoltaic water pumping system, DC motor-pump, AC motor-pump, DC-DC boost converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
14998 Study of a Photovoltaic System Using MPPT Buck-Boost Converter

Authors: A. Bouchakour, L. Zaghba, M. Brahami, A. Borni


The work presented in this paper present the design and the simulation of a centrifugal pump coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) generator via a MPPT controller. The PV system operating is just done in sunny period by using water storage instead of electric energy storage. The process concerns the modelling, identification and simulation of a photovoltaic pumping system, the centrifugal pump is driven by an asynchronous three-phase voltage inverter sine triangle PWM motor through. Two configurations were simulated. For the first, it is about the alimentation of the motor pump group from electrical power supply. For the second, the pump unit is connected directly to the photovoltaic panels by integration of a MPPT control. A code of simulation of the solar pumping system was initiated under the Matlab-Simulink environment. Very convivial and flexible graphic interfaces allow an easy use of the code and knowledge of the effects of change of the sunning and temperature on the pumping system.

Keywords: photovoltaic generator, chopper, electrical motor, centrifugal pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
14997 Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems

Authors: Zakariyya Hassan Abdullahi, Zainab Suleiman Abdullahi, Nuhu Alhaji Muhammad


In this paper, a thorough review of photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems is done on the basis of its performance based on electrical as well as thermal output. Photovoltaic systems are classified according to their use, i.e., electricity production, and thermal, Photovoltaic systems behave in an extraordinary and useful way, they react to light by transforming part of it into electricity useful way and unique, since photovoltaic and thermal applications along with the electricity production. The application of various photovoltaic systems is also discussed in detail. The performance analysis including all aspects, e.g., electrical, thermal, energy, and energy efficiency are also discussed. A case study for PV and PV/T system based on energetic analysis is presented.

Keywords: photovoltaic, renewable, performance, efficiency, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
14996 Impact of the Photovoltaic Integration in Power Distribution Network: Case Study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

Authors: David Hasurungan


This paper objective is to analyze the impact from photovoltaic system integration to power distribution network. The case study in Badak Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant is presented in this paper. Badak LNG electricity network is operated in islanded mode. The total power generation in Badak LNG plant is significantly affected to feed gas supply. Meanwhile, to support the Government regulation, Badak LNG continuously implemented the grid-connected photovoltaic system in existing power distribution network. The impact between train operational mode change in Badak LNG plant and the growth of photovoltaic system is also encompassed in analysis. The analysis and calculation are performed using software Power Factory 15.1.

Keywords: power quality, distribution network, grid-connected photovoltaic system, power management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
14995 A Variable Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Applied to Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, Rachid Elbachtiri


The use of solar energy as a source for pumping water is one of the promising areas in the photovoltaic (PV) application. The energy of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) can be widely improved by employing an MPPT algorithm. This will lead consequently to maximize the electrical motor speed of the system. This paper presents a modified incremental conductance (IncCond) MPPT algorithm with direct control method applied to a standalone PV pumping system. The influence of the algorithm parameters on system behavior is investigated and compared with the traditional (INC) method. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC boost converter, and a PMDC motor-pump. The simulation of the system by MATLAB-SIMULINK is carried out. Simulation results found are satisfactory.

Keywords: photovoltaic pumping system (PVPS), incremental conductance (INC), MPPT algorithm, boost converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
14994 Optimal Implementation of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq


To improve the efficiency of photovoltaic pumping system, more attention has been paid to their setting up. This paper presents an optimal technique to establish an efficient system under different conditions of irradiance and temperature. The state of place should be carefully studied before stage of installation of the over system: local climate, boreholes, soil, crops and water resources. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC boost converter, a DC motor-pump, and storage tank. The concepts shown in this paper presents a support for an optimal installation of each solar pump.

Keywords: photovoltaic pumping system, optimal implementation, boost converter, motor-pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
14993 Analysis of DC\DC Converter of Photovoltaic System with MPPT Algorithms Comparison

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, Mohamed A. Khlifi


This paper presents the analysis of DC/DC converter including a comparative study of control methods to extract the maximum power and to track the maximum power point (MPP) from photovoltaic (PV) systems under changeable environmental conditions. This paper proposes two methods of maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic systems, based on the first hand on P&O control and the other hand on the first order IC. The MPPT system ensures that solar cells can deliver the maximum power possible to the load. Different algorithms are used to design it. Here we compare them and simulate the photovoltaic system with two algorithms. The algorithms are used to control the duty cycle of a DC-DC converter in order to boost the output voltage of the PV generator and guarantee the operation of the solar panels in the Maximum Power Point (MPP). Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithms can effectively improve the efficiency of a photovoltaic array output.

Keywords: solar cell, DC/DC boost converter, MPPT, photovoltaic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
14992 Comparative Study of IC and Perturb and Observe Method of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati


The purpose of this paper is to study and compare two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms in a photovoltaic simulation system and also show a simulation study of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems using perturb and observe algorithm and Incremental conductance algorithm. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize the array efficiency and minimize the overall system cost. Since the maximum power point (MPP) varies, based on the irradiation and cell temperature, appropriate algorithms must be utilized to track the (MPP) and maintain the operation of the system in it. MATLAB/Simulink is used to establish a model of photovoltaic system with (MPPT) function. This system is developed by combining the models established of solar PV module and DC-DC Boost converter. The system is simulated under different climate conditions. Simulation results show that the photovoltaic simulation system can track the maximum power point accurately.

Keywords: incremental conductance algorithm, perturb and observe algorithm, photovoltaic system, simulation results

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
14991 Analysis and Modeling of Photovoltaic System with Different Research Methods of Maximum Power Point Tracking

Authors: Mehdi Ameur, Ahmed Essakdi, Tamou Nasser


The purpose of this paper is the analysis and modeling of the photovoltaic system with MPPT techniques. This system is developed by combining the models of established solar module and DC-DC converter with the algorithms of perturb and observe (P&O), incremental conductance (INC) and fuzzy logic controller(FLC). The system is simulated under different climate conditions and MPPT algorithms to determine the influence of these conditions on characteristic power-voltage of PV system. According to the comparisons of the simulation results, the photovoltaic system can extract the maximum power with precision and rapidity using the MPPT algorithms discussed in this paper.

Keywords: photovoltaic array, maximum power point tracking, MPPT, perturb and observe, P&O, incremental conductance, INC, hill climbing, HC, fuzzy logic controller, FLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
14990 Comparison Between Fuzzy and P&O Control for MPPT for Photovoltaic System Using Boost Converter

Authors: M. Doumi, A. Miloudi, A. G. Aissaoui, K. Tahir, C. Belfedal, S. Tahir


The studies on the photovoltaic system are extensively increasing because of a large, secure, essentially exhaustible and broadly available resource as a future energy supply. However, the output power induced in the photovoltaic modules is influenced by an intensity of solar cell radiation, temperature of the solar cells and so on. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array, for this Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is used. Some MPPT techniques are available in that perturbation and observation (P&O) and Fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The fuzzy control method has been compared with perturb and observe (P&O) method as one of the most widely conventional method used in this area. Both techniques have been analyzed and simulated. MPPT using fuzzy logic shows superior performance and more reliable control with respect to the P&O technique for this application.

Keywords: photovoltaic system, MPPT, perturb and observe, fuzzy logic

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
14989 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit


Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
14988 Modelling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Cell

Authors: Fouad Berrabeh, Sabir Messalti


The performances of the photovoltaic systems are very dependent on different conditions, such as solar irradiation, temperature, etc. Therefore, it is very important to provide detailed studies for different cases in order to provide continuously power, so the photovoltaic system must be properly sized. This paper presents the modelling and simulation of the photovoltaic cell using single diode model. I-V characteristics and P-V characteristics are presented and it verified at different conditions (irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect).

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, BP SX 150 BP solar photovoltaic module, irradiance effect, temperature effect, series resistance effect, I–V characteristics, P–V characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
14987 Photovoltaic Array Cleaning System Design and Evaluation

Authors: Ghoname Abdullah, Hidekazu Nishimura


Dust accumulation on the photovoltaic module's surface results in appreciable loss and negatively affects the generated power. Hence, in this paper, the design of a photovoltaic array cleaning system is presented. The cleaning system utilizes one drive motor, two guide rails, and four sweepers during the cleaning process. The cleaning system was experimentally implemented for one month to investigate its efficiency on PV array energy output. The energy capture over a month for PV array cleaned using the proposed cleaning system is compared with that of the energy capture using soiled PV array. The results show a 15% increase in energy generation from PV array with cleaning. From the results, investigating the optimal scheduling of the PV array cleaning could be an interesting research topic.

Keywords: cleaning system, dust accumulation, PV array, PV module, soiling

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
14986 Stomach Specific Delivery of Andrographolide from Floating in Situ Gelling System

Authors: Pravina Gurjar, Bothiraja Pour, Vijay Kumbhar, Ganesh Dama


Andrographolide (AG), a bioactive phytoconstituent, has a wider range of pharmacological action. However, due to the intestinal degradation, shows low oral bioavailability. The aim of the present work was to develop Floating In-situ gelling Gastro retentive System (FISGS) for AG in order to enhance its site specific absorption and minimize pH dependent hydrolysis in alkaline environment. Further to increase its therapeutic efficacy for peptic ulcer disease caused by H. pyroli. Gellan based floating in situ gelling system of AG were prepared by using sodium citrate and calcium carbonate. The 32 factorial designs was used to study the effect of gellan and calcium carbonate concentration (independent variables) on dependent variable such as viscosity, floating lag time and drug release. Developed system was evaluated for drug content, floating lag time, viscosity, and drug release studies. Drug content, viscosity, and floating lag time was found to be 81-99%, 67-117 Cps, and 3-5 sec, respectively. The obtained system showed good in vitro floating ability for more than 12 h using 0.1 N HCl as dissolution medium with initial burst release followed by the controlled zero order drug release up to 24 hrs. In vivo testing of FISGS of AG to rats demonstrated significant antiulcer activity that were evaluated by various parameters like pH, volume, total acidity, millimole equivalent of H+ ions/30 min, and protein content of gastric content. The densities of all the formulation batches were found to be near about 0.9 and floating duration above 12 hr. It was observed that with the increase in conc. of gellan there was increase in the viscosity of formulation but all formulations were in optimum range. The drug content of optimized batch was found to be 99.23. In histopathology study of stomach, the villi at the mucosal surface, the intercellular junction, the intestinal lumen were intact; no destruction of the epithelium, and submucosal gland in formulation treated and control group animals as compared to pure drug AG and standard ranitidine. Gellan-based in situ gastro retentive floating system could be advantageous in terms of increased bioavailability of AG to maintain an effective drug conc. in gastric fluid as well as in serum for longer period of time.

Keywords: andrographolide, floating drug delivery, in situ gelling system, gastroretentive system

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
14985 Control Technique for Single Phase Bipolar H-Bridge Inverter Connected to the Grid

Authors: L. Hassaine, A. Mraoui, M. R. Bengourina


In photovoltaic system, connected to the grid, the main goal is to control the power that the inverter injects into the grid from the energy provided by the photovoltaic generator. This paper proposes a control technique for a photovoltaic system connected to the grid based on the digital pulse-width modulation (DSPWM) which can synchronise a sinusoidal current output with a grid voltage and generate power at unity power factor. This control is based on H-Bridge inverter controlled by bipolar PWM Switching. The electrical scheme of the system is presented. Simulations results of output voltage and current validate the impact of this method to determinate the appropriate control of the system. A digital design of a generator PWM using VHDL is proposed and implemented on a Xilinx FPGA.

Keywords: grid connected photovoltaic system, H-Bridge inverter, control, bipolar PWM

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
14984 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee


Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
14983 Transport of Inertial Finite-Size Floating Plastic Pollution by Ocean Surface Waves

Authors: Ross Calvert, Colin Whittaker, Alison Raby, Alistair G. L. Borthwick, Ton S. van den Bremer


Large concentrations of plastic have polluted the seas in the last half century, with harmful effects on marine wildlife and potentially to human health. Plastic pollution will have lasting effects because it is expected to take hundreds or thousands of years for plastic to decay in the ocean. The question arises how waves transport plastic in the ocean. The predominant motion induced by waves creates ellipsoid orbits. However, these orbits do not close, resulting in a drift. This is defined as Stokes drift. If a particle is infinitesimally small and the same density as water, it will behave exactly as the water does, i.e., as a purely Lagrangian tracer. However, as the particle grows in size or changes density, it will behave differently. The particle will then have its own inertia, the fluid will exert drag on the particle, because there is relative velocity, and it will rise or sink depending on the density and whether it is on the free surface. Previously, plastic pollution has all been considered to be purely Lagrangian. However, the steepness of waves in the ocean is small, normally about α = k₀a = 0.1 (where k₀ is the wavenumber and a is the wave amplitude), this means that the mean drift flows are of the order of ten times smaller than the oscillatory velocities (Stokes drift is proportional to steepness squared, whilst the oscillatory velocities are proportional to the steepness). Thus, the particle motion must have the forces of the full motion, oscillatory and mean flow, as well as a dynamic buoyancy term to account for the free surface, to determine whether inertia is important. To track the motion of a floating inertial particle under wave action requires the fluid velocities, which form the forcing, and the full equations of motion of a particle to be solved. Starting with the equation of motion of a sphere in unsteady flow with viscous drag. Terms can added then be added to the equation of motion to better model floating plastic: a dynamic buoyancy to model a particle floating on the free surface, quadratic drag for larger particles and a slope sliding term. Using perturbation methods to order the equation of motion into sequentially solvable parts allows a parametric equation for the transport of inertial finite-sized floating particles to be derived. This parametric equation can then be validated using numerical simulations of the equation of motion and flume experiments. This paper presents a parametric equation for the transport of inertial floating finite-size particles by ocean waves. The equation shows an increase in Stokes drift for larger, less dense particles. The equation has been validated using numerical solutions of the equation of motion and laboratory flume experiments. The difference in the particle transport equation and a purely Lagrangian tracer is illustrated using worlds maps of the induced transport. This parametric transport equation would allow ocean-scale numerical models to include inertial effects of floating plastic when predicting or tracing the transport of pollutants.

Keywords: perturbation methods, plastic pollution transport, Stokes drift, wave flume experiments, wave-induced mean flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
14982 Study on Connecting Method of Box Pontoons

Authors: Young-Jun You, Youn-Ju Jeong, Min-Su Park, Du-Ho Lee


Due to a lot of limited conditions, a large box type floating structure is inevitably constructed by connecting many pontoons. When a floating structure is made with concrete, concrete shear key with saw-teeth shape is often used to carry shear force. Match casting for the shear key and precise construction on a sea are very important for making separated two pontoons as one body but those are not easy work and may increase construction time and cost. To solve this problem, one-way shear key is studied in this paper for a connected part where there is some difference between upward and downward shear force. It has only one inclined plane and can resist shear force in one direction. Big shear force is resisted by concrete which forms an inclined plane and small shear force is resisted by steel bar. This system can reduce manufacturing cost of individual pontoon and construction time and cost for constructing a floating structure on a sea. In this paper, the feasibility study about one-way shear key system is performed by comparing with design example.

Keywords: connection, floating container terminal, pontoon, pre-stressing, shear key

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
14981 Performance Improvement of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angle in Kuwait

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali


In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In this study the PV system is installed facing south, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods and aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
14980 Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali


In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In the study the PV system is installed facing South, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods, aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 416