Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5914

Search results for: UV imprinting technology

5914 Development of Imprinting and Replica Molding of Soft Mold Curved Surface

Authors: Yung-Jin Weng, Chia-Chi Chang, Chun-Yu Tsai

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the research of imprinting and replica molding of quasi-grey scale soft mold curved surface microstructure mold. In this paper, a magnetic photocuring forming system is first developed and built independently, then the magnetic curved surface microstructure soft mode is created; moreover, the magnetic performance of the magnetic curved surface at different heights is tested and recorded, and through experimentation and simulation, the magnetic curved surface microstructure soft mold is used in the research of quasi-grey scale soft mold curved surface microstructure imprinting and replica molding. The experimental results show that, under different surface curvatures and voltage control conditions, different quasi-grey scale array microstructures take shape. In addition, this paper conducts research on the imprinting and replica molding of photoresist composite magnetic powder in order to discuss the forming performance of magnetic photoresist, and finally, the experimental result is compared with the simulation to obtain more accurate prediction and results. This research is predicted to provide microstructure component preparation technology with heterogeneity and controllability, and is a kind of valid shaping quasi-grey scale microstructure manufacturing technology method.

Keywords: soft mold, magnetic, microstructure, curved surface

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5913 Cognitive Stereotype Behaviors and Their Imprinting on the Individuals with Autism

Authors: Li-Ju Chen, Hsiang-Lin Chan, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng, Hui-Ju Chen

Abstract:

Stereotype behavior is one of the maladaptive syndromes of the individuals with autism. Most of the previous researches focused on the stereotype behavior with stimulating type, while less on the stereotype behavior about cognition (This research names it cognitive stereotype behavior; CSB). This research explored CSB and the rationality to explain CSB with imprinting phenomenon. After excluding the samples without CSB described, the data that came from 271 individuals with autism were recruited and analyzed with quantitative and qualitative analyses. This research discovers that : (1) Most of the individuals with autism originally came out CSB at 3 years old and more than a half of them appeared before 4 years old; The average age which firstly came out CSB was 6.10 years old, the average time insisting or ossifying CSB was 31.71 minutes each time and the average longest time which they last was 358.35 minutes (5.97 hours). (2) CSB demonstrates various aspects, this research classified them into 4 fields with 26 categories. They were categorized into sudden CSB or habitual CSB by imprinting performance. (3) Most of the autism commented that their CSBs were not necessary but they could not control them well. One-third of them appeared CSB suddenly and the first occurrence accompanied a strong emotional or behavioral response. (4) Whether respondent is the person with autism himself/herself or not was the critical element: on the awareness of the severity degree, disturbance degree, and the emotional /behavioral intensity at the first-time CSB happened. This study concludes imprinting could reasonably explain the phenomenon CSB forms. There are implications leading the individuals with autism and their family to develop coping strategies to promote individuals with autism having a better learning accomplishment and life quality in their future.

Keywords: autism, cognitive stereotype behavior, constructivism, imprinting, stereotype

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5912 Enhancement of Light Out Efficiency of PLED Device Employing Designed Substrate Combined with Nano-Line Patterns

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, H. C. Lin

Abstract:

This paper reports a study for the light outcoupling efficiency of the PLED device. In use of a designed substrate combined with nano-line patterns in PLED device, the light outcoupling efficiency can be significantly enhanced. The designed substrate was made by UV imprinting technology, such as triangular microlens arrays on the front and periodic corrugated patterns on the back surface. The nano-line patterns in PLED device was fabricated by advanced microstamping and ink-jet printing techniques. For high angles of observation with respect to the substrate surface normal, the light out intensity of the developed PLED device is increased from 0.05 (a.u.) up to 0.69 (a.u.) at the view angle 85 degree. The designed integration leads to 64% increase of the light out intensity compared with the conventional PLED device.

Keywords: triangular microlens, corrugation patterns, nano-line patterns, PLED device, UV imprinting technology, microstamping

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5911 Internal Mercury Exposure Levels Correlated to DNA Methylation of Imprinting Gene H19 in Human Sperm of Reproductive-Aged Man

Authors: Zhaoxu Lu, Yufeng Ma, Linying Gao, Li Wang, Mei Qiang

Abstract:

Mercury (Hg) is a well-recognized environmental pollutant known by its toxicity of development and neurotoxicity, which may result in adverse health outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the teratogenic effects of Hg are not well understood. Imprinting genes are emerging regulators for fetal development subject to environmental pollutants impacts. In this study, we examined the association between paternal preconception Hg exposures and the alteration of DNA methylation of imprinting genes in human sperm DNA. A total of 618 men aged from 22 to 59 was recruited from the Reproductive Medicine Clinic of Maternal and Child Care Service Center and the Urologic Surgery Clinic of Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences during April 2015 and March 2016. Demographic information was collected using questionnaires. Urinary Hg concentrations were measured using a fully-automatic double-channel hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometer. And methylation status in the DMRs of imprinting genes H19, Meg3 and Peg3 of sperm DNA were examined by bisulfite pyrosequencing in 243 participants. Spearman’s rank and multivariate regression analysis were used for correlation analysis between sperm DNA methylation status of imprinting genes and urinary Hg levels. The median concentration of Hg for participants overall was 9.09μg/l (IQR: 5.54 - 12.52μg/l; range = 0 - 71.35μg/l); no significant difference was found in median concentrations of Hg among various demographic groups (p > 0.05). The proportion of samples that a beyond intoxication criterion (10μg/l) for urinary Hg was 42.6%. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis indicates a negative correlation between urinary Hg concentrations and average DNA methylation levels in the DMRs of imprinted genes H19 (rs=﹣0.330, p = 0.000). However, there was no such a correlation found in genes of Peg3 and Meg3. Further, we analyzed of correlation between methylation level at each CpG site of H19 and Hg level, the results showed that three out of 7 CpG sites on H19 DMR, namely CpG2 (rs =﹣0.138, p = 0.031), CpG4 (rs =﹣0.369, p = 0.000) and CpG6 (rs=﹣0.228, p = 0.000), demonstrated a significant negative correlation between methylation levels and the levels of urinary Hg. After adjusting age, smoking, drinking, intake of aquatic products and education by multivariate regression analysis, the results have shown a similar correlation. In summary, mercury nonoccupational environmental exposure in reproductive-aged men associated with altered DNA methylation outcomes at DMR of imprinting gene H19 in sperm, implicating the susceptibility of the developing sperm for environmental insults.

Keywords: epigenetics, genomic imprinting gene, DNA methylation, mercury, transgenerational effects, sperm

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5910 Among Singaporeans, Non-WEIRD Cultural Factors Result in Emotional Warmth and Rejection Predicting Stronger Sexual Imprinting of Facial Traits

Authors: Dean Tin Shuen Yew, Antonia Monteiro

Abstract:

Sexual imprinting is a mate selection strategy whereby individuals prefer partners resembling their opposite-sex parent’s phenotype. Imprinting fulfills an important adaptive role by balancing the costs of outbreeding with the benefits of inbreeding. High-quality parental care acts as a positive predictor of imprinting strength; among humans, imprinting studies assume that parenting styles high on emotional warmth and rejection through the s-EMBU scale imply, respectively, stronger or weaker imprinting. However, most imprinting studies on humans are conducted in a western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic (WEIRD) context. WEIRD-centric imprinting studies might fail to capture important behavioral variance across humans; a major oversight as social and cultural norms influence parenting styles. For instance, across Asia, parenting styles tend to be high on Rejection due to an emphasis on obedience through corporal punishment and conditional love dependent on academic grades. Furthermore, children – especially males – are expected to be emotionally stoic. Singapore represents an interesting bridge between East and West. Though characterized as an authoritarian Asian state, its English-fluent population has been extensively exposed to western culture and ideology. Furthermore, Singapore is ethnically heterogeneous; its indigenous 2020 population comprised 75.9% Chinese, 15% Malay, and 7.5% Indian. Local studies can thus consider ethnicity as a potentially imprintable physical trait. This Singaporean-based imprinting study featured novel methodological approaches through online surveys relying on Chinese, Indian, and Chinese-Indian composite faces generated via software PsychoMorph. Since mate selection is governed by a myriad of factors apart from imprinting, it was important to create standardized stimuli. For instance, standards of beauty can be attributed to “objective” factors (genetic factors like facial symmetry or youth) and “subjective” factors (i.e. imprinting, this study’s focus). The composite averaged-faces generated were presumably objectively similar in beauty across the three ethnicities, hence allowing for participants’ subjective perception of beauty to influence their choices. Taking into account cultural and social factors, this study hypothesizes that in the authoritarian and highly academically-competitive Singapore, actively-engaged parenting styles are characterized by high rejection, which in-turn predicts stronger imprinting. Results supported this hypothesis; high rejection by mothers correlated with stronger physical imprinting among males (β = 1.47, S.E. = 0.649, Z(136) = 2.26, p < 0.05). This was potentially a genuine cultural effect; as mentioned earlier, in Asia, harsh ‘authoritarian parenting’ is common for males. However, parenting styles high on emotional warmth also significantly correlated to imprinting among ethnic Singaporean Chinese (Male, n = 35; Females, n = 87) and Singaporean Indians (Male, n = 3; Females, n = 11) (β = 0.580, S.E. = 0.261, Z(136) = 2.22, p < 0.05). No main effect nor interaction effect for sex effect was found for emotional warmth. Possibly, parenting styles high on rejection or emotional warmth both reflect actively-involved Singaporean parents. As mentioned earlier, Singapore uniquely intersects the East and West. In conclusion, this mate-choice study shows the importance of acknowledging cultural variation across humans in behavioral studies, as well as the need to rely on standardized facial stimuli.

Keywords: attraction standards, human mating preferences, mate selection, sexual imprinting, sexual selection

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5909 Fabrication of Cylindrical Silicon Nanowire-Embedded Field Effect Transistor Using Al2O3 Transfer Layer

Authors: Sang Hoon Lee, Tae Il Lee, Su Jeong Lee, Jae Min Myoung

Abstract:

In order to manufacture short gap single Si nanowire (NW) field effect transistor (FET) by imprinting and transferring method, we introduce the method using Al2O3 sacrificial layer. The diameters of cylindrical Si NW addressed between Au electrodes by dielectrophoretic (DEP) alignment method are controlled to 106, 128, and 148 nm. After imprinting and transfer process, cylindrical Si NW is embedded in PVP adhesive and dielectric layer. By curing transferred cylindrical Si NW and Au electrodes on PVP-coated p++ Si substrate with 200nm-thick SiO2, 3μm gap Si NW FET fabrication was completed. As the diameter of embedded Si NW increases, the mobility of FET increases from 80.51 to 121.24 cm2/V•s and the threshold voltage moves from –7.17 to –2.44 V because the ratio of surface to volume gets reduced.

Keywords: Al2O3 sacrificial transfer layer, cylindrical silicon nanowires, dielectrophorestic alignment, field effect transistor

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5908 A Study of Rapid Replication of Square-Microlens Structures

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, Jung-Ruey Tsai

Abstract:

This paper reports a method for the replication of micro-scale structures. By using electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting system with magnetic soft stamp written square-microlens cavity, a photopolymer square-microlens structures can be rapidly fabricated. Under the proper processing conditions, the polymeric square-microlens structures with feature size of width 100.3um and height 15.2um across a large area can be successfully fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface profiler observations confirm that the micro-scale polymer structures are produced without defects or distortion and with good pattern fidelity over a 60x60mm2 area. This technique shows great potential for the efficient replication of the micro-scale structure array at room temperature and with high productivity and low cost.

Keywords: square-microlens structures, electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting, magnetic soft stamp

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5907 A Study of Electrowetting-Assisted Mold Filling in Nanoimprint Lithography

Authors: Wei-Hsuan Hsu, Yi-Xuan Huang

Abstract:

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) possesses the advantages of sub-10-nm feature and low cost. NIL patterns the resist with physical deformation using a mold, which can easily reproduce the required nano-scale pattern. However, the variation of process parameters and environmental conditions seriously affect reproduction quality. How to ensure the quality of imprinted pattern is essential for industry. In this study, the authors used the electrowetting technology to assist mold filling in the NIL process. A special mold structure was designed to cause electrowetting. During the imprinting process, when a voltage was applied between the mold and substrate, the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the surface of the mold can be converted. Both simulation and experiment confirmed that the electrowetting technology can assist mold filling and avoid incomplete filling rate. The proposed method can also reduce the crack formation during the de-molding process. Therefore, electrowetting technology can improve the process quality of NIL.

Keywords: electrowetting, mold filling, nano-imprint, surface modification

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5906 A Multi-Templated Fe-Ni-Cu Ion Imprinted Polymer for the Selective and Simultaneous Removal of Toxic Metallic Ions from Wastewater

Authors: Morlu Stevens, Bareki Batlokwa

Abstract:

The use of treated wastewater is widely employed to compensate for the scarcity of safe and uncontaminated freshwater. However, the existence of toxic heavy metal ions in the wastewater pose a health hazard to animals and the environment, hence, the importance for an effective technique to tackle the challenge. A multi-templated ion imprinted sorbent (Fe,Ni,Cu-IIP) for the simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions from waste water was synthesised employing molecular imprinting technology (MIT) via thermal free radical bulk polymerization technique. Methacrylic acid (MAA) was employed as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linking agent, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator, Fe, Ni, Cu ions as template ions, and 1,10-phenanthroline as the complexing agent. The template ions were exhaustively washed off the synthesized polymer by solvent extraction in several washing steps, while periodically increasing solvent (HCl) concentration from 1.0 M to 10.0 M. The physical and chemical properties of the sorbents were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were employed. Optimization of operational parameters such as time, pH and sorbent dosage to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbents were investigated and found to be 15 min, 7.5 and 666.7 mg/L respectively. Selectivity of ion-imprinted polymers and competitive sorption studies between the template and similar ions were carried out and showed good selectivity towards the targeted metal ion by removing 90% - 98% of the templated ions as compared to 58% - 62% of similar ions. The sorbents were further applied for the selective removal of Fe, Ni and Cu from real wastewater samples and recoveries of 92.14 ± 0.16% - 106.09 ± 0.17% and linearities of R2 = 0.9993 - R2 = 0.9997 were achieved.

Keywords: ion imprinting, ion imprinted polymers, heavy metals, wastewater

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5905 Chromatographic Preparation and Performance on Zinc Ion Imprinted Monolithic Column and Its Adsorption Property

Authors: X. Han, S. Duan, C. Liu, C. Zhou, W. Zhu, L. Kong

Abstract:

The ionic imprinting technique refers to the three-dimensional rigid structure with the fixed pore sizes, which was formed by the binding interactions of ions and functional monomers and used ions as the template, it has a high level of recognition to the ionic template. The preparation of monolithic column by the in-situ polymerization need to put the compound of template, functional monomers, cross-linking agent and initiating agent into the solution, dissolve it and inject to the column tube, and then the compound will have a polymerization reaction at a certain temperature, after the synthetic reaction, we washed out the unread template and solution. The monolithic columns are easy to prepare, low consumption and cost-effective with fast mass transfer, besides, they have many chemical functions. But the monolithic columns have some problems in the practical application, such as low-efficiency, quantitative analysis cannot be performed accurately because of the peak shape is wide and has tailing phenomena; the choice of polymerization systems is limited and the lack of theoretical foundations. Thus the optimization of components and preparation methods is an important research direction. During the preparation of ionic imprinted monolithic columns, pore-forming agent can make the polymer generate the porous structure, which can influence the physical properties of polymer, what’ s more, it can directly decide the stability and selectivity of polymerization reaction. The compounds generated in the pre-polymerization reaction could directly decide the identification and screening capabilities of imprinted polymer; thus the choice of pore-forming agent is quite critical in the preparation of imprinted monolithic columns. This article mainly focuses on the research that when using different pore-forming agents, the impact of zinc ion imprinted monolithic column on the enrichment performance of zinc ion.

Keywords: high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ionic imprinting, monolithic column, pore-forming agent

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5904 Determination of Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies on Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Nanosensors

Authors: Y. Saylan, F. Yılmaz, A. Denizli

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is the most common autoimmune disorder of the body's own immune system attacking healthy cells. RA has both articular and systemic effects.Until now romatiod factor (RF) assay is used the most commonly diagnosed RA but it is not specific. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are IgG autoantibodies which recognize citrullinated peptides and offer improved specificity in early diagnosis of RA compared to RF. Anti-CCP antibodies have specificity for the diagnosis of RA from 91 to 98% and the sensitivity rate of 41-68%. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are materials that are easy to prepare, less expensive, stable have a talent for molecular recognition and also can be manufactured in large quantities with good reproducibility. Molecular recognition-based adsorption techniques have received much attention in several fields because of their high selectivity for target molecules. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is an effective, simple, inexpensive approach mass changes that can be converted into an electrical signal. The applications for specific determination of chemical substances or biomolecules, crystal electrodes, cover by the thin films for bind or adsorption of molecules. In this study, we have focused our attention on combining of molecular imprinting into nanofilms and QCM nanosensor approaches and producing QCM nanosensor for anti-CCP, chosen as a model protein, using anti-CCP imprinted nanofilms. For this aim, anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry. The non-imprinted nanosensor was also prepared to evaluate the selectivity of the imprinted nanosensor. Anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was tested for real-time detection of anti-CCP from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using anti-CCP solutions with different concentrations. The responses related with mass shifts (Δm) and frequency shifts (Δf) were used to evaluate adsorption properties and to calculate binding (Ka) and dissociation (Kd) constants. To show the selectivity of the anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor, competitive adsorption of anti-CCP and IgM was investigated.The results indicate that anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor has a higher adsorption capabilities for anti-CCP than for IgM, due to selective cavities in the polymer structure.

Keywords: anti-CCP, molecular imprinting, nanosensor, rheumatoid arthritis, QCM

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5903 Relevance of Technology on Education

Authors: Felicia K. Oluwalola

Abstract:

This paper examines the relevance of technology on education. It identified the concept of technology on education, bringing real-world learning to the classroom situation, examples of where technology can be used. This study established the fact that technology facilitates students learning compared with traditional method of teaching. It was recommended that the teachers should use technology to supplement, not replace, other instructional modes. It should be used in conjunction with hands-on labs and activities that also address the concepts targeted by the technology. Also, technology should be students centered and not teachers centered.

Keywords: computer, simulation, classroom teaching, education

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5902 Parents' Perception on the Use of Mobile Technology by Young Children

Authors: Jason Gan

Abstract:

Technology has been around for many years, those that play a crucial part of our lives have evolved quick and fast, from televisions to computers and now mobile technology has also become a part of our lives. However in Singapore a nation with a strong reliance and following in technology, how are young children (0 to 8 years old) coping with these high technology equipment especially mobile technology and why and what are parents doing to manage this trend in the nation. This study aims to uncover some of the parents’ perception behind the use of mobile technology by their children.

Keywords: technology, preschoolers, ICT and Singapore, early childhood

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5901 A Research Analysis on the Source Technology and Convergence Types

Authors: Kwounghee Choi

Abstract:

Technological convergence between the various sectors is expected to have a very large impact on future industrial and economy. This study attempts to do empirical approach between specific technologies’ classification. For technological convergence classification, it is necessary to set the target technology to be analyzed. This study selected target technology from national research and development plan. At first we found a source technology for analysis. Depending on the weight of source technology, NT-based, BT-based, IT-based, ET-based, CS-based convergence types were classified. This study aims to empirically show the concept of convergence technology and convergence types. If we use the source technology to classify convergence type, it will be useful to make practical strategies of convergence technology.

Keywords: technology convergence, source technology, convergence type, R&D strategy, technology classification

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5900 Development of a Myocardial Patch with 3D Hydrogel Electrical Stimulation System

Authors: Yung-Gi Chen, Pei-Leun Kang, Yu-Hsin Lin, Shwu-Jen Chang

Abstract:

Myocardial tissue has limited self-repair ability due to its loss of differentiation characteristic for most mature cardiomyocytes. Therefore, the effective use of stem cell technology in regenerative medicine is an important development to alleviate the current difficulties in cardiac disease treatment. The main purpose of this project was to develop a 3-D hydrogel electrical stimulating system for promoting the differentiation of stem cells into myocardial cells, and the patch will be used to repair damaged myocardial tissue. This project was focused on the preparation of the electrical stimulation system with carbon/CaCl₂ electrodes covered with carbon nanotube-hydrogel. In this study, we utilized screen imprinting techniques and used Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) membranes as printing substrates to fabricate a carbon/CaCl₂ interdigitated electrode that covered with alginate/carbon nanotube hydrogels. The single-walled carbon nanotube was added in the hydrogel to enhance the mechanical strength and conductivity of hydrogel. In this study, we used PLGA (85:15) as electrode preparing substrate. The CaCl₂/ EtOH solution (80% w/v) was mixed into carbon paste to prepare various concentration calcium-containing carbon paste (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% v/v). Different concentrations of alginate (1%, 1.5%, 2% v/v) and SWCNT(Diameter < 2nm, length between 5-15μm) (1, 1.5, 3 mg/ml) are gently immobilized on the electrode by cross-linking with calcium chloride. The three-dimensional hydrogel electrode was tested for its redox efficiency by cyclic voltammetry to determine the optimal parameters for the hydrogel electrode preparation. From the result of the final electrodes, it indicated that the electrode was not easy to maintain the pattern of the interdigitated electrode when the concentration of calcium of chloride was more than 10%. According to the gel rate test and cyclic voltammetry experiment results showed the SWCNT could increase the electron conduction of hydrogel electrodes significantly. So far the 3D electrode system has been completed, 2% alginate mixed with 3mg SWCNT is the optimal condition to construct the most complete structure for the hydrogel preparation.

Keywords: myocardial tissue engineering, screen printing technology, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), alginate, single walled carbon nanotube

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5899 Factors Influencing University Student's Acceptance of New Technology

Authors: Fatma Khadra

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to identify the acceptance of new technology in a sample of 150 Participants from Qatar University. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), we used the Davis’s scale (1989) which contains two item scales for Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use. The TAM represents an important theoretical contribution toward understanding how users come to accept and use technology. This model suggests that when people are presented with a new technology, a number of variables influence their decision about how and when they will use it. The results showed that participants accept more technology because flexibility, clarity, enhancing the experience, enjoying, facility, and useful. Also, results showed that younger participants accept more technology than others.

Keywords: new technology, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, technology acceptance model

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5898 The Importance of Science and Technology Education in Skill Acquisition for Self Dependence

Authors: Olaje Monday Olaje

Abstract:

Science and technology has been prove to be the back bone for economic development of any country, and for Nigeria, it has more critical role to play. This paper examines the importance of science and technology education for national development and self dependence for Nigerian citizens. A historical overview of the interconnectivity of science and technology and self dependence is heighted. The current situation and challenges facing science and technology education are also highlighted to bring out the theoretical importance of science and technology education for self dependence which actually has not been practically achieved. Recommendations are also made at the of the study so as to skill acquisition through science and technology for self dependence.

Keywords: acquisition, education, self-dependence, science, technology

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5897 Fabrication of Highly Stable Low-Density Self-Assembled Monolayers by Thiolyne Click Reaction

Authors: Leila Safazadeh, Brad Berron

Abstract:

Self-assembled monolayers have tremendous impact in interfacial science, due to the unique opportunity they offer to tailor surface properties. Low-density self-assembled monolayers are an emerging class of monolayers where the environment-interfacing portion of the adsorbate has a greater level of conformational freedom when compared to traditional monolayer chemistries. This greater range of motion and increased spacing between surface-bound molecules offers new opportunities in tailoring adsorption phenomena in sensing systems. In particular, we expect low-density surfaces to offer a unique opportunity to intercalate surface bound ligands into the secondary structure of protiens and other macromolecules. Additionally, as many conventional sensing surfaces are built upon gold surfaces (SPR or QCM), these surfaces must be compatible with gold substrates. Here, we present the first stable method of generating low-density self assembled monolayer surfaces on gold for the analysis of their interactions with protein targets. Our approach is based on the 2:1 addition of thiol-yne chemistry to develop new classes of y-shaped adsorbates on gold, where the environment-interfacing group is spaced laterally from neighboring chemical groups. This technique involves an initial deposition of a crystalline monolayer of 1,10 decanedithiol on the gold substrate, followed by grafting of a low-packed monolayer on through a photoinitiated thiol-yne reaction in presence of light. Orthogonality of the thiol-yne chemistry (commonly referred to as a click chemistry) allows for preparation of low-density monolayers with variety of functional groups. To date, carboxyl, amine, alcohol, and alkyl terminated monolayers have been prepared using this core technology. Results from surface characterization techniques such as FTIR, contact angle goniometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirm the proposed low chain-chain interactions of the environment interfacing groups. Reductive desorption measurements suggest a higher stability for the click-LDMs compared to traditional SAMs, along with the equivalent packing density at the substrate interface, which confirms the proposed stability of the monolayer-gold interface. In addition, contact angle measurements change in the presence of an applied potential, supporting our description of a surface structure which allows the alkyl chains to freely orient themselves in response to different environments. We are studying the differences in protein adsorption phenomena between well packed and our loosely packed surfaces, and we expect this data will be ready to present at the GRC meeting. This work aims to contribute biotechnology science in the following manner: Molecularly imprinted polymers are a promising recognition mode with several advantages over natural antibodies in the recognition of small molecules. However, because of their bulk polymer structure, they are poorly suited for the rapid diffusion desired for recognition of proteins and other macromolecules. Molecularly imprinted monolayers are an emerging class of materials where the surface is imprinted, and there is not a bulk material to impede mass transfer. Further, the short distance between the binding site and the signal transduction material improves many modes of detection. My dissertation project is to develop a new chemistry for protein-imprinted self-assembled monolayers on gold, for incorporation into SPR sensors. Our unique contribution is the spatial imprinting of not only physical cues (seen in current imprinted monolayer techniques), but to also incorporate complementary chemical cues. This is accomplished through a photo-click grafting of preassembled ligands around a protein template. This conference is important for my development as a graduate student to broaden my appreciation of the sensor development beyond surface chemistry.

Keywords: low-density self-assembled monolayers, thiol-yne click reaction, molecular imprinting

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5896 Exploitation of Technology by the Tshwane Residence for Tourism Development Purposes

Authors: P. P. S. Sifolo, P. Tladi, J. Maimela

Abstract:

This article investigates technology used by Tshwane residents intended for tourism purposes. The aim is to contribute information to the Tshwane interested parties for planning and management concerning technology within the tourism sector. This study identified the types of tourist related technologies used by the Tshwane residents, be it for business purposes or personal use. The study connected the exploitation of technology for tourism purposes through unpacking the tourism sector as it utilizes technology. Quantitative research methodology was used whereby self-completed questionnaires were chosen as research instruments. The research study carried out a search for knowledge on technology for tourism and the Tshwane residents; however the study revealed that technology has certainly imprinted tourism massively because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Technology has assisted tourism businesses stay abreast of competition with ICT and because of that, SA is on the map as one the economically performing countries in Africa. Moreover, technology and tourism make a meaningful impact on job creation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Keywords: tourism, information and communication technology, Tshwane residents, technology for tourism

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5895 The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on the Performance of Office Technology Managers

Authors: Sunusi Tijjani

Abstract:

Information and communication technology is an indispensable tool in the performance of office technology managers. Today's offices are automated and equipped with modern office machines that enhances and improve the work of office managers. However, today's office technology managers can process, evaluate, manage and communicate all forms of information using technological devices. Information and Communication Technology is viewed as the process of processing, storing ad dissemination information while office technology managers are trained professional who can effectively operate modern office machines, perform administrative duties and attend meetings to take dawn minute of meetings. This paper examines the importance of information and communication technology toward enhancing the work of office managers. It also stresses the importance of information and communication technology toward proper and accurate record management.

Keywords: communication, information, technology, managers

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5894 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: university-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies

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5893 Classifying the Role of Technology in Technology Development

Authors: Hyun Joung No, Chul Lee

Abstract:

Even though technology evolves and develops through interaction with each other, not all technologies contribute to the development of technology equally. While some technologies play a central role in developing technology, others play a secondary role. The role of the technological components can be classified as core or non-core (peripheral) technology. The core technologies have a considerable knowledge interaction with other technological components while the non-core technologies barely interact with others within the system. This study introduces the concept that classifies the technological components into core or peripheral technology according to their role and importance in the technology field. The study adapted the social network analysis to examine the relationship between technological components. Using a continuous core-periphery analysis, it identifies the technological network structure and classifies the core and peripheral nodes. Based on their knowledge inflow/outflow direction and their dependence/influence on core technologies, the technological clusters are classified into four categories: (1) high dependence and high influence on core technology, (2) high dependence and low influence on core technology, (3) low dependence and high influence on core technology, and (4) low dependence and low influence on core technology.

Keywords: core technology, periphery technology, technological components, technological role

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5892 Focusing of Technology Monitoring Activities Using Indicators

Authors: Günther Schuh, Christina König, Toni Drescher

Abstract:

One of the key factors for the competitiveness and market success of technology-driven companies is the timely provision of information about emerging technologies, changes in existing technologies, as well as relevant related changes in the market's structures and participants. Therefore, many companies conduct technology intelligence (TI) activities to ensure an early identification of appropriate technologies and other (weak) signals. One base activity of TI is technology monitoring, which is defined as the systematic tracking of developments within a specified topic of interest as well as related trends over a long period of time. Due to the very large number of dynamically changing parameters within the technological and the market environment of a company as well as their possible interdependencies, it is necessary to focus technology monitoring on specific indicators or other criteria, which are able to point out technological developments and market changes. In addition to the execution of a literature review on existing approaches, which mainly propose patent-based indicators, it is examined in this paper whether indicator systems from other branches such as risk management or economic research could be transferred to technology monitoring in order to enable an efficient and focused technology monitoring for companies.

Keywords: technology forecasting, technology indicator, technology intelligence, technology management, technology monitoring

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5891 Using a Design Structure Method to Support Technology Roadmapping for Product-Service Integrated Systems

Authors: Heungwook Son, Sungjoo Lee

Abstract:

Recently, due to intensifying competition in several industries, the importance of meeting customer requirements has increased. The role that service plays in satisfying customer‘s requirements is key area of focus. Thus, the concept of using product development-research in the service system has been actively practiced. As strategic decision making tool, various types of the technology roadmap were suggested in the product-service system (PSS). However, the technology roadmap was configured a top-down form around the technologies of the elements. The limitation is that it hard for it to indicate a variety of interrelations. In response, this paper suggests using the planning support tool of PSS for a DSM for the technology roadmap; it consists of the relationship of product-service-technology as a bottom-up form. Therefore, nine types of the technology roadmap of PSS exist. The first defines the relationship of product-service-technology. The second phase identifies output when of the technology roadmaps are adapted to the DSM process. Finally, the DSM-based forms of each type of technology roadmap are presented through case studies.

Keywords: DSM, technology roadmap, PSS, product-service system, bottom-up

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5890 Connecting Lives Inside and Outside the Classroom: Why and How to Implement Technology in the Language Learning Classroom

Authors: Geoffrey Sinha

Abstract:

This paper is primarily addressed to teachers who stand on the threshold of bringing technology and new media into their classrooms. Technology and new media, such as smart phones and tablets have changed the face of communication in general and of language teaching more specifically. New media has widespread appeal among young people in particular, so it is in the teacher’s best interests to bring new media into their lessons. It is the author’s firm belief that technology will never replace the teacher, but it is without question that the twenty-first century teacher must employ technology and new media in some form, or run the risk of failure. The level that one chooses to incorporate new media within their class is entirely in their hands.

Keywords: new media, social media, technology, education, language learning

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5889 Focusing on the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology for Improving Childrens’ Potentials in Science: Challenges for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Osagiede Mercy Afe

Abstract:

After the internet explosion in the 90’s, Technology was immediately integrated into the school system. Technology which symbolizes advancement in human knowledge was seen as a setback by many educators many efforts have been made to help stem this erroneous believes and help educators realize the benefits of technology and ways of implementing it in the classrooms especially in the sciences. This advancement created a constantly expanding gap between the pupil’s perception on the use of technology within the learning atmosphere and the teacher’s perception and limitations hence the focus of this paper is on the need to refocus on the potentials of Science and Technology in enhancing children learning at school especially in science for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper recommended measures for facilitating the sustenance of science and technology in Nigerian schools so as to enhance the potentials of our children in Science and Technology for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: children, information communication technology (ICT), potentials, sustainable development, science education

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5888 Technology Use by African Smallholder Farmers and the Significant Mediating Factors

Authors: Enobong Akpan-Etuk

Abstract:

The willingness of smallholder farmers in Africa to adopt new agricultural technologies has been low, despite the technological advancement in agriculture. Although technology is seen as the main route out of the traditional methods of food production and poverty, the rate of adoption of agricultural technology remains low among farmers in Africa. Factors affecting the adoption of agricultural technologies include the acquisition of information, characteristics of the technology, education of farmers, social capital, farm size, and household size. This paper explored the literature on the influence of the factors that determine the adoption of technology by smallholder farmers.

Keywords: smallholder, technology, adoption

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5887 The Application of Green Technology to Residential Architecture in Hangzhou

Authors: Huiru Chen, Xuran Zhang

Abstract:

At present, the residential architecture in China are still causing high energy consumption and high pollution during their whole life cycle, which can be backward compared with the developed countries. The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of green technology to residential architecture in Hangzhou. This article will start with the development of green buildings, then analyzes the use status of green technology in Hangzhou from several specific measures. Analysis of the typical existing green residential buildings in Hangzhou is an attempt to form a preliminary Hangzhou’s green technology application strategy system. Through research, it has been found that the application of green technology in Hangzhou has changed from putting green to the facade, to the combination of the preservation of the traditional green concept and the modern green technology.

Keywords: application, green technology, Hangzhou, residential architecture

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5886 Nanoparticles in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer, and Medical Imaging Techniques Using Nano-Technology

Authors: Rao Muhammad Afzal Khan

Abstract:

Nano technology is emerging as a useful technology in nearly all areas of Science and Technology. Its role in medical imaging is attracting the researchers towards existing and new imaging modalities and techniques. This presentation gives an overview of the development of the work done throughout the world. Furthermore, it lays an idea into the scope of the future use of this technology for diagnosing different diseases. A comparative analysis has also been discussed with an emphasis to detect diseases, in general, and cancer, in particular.

Keywords: medical imaging, cancer detection, diagnosis, nano-imaging, nanotechnology

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5885 Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer: Synthesis, Characterization and Removal of Selected Acidic Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater

Authors: Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Luke Chimuka

Abstract:

Removal of organics from wastewater offers a better water quality, therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the use of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the elimination of selected organics from water. A multi-template MIP for the adsorption of naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac was synthesized using a bulk polymerization method. A MIP was synthesized at 70°C by employing 2-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, toluene and 1,1’-azobis-(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) as functional monomer, cross-linker, porogen and initiator, respectively. Thermogravimetric characterization indicated that the polymer backbone collapses at 250°C and scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous and roughness nature of the MIP after elution of templates. The performance of the MIP in aqueous solutions was evaluated by optimizing several adsorption parameters. The optimized adsorption conditions were 50 mg of MIP, extraction time of 10 min, a sample pH of 4.6 and the initial concentration of 30 mg/L. The imprinting factors obtained for naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac were 1.25, 1.42, and 2.01, respectively. The order of selectivity for the MIP was; diclofenac > ibuprofen > naproxen. MIP showed great swelling in water with an initial swelling rate of 2.62 g/(g min). The synthesized MIP proved to be able to adsorb naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac from contaminated deionized water, wastewater influent and effluent.

Keywords: adsorption, molecularly imprinted polymer, multi template, pharmaceuticals

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