Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2063

Search results for: nano-line patterns

2063 An Analysis of Sequential Pattern Mining on Databases Using Approximate Sequential Patterns

Authors: J. Suneetha, Vijayalaxmi

Abstract:

Sequential Pattern Mining involves applying data mining methods to large data repositories to extract usage patterns. Sequential pattern mining methodologies used to analyze the data and identify patterns. The patterns have been used to implement efficient systems can recommend on previously observed patterns, in making predictions, improve usability of systems, detecting events, and in general help in making strategic product decisions. In this paper, identified performance of approximate sequential pattern mining defines as identifying patterns approximately shared with many sequences. Approximate sequential patterns can effectively summarize and represent the databases by identifying the underlying trends in the data. Conducting an extensive and systematic performance over synthetic and real data. The results demonstrate that ApproxMAP effective and scalable in mining large sequences databases with long patterns.

Keywords: multiple data, performance analysis, sequential pattern, sequence database scalability

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2062 A Study and Design Scarf Collection Applied Vietnamese Traditional Patterns by Using Printing Method on Fabric

Authors: Mai Anh Pham Ho

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Scarf products today is a symbol of fashion to decorate, to make our life more beautiful and bring new features to our living space. It also shows the cultural identity by using the traditional patterns that make easily to introduce the image of Vietnam to other nations all over the world. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to classify Vietnamese traditional patterns according to the era and dynasties. Vietnamese traditional patterns through the dynasties of Vietnamese history are done and classified by five groups of patterns including the geometric patterns, the natural patterns, the animal patterns, the floral patterns, and the character patterns in the Prehistoric times, the Bronze and Iron age, the Chinese domination, the Ngo-Dinh-TienLe-Ly-Tran-Ho dynasty, and the LeSo-Mac-LeTrinh-TaySon-Nguyen dynasty. Besides, there are some special kinds of Vietnamese traditional patterns like buffalo, lotus, bronze-drum, Phuc Loc Tho character, and so on. Extensive research was conducted for modernizing scarf collection applied Vietnamese traditional patterns which the fashion trend is used on creating works. The concept, target, image map, lifestyle map, motif, colours, arrangement and completion of patterns on scarf were set up. The scarf collection is designed and developed by the Adobe Illustrator program with three colour ways for each scarf. Upon completion of the research, digital printing technology is chosen for using on scarf collection which Vietnamese traditional patterns were researched deeply and widely with the purpose of establishment the basic background for Vietnamese culture in order to identify Vietnamese national personality as well as establish and preserve the cultural heritage.

Keywords: scarf collection, Vietnamese traditional patterns, printing methods, fabric design

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2061 Quality Assurance in Software Design Patterns

Authors: Rabbia Tariq, Hannan Sajjad, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

Design patterns are widely used to make the process of development easier as they greatly help the developers to develop the software. Different design patterns have been introduced till now but the behavior of same design pattern may differ in different domains that can lead to the wrong selection of the design pattern. The paper aims to discover the design patterns that suits best with respect to their domain thereby helping the developers to choose an effective design pattern. It presents the comprehensive analysis of design patterns based on different methodologies that include simulation, case study and comparison of various algorithms. Due to the difference of the domain the methodology used in one domain may be inapplicable to the other domain. The paper draws a conclusion based on strength and limitation of each design pattern in their respective domain.

Keywords: design patterns, evaluation, quality assurance, software domains

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2060 The Development of Micro Patterns Using Benchtop Lithography for Marine Antifouling Applications

Authors: Felicia Wong Yen Myan, James Walker

Abstract:

Development of micro topographies usually begins with the fabrication of a master stamp. Fabrication of such small structures can be technically challenging and expensive. These techniques are often used for applications where patterns only cover a small surface area (e.g. semiconductors, microfluidic channels). This research investigated the use of benchtop lithography to fabricate patterns with average widths of 50 and 100 microns on silicon wafer substrates. Further development of this method will attempt to layer patterns to create hierarchical structures. Photomasks consisted of patterns printed onto transparency films with a high resolution printer and a fully patterned 10cm by 10cm area has been successfully developed. UV exposure was carried out with a self-made array of ultraviolet LEDs that was positioned a distance above a glass diffuser. Observations under a light microscope and SEM showed that developed patterns exhibit an adequate degree of fidelity with patterns from the master stamp.

Keywords: lithography, antifouling, marine, microtopography

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2059 Biomorphic Ornaments in Islamic Architecture and Their Development

Authors: Esra Alhamal

Abstract:

Islamic architecture is known for the ornamental patterns that cover the architectural surfaces: floors, walls, and ceilings. This quality in Islamic buildings has long impressed other civilisation, and it is a visual language that exists across the Islamic lands. Ornamentation is divided into three types: geometry, biomorphs, and Arabic calligraphy. The focus of this study is the biomorphic ornaments. This paper will aim to define and characterise biomorphic patterns and trace their development from the 7th to the 18th centuries. Although the time period is seemingly long, the biomorphic patterns and their motifs have been consistent and supported by a geometric system underlying the free flowing, symmetrical motifs. The methodology of this paper consists of analysing and comparing biomorphic patterns from each Islamic period using rules of geometry and symmetry. The study is concluded with a table showcasing the main motifs and how they developed under each Islamic dynasty. This research is a documentation of the biomorphic language and having this record will help contemporary designers employ biomorphic ornaments thoughtfully.

Keywords: architectural surface, biomorphic patterns, Islamic patterns, Islamic ornamentation

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2058 Study of Dermatoglyphics Pattern in Patient with Hypertension

Authors: Ajeevan Gautam, Gulam Anwer Khan, Pratibha Pokhrel

Abstract:

Introduction: Dermatoglyphics is the science which deals with the study of dermal ridge configuration on the digits, palms and soles. It is grooved by ridges and forms variety of configurations. The aim of the study was to identify dermal ridge patterns on fingertip of hypertensive patients and in normal population and to compare patterns among them. Methods: The subjects of the study were 130 hypertensives and 130 non-hypertensives cases of Kathmandu Valley aged between 40 to 80 years. Case history was recorded after consent finger prints were taken. Different parameters as whorl, loop, arch and composite patterns were studied and analysed. Result: It revealed, increased whorl pattern in hypertensive. It showed 65.69% whorl, 29.23% loop and 5.07% arch patterns in right hand of hypertensive people. In control, it was found to be 34.46% whorl, 58.15% loop and 5.38% arch patterns respectively. Similarly in left hand 63.69% whorl, 32% loop and 4.30% arch in hypertensive group. In control group it was 60.15% as loop, 35.69% as whorl and 15% as arch. Discussion: Based on findings of the result, it was concluded that the whorl, loop and arch patterns observed as 65.69%, 29.23% and 5.07% respectively in hypertensive cases in right hand. Similarly in left hand, it was found to be 4.30% as arch, 32% as loop and 63.69% as whorl patterns, but in normotensive subjects these patterns were recorded as 36.43%, 58.15%, 5.38% in right hand and 35.69%, 60.15%, 4.15% in left hand as whorl, loop and arch respectively.

Keywords: arch, dermatoglyphics, hypertension, loop, whorl

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2057 Enhancement of Light Out Efficiency of PLED Device Employing Designed Substrate Combined with Nano-Line Patterns

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, H. C. Lin

Abstract:

This paper reports a study for the light outcoupling efficiency of the PLED device. In use of a designed substrate combined with nano-line patterns in PLED device, the light outcoupling efficiency can be significantly enhanced. The designed substrate was made by UV imprinting technology, such as triangular microlens arrays on the front and periodic corrugated patterns on the back surface. The nano-line patterns in PLED device was fabricated by advanced microstamping and ink-jet printing techniques. For high angles of observation with respect to the substrate surface normal, the light out intensity of the developed PLED device is increased from 0.05 (a.u.) up to 0.69 (a.u.) at the view angle 85 degree. The designed integration leads to 64% increase of the light out intensity compared with the conventional PLED device.

Keywords: triangular microlens, corrugation patterns, nano-line patterns, PLED device, UV imprinting technology, microstamping

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2056 Setting Ground for Improvement of Knowledge Managament System in the Educational Organization

Authors: Mladen Djuric, Ivan Janicijevic, Sasa Lazarevic

Abstract:

One of the organizational issues is how to develop and shape decision making and knowledge management systems which will continually avoid traps of both paralyses by analyses“ and extinction by instinct“, the concepts that are a kind of tolerant limits anti-patterns which define what we can call decision making and knowledge management patterns control zone. This paper discusses potentials for development of a core base for recognizing, capturing, and analyzing anti-patterns in the educational organization, thus creating a space for improving decision making and knowledge management processes in education.

Keywords: anti-patterns, decision making, education, knowledge management

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2055 Mouthing Patterns in Indian Sign Language

Authors: Neha Kulshreshtha

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This paper examines the patterns of 'Mouthing', a non-manual marker, and its distribution in Indian Sign Language (ISL). Linguistic research in Indian Sign Language is an emerging field where much is needed to be done. The little research which has happened focuses on the structure of ISL in terms of physical or manual markers, therefore a study of mouthing patterns would give an insight into the distribution of this particular non-manual marker. Data has been collected with the help of native ISL users through various techniques in which natural signs can be captured, for example, storytelling, informal conversations etc. The aim of the study is to find out the various situations where mouthing is used. Sometimes, the mouthing is not actually the articulation of the word as spoken in the local languages. The paper aims to find out whether the mouthing patterns in ISL are influenced by any local language or they are independent of any influence from the local language or both. Mouthing patterns have been studied in many sign languages and an investigation into ISL will reveal whether it falls in pattern with the other sign languages.

Keywords: Indian sign language, mouthing, non-manual marker, spoken language influence

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2054 Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate TEM Validity and Design

Authors: Cao Xi

Abstract:

This paper reports a study which used eye-tracking to examine the cognitive validity of TEM 8(Test for English Majors, Band 8). The study investigated test takers' reading patterns on four -item types using eye-tracking, and interviews. Thirty participants completed 22 items on a computer, with the Tobii X2 Eye Tracker recording their eye movements on screen. Eleven students further participated in a recall interview while viewing video footage of their gaze patterns on the test. The findings will indicate that first, different reading item types will employ different cognitive processes; then different reading patterns for stronger and weaker test takers’on each item types. The implication of this study is to provide recommendations for the use of eye tracking technology in language research.

Keywords: eye tracking, reading patterns, test for english majors, cognitive validity

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2053 Neuro-Fuzzy Based Model for Phrase Level Emotion Understanding

Authors: Vadivel Ayyasamy

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The present approach deals with the identification of Emotions and classification of Emotional patterns at Phrase-level with respect to Positive and Negative Orientation. The proposed approach considers emotion triggered terms, its co-occurrence terms and also associated sentences for recognizing emotions. The proposed approach uses Part of Speech Tagging and Emotion Actifiers for classification. Here sentence patterns are broken into phrases and Neuro-Fuzzy model is used to classify which results in 16 patterns of emotional phrases. Suitable intensities are assigned for capturing the degree of emotion contents that exist in semantics of patterns. These emotional phrases are assigned weights which supports in deciding the Positive and Negative Orientation of emotions. The approach uses web documents for experimental purpose and the proposed classification approach performs well and achieves good F-Scores.

Keywords: emotions, sentences, phrases, classification, patterns, fuzzy, positive orientation, negative orientation

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2052 Analysis of Street Utilization Patterns in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: I. D. Mngutyo, T. T. Gyuse, D. S. A. Alaci, J. Atser

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Streets are public spaces that are meaningful to all people because of lack of restriction on streets. Studies show that conditions, activities and people contribute to the success of public spaces. Also, self-organization potential in activity patterns offers a prospect for the revitalization of an urban area. This potential is mostly ignored hence many African streets appear disorganized giving African urban areas an unplanned look. Therefore, this study aims to analyze street utilization patterns and explore the relationship between the pattern of street use and condition of streets in Makurdi.These activity patterns form a data base for the revitalization of public space. Three major and minor arterials streets in nine out of the eleven wards that make up the built up part of Makurdi were purposively selected as units for measurement. A street activity audit was done on streets for activities that can be observed. For activities that cannot be easily observed 4 questionnaires were randomly administered on each of the three streets giving a total of 108 questionnaires. Multivariate statistical tools such as factor analysis and regression will be used to show emerging streets activity patterns and spatial variation among the nine wards.

Keywords: streets, utilization patterns, revitalization, urban design, urban, areas, developing countries

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2051 The Environmental Influence on Slow Learners' Learning Achievement

Authors: Niphattha Hannapha

Abstract:

This paper examines how the classroom environment influences slow learners’ learning achievement; it focuses on how seating patterns affect students’ behaviours and which patterns best contribute to students’ learning performance. The researcher studied how slow learners’ characteristics and seating patterns influenced their behaviours and performance at Ban Hin Lad School. As a nonparticipant observation, the target groups included 15 slow learners from Prathomsueksa (Grades) 4 and 5. Students’ behaviours were recorded during their learning activities in order to minimize their reading and written expression disorder in Thai language tutorials. The result showed four seating patterns and two behaviors which obstructed students’ learning. The average of both behaviours mostly occurred when students were seated with patterns 1 (the seat facing the door, with the corridor alongside) and 3 (the seat alongside the door, facing the aisle) respectively. Seating patterns 1 and 3 demonstrated visibility (the front and side) of a walking path with two-way movement. However, seating patterns 2 (seating with the door alongside and the aisle at the back) and 4 (sitting with the door at the back and the aisle alongside) demonstrated visibility (the side) of a walking path with one-way movement. In Summary, environmental design is important to enhance concentration in slow learners who have reading and writing disabilities. This study suggests that students should be seated where they can have the least visibility of movement to help them increase continuous learning. That means they can have a better chance of developing reading and writing abilities in comparison with other patterns of seating.

Keywords: slow learning, interior design, interior environment, classroom

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2050 Examination of the Main Behavioral Patterns of Male and Female Students in Islamic Azad University

Authors: Sobhan Sobhani

Abstract:

This study examined the behavioral patterns of student and their determinants according to the "symbolic interaction" sociological perspective in the form of 7 hypotheses. Behavioral patterns of students were classified in 8 categories: religious, scientific, political, artistic, sporting, national, parents and teachers. They were evaluated by student opinions by a five-point Likert rating scale. The statistical population included all male and female students of Islamic Azad University, Behabahan branch, among which 600 patients (268 females and 332 males) were selected randomly. The following statistical methods were used: frequency and percentage, mean, t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and multi-way analysis of variance. The results obtained from statistical analysis showed that: 1-There is a significant difference between male and female students in terms of disposition to religious figures, artists, teachers and parents. 2-There is a significant difference between students of urban and rural areas in terms of assuming behavioral patterns of religious, political, scientific, artistic, national figures and teachers. 3-The most important criterion for selecting behavioral patterns of students is intellectual understanding with the pattern. 4-The most important factor influencing the behavioral patterns of male and female students is parents followed by friends. 5-Boys are affected by teachers, the Internet and satellite programs more than girls. Girls assume behavioral patterns from books more than boys. 6-There is a significant difference between students in human sciences, technical, medical and engineering disciplines in terms of selecting religious and political figures as behavioral patterns. 7-There is a significant difference between students belonging to different subcultures in terms of assuming behavioral patterns of religious, scientific and cultural figures. 8-Between the first and fourth year students in terms of selecting behavioral patterns, there is a significant difference only in selecting religious figures. 9-There is a significant negative correlation between the education level of parents and the selection of religious and political figures and teachers. 10-There is a significant negative correlation between family income and the selection of political and religious figures.

Keywords: behavioral patterns, behavioral patterns, male and female students, Islamic Azad University

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2049 Several Spectrally Non-Arbitrary Ray Patterns of Order 4

Authors: Ling Zhang, Feng Liu

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A matrix is called a ray pattern matrix if its entries are either 0 or a ray in complex plane which originates from 0. A ray pattern A of order n is called spectrally arbitrary if the complex matrices in the ray pattern class of A give rise to all possible nth degree complex polynomial. Otherwise, it is said to be spectrally non-arbitrary ray pattern. We call that a spectrally arbitrary ray pattern A of order n is minimally spectrally arbitrary if any nonzero entry of A is replaced, then A is not spectrally arbitrary. In this paper, we find that is not spectrally arbitrary when n equals to 4 for any θ which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to n. In this article, we give several ray patterns A(θ) of order n that are not spectrally arbitrary for some θ which is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to n. by using the nilpotent-Jacobi method. One example is given in our paper.

Keywords: spectrally arbitrary, nilpotent matrix , ray patterns, sign patterns

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2048 Learning the Dynamics of Articulated Tracked Vehicles

Authors: Mario Gianni, Manuel A. Ruiz Garcia, Fiora Pirri

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In this work, we present a Bayesian non-parametric approach to model the motion control of ATVs. The motion control model is based on a Dirichlet Process-Gaussian Process (DP-GP) mixture model. The DP-GP mixture model provides a flexible representation of patterns of control manoeuvres along trajectories of different lengths and discretizations. The model also estimates the number of patterns, sufficient for modeling the dynamics of the ATV.

Keywords: Dirichlet processes, gaussian mixture models, learning motion patterns, tracked robots for urban search and rescue

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2047 Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan

Authors: Dih Ling Luh, Zhi Shih You, Szu Chieh Chen

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Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Keywords: contact patterns, behavior, influenza, social mixing

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2046 The Design of Decorative Flower Patterns from Suan Sunandha Palace

Authors: Nawaporn Srisarankullawong

Abstract:

The study on the design of decorative flower patterns from Suan Sunandha Palace is the innovative design using flowers grown in Suan Sunandha Palace as the original sources. The research instrument included: 1) the photographs of flowers in watercolors painted by one of the lady in waiting of Her Royal Highness Princess Saisawareepirom as the source for investigating flowers used to grow in Suan Sunandha Palace, 2) pictures of real flowers used to grow in Suan Sunandha Palace, 3) Adobe Illustrator Program and Adobe Photoshop Program in designing the motif and decorative patterns including the prototype. The researcher chose 3 types of Suan Sunandha Palace flowers; moss rose, orchid, and lignum vitae. The details of the flowers were cut down to make simple motifs which were developed for elaborative decoration. There were 4 motifs adapted from moss roses, 3 motifs adapted from orchids, and 3 motifs adapted from lignum vitae. The patterns were used to decorate photo frames, wrapping paper, and gift boxes or souvenir boxes.

Keywords: Suan Sunandha Palace, design of decorative, flower patterns, decorative flower

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2045 Design Patterns for Emergency Management Processes

Authors: Tomáš Ludík, Jiří Barta, Josef Navrátil

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Natural or human made disasters have a significant negative impact on the environment. At the same time there is an extensive effort to support management and decision making in emergency situations by information technologies. Therefore the purpose of the paper is to propose a design patterns applicable in emergency management, enabling better analysis and design of emergency management processes and therefore easier development and deployment of information systems in the field of emergency management. It will be achieved by detailed analysis of existing emergency management legislation, contingency plans, and information systems. The result is a set of design patterns focused at emergency management processes that enable easier design of emergency plans or development of new information system. These results will have a major impact on the development of new information systems as well as to more effective and faster solving of emergencies.

Keywords: analysis and design, Business Process Modelling Notation, contingency plans, design patterns, emergency management

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2044 Effect of Multi-Stage Fractured Patterns on Production Improvement of Horizontal Wells

Authors: Armin Shirbazo, Mohammad Vahab, Hamed Lamei Ramandi, Jalal Fahimpour

Abstract:

One of the most effective ways for increasing production in wells that are faced with problems such as pressure depletion and low rate is hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing is creating a high permeable path through the reservoir and simulated area around the wellbore. This is very important for low permeability reservoirs, which their production is uneconomical. In this study, the influence of the fracturing pattern in multi-stage fractured horizontal wells is analyzed for a tight, heavy oil reservoir to explore the impact of fracturing patterns on improving oil recovery. The horizontal well has five transverse fractures with the same fracture length, width, height, and conductivity properties. The fracture patterns are divided into four distinct shapes: uniform shape, diamond shape, U shape, and W shape. The results show that different fracturing patterns produce various cumulative production after ten years, and the best pattern can be selected based on the most cumulative production. The result also illustrates that optimum design in fracturing can boost the production up to 3% through the permeability distribution around the wellbore and reservoir.

Keywords: multi-stage fracturing, horizontal well, fracture patterns, fracture length, number of stages

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2043 A Spatial Point Pattern Analysis to Recognize Fail Bit Patterns in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Authors: Youngji Yoo, Seung Hwan Park, Daewoong An, Sung-Shick Kim, Jun-Geol Baek

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The yield management system is very important to produce high-quality semiconductor chips in the semiconductor manufacturing process. In order to improve quality of semiconductors, various tests are conducted in the post fabrication (FAB) process. During the test process, large amount of data are collected and the data includes a lot of information about defect. In general, the defect on the wafer is the main causes of yield loss. Therefore, analyzing the defect data is necessary to improve performance of yield prediction. The wafer bin map (WBM) is one of the data collected in the test process and includes defect information such as the fail bit patterns. The fail bit has characteristics of spatial point patterns. Therefore, this paper proposes the feature extraction method using the spatial point pattern analysis. Actual data obtained from the semiconductor process is used for experiments and the experimental result shows that the proposed method is more accurately recognize the fail bit patterns.

Keywords: semiconductor, wafer bin map, feature extraction, spatial point patterns, contour map

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2042 Spatial Scale of Clustering of Residential Burglary and Its Dependence on Temporal Scale

Authors: Mohammed A. Alazawi, Shiguo Jiang, Steven F. Messner

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Research has long focused on two main spatial aspects of crime: spatial patterns and spatial processes. When analyzing these patterns and processes, a key issue has been to determine the proper spatial scale. In addition, it is important to consider the possibility that these patterns and processes might differ appreciably for different temporal scales and might vary across geographic units of analysis. We examine the spatial-temporal dependence of residential burglary. This dependence is tested at varying geographical scales and temporal aggregations. The analyses are based on recorded incidents of crime in Columbus, Ohio during the 1994-2002 period. We implement point pattern analysis on the crime points using Ripley’s K function. The results indicate that spatial point patterns of residential burglary reveal spatial scales of clustering relatively larger than the average size of census tracts of the study area. Also, spatial scale is independent of temporal scale. The results of our analyses concerning the geographic scale of spatial patterns and processes can inform the development of effective policies for crime control.

Keywords: inhomogeneous K function, residential burglary, spatial point pattern, spatial scale, temporal scale

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2041 Design Systems and the Need for a Usability Method: Assessing the Fitness of Components and Interaction Patterns in Design Systems Using Atmosphere Methodology

Authors: Patrik Johansson, Selina Mardh

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The present study proposes a usability test method, Atmosphere, to assess the fitness of components and interaction patterns of design systems. The method covers the user’s perception of the components of the system, the efficiency of the logic of the interaction patterns, perceived ease of use as well as the user’s understanding of the intended outcome of interactions. These aspects are assessed by combining measures of first impression, visual affordance and expectancy. The method was applied to a design system developed for the design of an electronic health record system. The study was conducted involving 15 healthcare personnel. It could be concluded that the Atmosphere method provides tangible data that enable human-computer interaction practitioners to analyze and categorize components and patterns based on perceived usability, success rate of identifying interactive components and success rate of understanding components and interaction patterns intended outcome.

Keywords: atomic design, atmosphere methodology, design system, expectancy testing, first impression testing, usability testing, visual affordance testing

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2040 Natural Patterns for Sustainable Cooling in the Architecture of Residential Buildings in Iran (Hot and Dry Climate)

Authors: Elnaz Abbasian, Mohsen Faizi

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In its thousand-year development, architecture has gained valuable patterns. Iran’s desert regions possess developed patterns of traditional architecture and outstanding skeletal features. Unfortunately increasing population and urbanization growth in the past decade as well as the lack of harmony with environment’s texture has destroyed such permanent concepts in the building’s skeleton, causing a lot of energy waste in the modern architecture. The important question is how cooling patterns of Iran’s traditional architecture can be used in a new way in the modern architecture of residential buildings? This research is library-based and documental that looks at sustainable development, analyzes the features of Iranian architecture in hot and dry climate in terms of sustainability as well as historical patterns, and makes a model for real environment. By methodological analysis of past, it intends to suggest a new pattern for residential buildings’ cooling in Iran’s hot and dry climate which is in full accordance to the ecology of the design and at the same time possesses the architectural indices of the past. In the process of cities’ physical development, ecological measures, in proportion to desert’s natural background and climate conditions, has kept the natural fences, preventing buildings from facing climate adversities. Designing and construction of buildings with this viewpoint can reduce the energy needed for maintaining and regulating environmental conditions and with the use of appropriate building technology help minimizing the consumption of fossil fuels while having permanent patterns of desert buildings’ architecture.

Keywords: sustainability concepts, sustainable development, energy climate architecture, fossil fuel, hot and dry climate, patterns of traditional sustainability for residential buildings, modern pattern of cooling

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2039 A Comparative Study of GTC and PSP Algorithms for Mining Sequential Patterns Embedded in Database with Time Constraints

Authors: Safa Adi

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This paper will consider the problem of sequential mining patterns embedded in a database by handling the time constraints as defined in the GSP algorithm (level wise algorithms). We will compare two previous approaches GTC and PSP, that resumes the general principles of GSP. Furthermore this paper will discuss PG-hybrid algorithm, that using PSP and GTC. The results show that PSP and GTC are more efficient than GSP. On the other hand, the GTC algorithm performs better than PSP. The PG-hybrid algorithm use PSP algorithm for the two first passes on the database, and GTC approach for the following scans. Experiments show that the hybrid approach is very efficient for short, frequent sequences.

Keywords: database, GTC algorithm, PSP algorithm, sequential patterns, time constraints

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2038 Geometrical Analysis of Tiling Patterns in Azari Style: The Case of Tabriz Kaboud Mosque

Authors: Seyyedeh Faezeh Miralami, Sahar Sayyadchapari, Mona Laleh, Zahra Poursafar

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Tiling patterns are magnificent display of decoration in Islamic period. They transform the dusty and dreary facades to splendid and ornate ones. Due to ideological factors and elements of Azari style decorations, geometrical patterns and vegetative designs became prevalent and pervasive in religious sites like mosques. Objectives: The objective of this research is a study of tiling patterns in Tabriz Kaboud mosque, as a splendid work of architecture in Azari style. In this study, the geometrical designs and tiling patterns employed in the mosque decorations are examined and analyzed. Method: The research is based on a descriptive analysis method. Data and information are collected based on documents library and field study. Then, polished and brushed, the study resulted in an illustrative conclusion. Findings: In religious sites such as mosques, geometry represents ‘divination’ in Christian theology and ‘Unity with God’ or ‘Tawhid’ in Islamic terminology. In other words, science, literature, architecture, and all forms of human expression and representation are pointed towards one cause, unity or divination. Tiling patterns of Kaboud Mosque, mostly hexagonal, circular, square and triangle, form outstanding architectonic features which recount a story, a narration of divination or unification with the One.

Keywords: tiling, Azari style, Tabriz Kaboud Mosque, Islamic architecture

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2037 Identifying Learning Support Patterns for Enhancing Quality Outputs in Massive Open Online Courses

Authors: Cristina Galván-Fernández, Elena Barberà, Jingjing Zhang

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In recent years, MOOCs have been in the spotlight for its high drop-out rates, which potentially impact on the quality of the learning experience. This study attempts to explore how learning support can be used to keep student retention, and in turn to improve the quality of learning in MOOCs. In this study, the patterns of learning support were identified from a total of 4202592 units of video sessions, clickstream data of 25600 students, and 382 threads generated in 10 forums (optional and mandatory) in five different types of MOOCs (e.g. conventional MOOCs, professional MOOCs, and informal MOOCs). The results of this study have shown a clear correlation between the types of MOOCs, the design framework of the MOOCs, and the learning support. The patterns of tutor-peer interaction are identified, and are found to be highly correlated with student retention in all five types of MOOCs. In addition, different patterns of ‘good’ students were identified, which could potentially inform the instruction design of MOOCs.

Keywords: higher education, learning support, MOOC, retention

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2036 Differences in Activity Patterns between Adult and U-21 Major League Players in Four Field Positions

Authors: U. Harel, E. Carmeli

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The Purpose was to measure differences in activity patterns between major league adult and U-21 soccer players. Four U-21 players and four adult team players were evaluated using a repeated measures technique. All eight players were affiliated with the Maccabi Haifa soccer club from the Israeli professional and U-21major leagues, depending on the player’s age. GPS sensors were attached to the players during five consecutive games to identify patterns regarding running distance and speed according to the field positions. There was no significant difference in the total running distances covered by two age groups. When measuring running speed, an advantage was observed in the adult group when comparing two players from different age groups that played the same position. Differences in activity patterns were evident between adult and U-21 major league soccer players. Furthermore, differences in within group activity pattern emerged between the positions under investigation. These findings provide valuable knowledge that may serve the principle of training specificity.

Keywords: physical fitness, soccer, positional differences, GPS, training specificity

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2035 Relation between Sensory Processing Patterns and Working Memory in Autistic Children

Authors: Abbas Nesayan

Abstract:

Background: In recent years, autism has been under consideration in public and research area. Autistic children have dysfunction in communication, socialization, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In addition, they clinically suffer from difficulty in attention, challenge with familiar behaviors and sensory processing problems. Several variables are linked to sensory processing problems in autism, one of these variables is working memory. Working memory is part of the executive function which provides the necessary ability to completing multiple stages tasks. Method: This study has categorized in correlational research methods. After determining of entry criteria, according to purposive sampling method, 50 children were selected. Dunn’s sensory profile school companion was used for assessment of sensory processing patterns; behavioral rating inventory of executive functions was used (BRIEF) for assessment of working memory. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression were used for data analyzing. Results: The results showed the significant relationship between sensory processing patterns (low registration, sensory seeking, sensory sensitivity and sensory avoiding) with working memory in autistic children. Conclusion: According to the findings, there is the significant relationship between the patterns of sensory processing and working memory. So, in order to improve the working memory could be used some interventions based on the sensory processing.

Keywords: sensory processing patterns, working memory, autism, autistic children

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2034 The Influence of Different Flux Patterns on Magnetic Losses in Electric Machine Cores

Authors: Natheer Alatawneh

Abstract:

The finite element analysis of magnetic fields in electromagnetic devices shows that the machine cores experience different flux patterns including alternating and rotating fields. The rotating fields are generated in different configurations range between circular and elliptical with different ratios between the major and minor axis of the flux locus. Experimental measurements on electrical steel exposed to different flux patterns disclose different magnetic losses in the samples under test. Consequently, electric machines require special attention during the cores loss calculation process to consider the flux patterns. In this study, a circular rotational single sheet tester is employed to measure the core losses in electric steel sample of M36G29. The sample was exposed to alternating field, circular field, and elliptical fields with axis ratios of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The measured data was implemented on 6-4 switched reluctance motor at three different frequencies of interest to the industry as 60 Hz, 400 Hz, and 1 kHz. The results disclose a high margin of error that may occur during the loss calculations if the flux patterns issue is neglected. The error in different parts of the machine associated with considering the flux patterns can be around 50%, 10%, and 2% at 60Hz, 400Hz, and 1 kHz, respectively. The future work will focus on the optimization of machine geometrical shape which has a primary effect on the flux pattern in order to minimize the magnetic losses in machine cores.

Keywords: alternating core losses, electric machines, finite element analysis, rotational core losses

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