Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 1553

Search results for: multi-layer thin film

23 Development of Biosensor Chip for Detection of Specific Antibodies to HSV-1

Authors: Zatovska T. V., Nesterova N. V., Baranova G. V., Zagorodnya S. D.

Abstract:

In recent years, biosensor technologies based on the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are becoming increasingly used in biology and medicine. Their application facilitates exploration in real time progress of binding of biomolecules and identification of agents that specifically interact with biologically active substances immobilized on the biosensor surface (biochips). Special attention is paid to the use of Biosensor analysis in determining the antibody-antigen interaction in the diagnostics of diseases caused by viruses and bacteria. According to WHO, the diseases that are caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), take second place (15.8%) after influenza as a cause of death from viral infections. Current diagnostics of HSV infection include PCR and ELISA assays. The latter allows determination the degree of immune response to viral infection and respective stages of its progress. In this regard, the searches for new and available diagnostic methods are very important. This work was aimed to develop Biosensor chip for detection of specific antibodies to HSV-1 in the human blood serum. The proteins of HSV1 (strain US) were used as antigens. The viral particles were accumulated in cell culture MDBK and purified by differential centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradient. Analysis of the HSV1 proteins was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ELISA. The protein concentration was measured using De Novix DS-11 spectrophotometer. The device for detection of antigen-antibody interactions was an optoelectronic two-channel spectrometer ‘Plasmon-6’, using the SPR phenomenon in the Krechman optical configuration. It was developed at the Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics of NASU. The used carrier was a glass plate covered with 45 nm gold film. Screening of human blood serums was performed using the test system ‘HSV-1 IgG ELISA’ (GenWay, USA). Development of Biosensor chip included optimization of conditions of viral antigen sorption and analysis steps. For immobilization of viral proteins 0.2% solution of Dextran 17, 200 (Sigma, USA) was used. Sorption of antigen took place at 4-8°C within 18-24 hours. After washing of chip, three times with citrate buffer (pH 5,0) 1% solution of BSA was applied to block the sites not occupied by viral antigen. It was found direct dependence between the amount of immobilized HSV1 antigen and SPR response. Using obtained biochips, panels of 25 positive and 10 negative for the content of antibodies to HSV-1 human sera were analyzed. The average value of SPR response was 185 a.s. for negative sera and from 312 to. 1264 a.s. for positive sera. It was shown that SPR data were agreed with ELISA results in 96% of samples proving the great potential of SPR in such researches. It was investigated the possibility of biochip regeneration and it was shown that application of 10 mM NaOH solution leads to rupture of intermolecular bonds. This allows reuse the chip several times. Thus, in this study biosensor chip for detection of specific antibodies to HSV1 was successfully developed expanding a range of diagnostic methods for this pathogen.

Keywords: Herpes virus, Biochip, SPR

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22 Application of Low Frequency Ac Magnetic Field for Controlled Delivery of Drugs by Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: K. Yu Vlasova, M. A. Abakumov, H. Wishwarsao, M. Sokolsky, N. V. Nukolova, A. G. Majouga, Y. I. Golovin, N. L. Klyachko, A. V. Kabanov

Abstract:

Introduction:Nowadays pharmaceutical medicine is aimed to create systems for combined therapy, diagnostic, drug delivery and controlled release of active molecules to target cells. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used to achieve this aim. MNPs can be applied in molecular diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging (T1/T2 contrast agents), drug delivery, hyperthermia and could improve therapeutic effect of drugs. The most common drug containers, containing MNPs, are liposomes, micelles and polymeric molecules bonded to the MNPs surface. Usually superparamagnetic nanoparticles are used (the general diameter is about 5-6 nm) and all effects of high frequency magnetic field (MF) application are based on Neel relaxation resulting in heating of surrounded media. In this work we try to develop a new method to improve drug release from MNPs under super low frequency MF. We suppose that under low frequency MF exposures the Brown’s relaxation dominates and MNPs rotation could occur leading to conformation changes and release of bioactive molecules immobilized on MNPs surface.The aim of this work was to synthesize different systems with active drug (biopolymers coated MNPs nanoclusters with immobilized enzymes and doxorubicin (Dox) loaded magnetic liposomes/micelles) and investigate the effect of super low frequency MF on these drug containers. Methods: We have synthesized MNPs of magnetite with magnetic core diameter 7-12 nm . The MNPs were coated with block-copolymer of polylysine and polyethylene glycol. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was electrostatically adsorbed on the surface of the clusters. Liposomes were prepared as follow: MNPs, phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were dispersed in chloroform, dried to get film and then dispersed in distillated water, sonicated. Dox was added to the solution, pH was adjusted to 7.4 and excess of drug was removed by centrifugation through 3 kDa filters. Results: Polylysine coated MNPs formed nanosized clusters (as observed by TEM) with intensity average diameter of 112±5 nm and zeta potential 12±3 mV. After low frequency AC MF exposure we observed change of immobilized enzyme activity and hydrodynamic size of clusters. We suppose that the biomolecules (enzymes) are released from the MNPs surface followed with additional aggregation of complexes at the MF in medium. Centrifugation of the nanosuspension after AC MF exposures resulted in increase of positive charge of clusters and change in enzyme concentration in comparison with control sample without MF, thus confirming desorption of negatively charged enzyme from the positively charged surface of MNPs. Dox loaded magnetic liposomes had average diameter of 160±8 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) 0.25±0.07. Liposomes were stable in DW and PBS at pH=7.4 at 370C during a week. After MF application (10 min of exposure, 50 Hz, 230 mT) diameter of liposomes raised to 190±10 nm and PDI was 0.38±0.05. We explain this by destroying and/or reorganization of lipid bilayer, that leads to changes in release of drug in comparison with control without MF exposure. Conclusion: A new application of low frequency AC MF for drug delivery and controlled drug release was shown. Investigation was supported by RSF-14-13-00731 grant, K1-2014-022 grant.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, low frequency magnetic field, controlled drug release

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21 Antimicrobial Nanocompositions Made of Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Polymers

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava, Tamar Memanishvili, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, Manana Gurielidze

Abstract:

Bacteria easily colonize the surfaces of tissues, surgical devices (implants, orthopedics, catheters, etc.), and instruments causing surgical device related infections. Therefore, the battle against bacteria and the prevention of surgical devices from biofilm formation is one of the main challenges of biomedicine today. Our strategy to the solution of this problem consists in using antimicrobial polymeric coatings as effective “shields” to protect surfaces from bacteria’s colonization and biofilm formation. As one of the most promising approaches look be the use of antimicrobial bioerodible polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We assume that the combination of an erodible polymer with a strong bactericide should put obstacles to bacteria to occupy the surface and to form biofilm. It has to be noted that this kind of nanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials to treat infected superficial wounds. Various synthetic and natural polymers were used for creating biocomposites containing AgNPs as both particles' stabilizers and matrices forming elastic films at surfaces. One of the most effective systems to fabricate AgNPs is an ethanol solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) with dissolved AgNO3–ethanol serves as a AgNO3 reductant and PVP as AgNPs stabilizer (through the interaction of nanoparticles with nitrogen atom of the amide group). Though PVP is biocompatible and film-forming polymer, it is not a good candidate to design either "biofilm shield" or wound dressing material because of a high solubility in water – though the solubility of PVP provides the desirable release of AgNPs from the matrix, but the coating is easily washable away from the surfaces. More promising as matrices look water insoluble but bioerodible polymers that can provide the release of AgNPs and form long-lasting coatings at the surfaces. For creating bioerodible water-insoluble antimicrobial coatings containing AgNPs, we selected amino acid based biodegradable polymers(AABBPs)–poly(ester amide)s, poly(ester urea)s, their copolymers containing amide and related groups capable to stabilize AgNPs. Among a huge variety of AABBPs reported we selected the polymers soluble in ethanol. For preparing AgNPs containing nanocompositions AABBPs and AgNO3 were dissolved in ethanol and subjected to photochemical reduction using daylight-irradiation. The formation of AgNPs was observed visually by coloring the solutions in brownish-red. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and dynamic light scattering(DLS). According to the UV and TEM data, the photochemical reduction resulted presumably in spherical AgNPs with rather high contribution of the particles below 10 nm that are known as responsible for the antimicrobial activity. DLS study showed that average size of nanoparticles formed after photo-reduction in ethanol solution ranged within 50 nm. The in vitro antimicrobial activity study of the new nanocomposite material is in progress now.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Polymer, Silver Nanoparticles, biodegradable

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20 Implementation of Synthesis and Quality Control Procedures of ¹⁸F-Fluoromisonidazole Radiopharmaceutical

Authors: Natalia C. E. S. Nascimento, Mércia L. Oliveira, Fernando R. A. Lima, Leonardo T. C. do Nascimento, Marina B. Silveira, Brigida G. A. Schirmer, Andrea V. Ferreira, Carlos Malamut, Juliana B. da Silva

Abstract:

Tissue hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors leading to decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the clinical context, tumor hypoxia assessment employing the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer ¹⁸F-fluoromisonidazole ([¹⁸F]FMISO) is helpful for physicians for planning and therapy adjusting. The aim of this work was to implement the synthesis of 18F-FMISO in a TRACERlab® MXFDG module and also to establish the quality control procedure. [¹⁸F]FMISO was synthesized at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN/Brazil) using an automated synthesizer (TRACERlab® MXFDG, GE) adapted for the production of [¹⁸F]FMISO. The FMISO chemical standard was purchased from ABX. 18O- enriched water was acquired from Center of Molecular Research. Reagent kits containing eluent solution, acetonitrile, ethanol, 2.0 M HCl solution, buffer solution, water for injections and [¹⁸F]FMISO precursor (dissolved in 2 ml acetonitrile) were purchased from ABX. The [¹⁸F]FMISO samples were purified by Solid Phase Extraction method. The quality requirements of [¹⁸F]FMISO are established in the European Pharmacopeia. According to that reference, quality control of [¹⁸F]FMISO should include appearance, pH, radionuclidic identity and purity, radiochemical identity and purity, chemical purity, residual solvents, bacterial endotoxins, and sterility. The duration of the synthesis process was 53 min, with radiochemical yield of (37.00 ± 0.01) % and the specific activity was more than 70 GBq/µmol. The syntheses were reproducible and showed satisfactory results. In relation to the quality control analysis, the samples were clear and colorless at pH 6.0. The spectrum emission, measured by using a High-Purity Germanium Detector (HPGe), presented a single peak at 511 keV and the half-life, determined by the decay method in an activimeter, was (111.0 ± 0.5) min, indicating no presence of radioactive contaminants, besides the desirable radionuclide (¹⁸F). The samples showed concentration of tetrabutylammonium (TBA) < 50μg/mL, assessed by visual comparison to TBA standard applied in the same thin layer chromatographic plate. Radiochemical purity was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the results were 100%. Regarding the residual solvents tested, ethanol and acetonitrile presented concentration lower than 10% and 0.04%, respectively. Healthy female mice were injected via lateral tail vein with [¹⁸F]FMISO, microPET imaging studies (15 min) were performed after 2 h post injection (p.i), and the biodistribution was analyzed in five-time points (30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) after injection. Subsequently, organs/tissues were assayed for radioactivity with a gamma counter. All parameters of quality control test were in agreement to quality criteria confirming that [¹⁸F]FMISO was suitable for use in non-clinical and clinical trials, following the legal requirements for the production of new radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil.

Keywords: automatic radiosynthesis, hypoxic tumors, pharmacopeia, positron emitters, quality requirements

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19 Molecular Migration in Polyvinyl Acetate Matrix: Impact of Compatibility, Number of Migrants and Stress on Surface and Internal Microstructure

Authors: O. Squillace, R. L. Thompson

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Migration of small molecules to, and across the surface of polymer matrices is a little-studied problem with important industrial applications. Tackifiers in adhesives, flavors in foods and binding agents in paints all present situations where the function of a product depends on the ability of small molecules to migrate through a polymer matrix to achieve the desired properties such as softness, dispersion of fillers, and to deliver an effect that is felt (or tasted) on a surface. It’s been shown that the chemical and molecular structure, surface free energies, phase behavior, close environment and compatibility of the system, influence the migrants’ motion. When differences in behavior, such as occurrence of segregation to the surface or not, are observed it is then of crucial importance to identify and get a better understanding of the driving forces involved in the process of molecular migration. In this aim, experience is meant to be allied with theory in order to deliver a validated theoretical and computational toolkit to describe and predict these phenomena. The systems that have been chosen for this study aim to address the effect of polarity mismatch between the migrants and the polymer matrix and that of a second migrant over the first one. As a non-polar resin polymer, polyvinyl acetate is used as the material to which more or less polar migrants (sorbitol, carvone, octanoic acid (OA), triacetin) are to be added. Through contact angle measurement a surface excess is seen for sorbitol (polar) mixed with PVAc as the surface energy is lowered compare to the one of pure PVAc. This effect is increased upon the addition of carvon or triacetin (non-polars). Surface micro-structures are also evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ion beam analysis (Nuclear Reaction Analysis), supplemented by neutron reflectometry can accurately characterize the self-organization of surfactants, oligomers, aromatic molecules in polymer films in order to relate the macroscopic behavior to the length scales that are amenable to simulation. The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) data for deuterated OA 20% shows the evidence of a surface excess which is enhanced after annealing. The addition of 10% triacetin, as a second migrant, results in the formation of an underlying layer enriched in triacetin below the surface excess of OA. The results show that molecules in polarity mismatch with the matrix tend to segregate to the surface, and this is favored by the addition of a second migrant of the same polarity than the matrix. As studies have been restricted to materials that are model supported films under static conditions in a first step, it is also wished to address the more challenging conditions of materials under controlled stress or strain. To achieve this, a simple rig and PDMS cell have been designed to stretch the material to a defined strain and to probe these mechanical effects by ion beam analysis and atomic force microscopy. This will make a significant step towards exploring the influence of extensional strain on surface segregation, flavor release in cross-linked rubbers.

Keywords: Polymers, Thin Films, surface segregation, molecular migration

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18 Epigastric Pain in Emergency Room: Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome

Authors: Ozge Ecmel Onur, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Demet Devrimsel Dogan, Ecem Deniz Kirkpantur, Muharrem Dogan, Ahmet Aykut

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Introduction: Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome (MALS) is a rare cause of chronic abdominal pain due to external compression of the celiac trunk by a fibrous arch that unites diaphragmatic crura on each side of the aortic hiatus. While 10-24% of the population may suffer from compression of celiac trunk, it rarely causes patients to develop symptoms. The typical clinical triad of symptoms includes postprandial epigastric pain, weight loss and vomiting. The diagnosis can be made using thin section multi-detector computed tomography (CT) scans which delineate the ligament and the compressed vessel. The treatment of MALS is aimed at relieving the compression of the celiac artery to restore adequate blood flow through the vessel and neurolysis to address chronic pain. Case: A 68-year-old male presented to our clinic with acute postprandial epigastric pain. This was patients’ first attack, and the pain was the worst pain of his life. The patient did not have any other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, chest pain or dyspnea. In his medical history, the patient has had an ischemic cerebrovascular stroke 5 years ago which he recovered with no sequel, and he was using 75 mg clopidogrel and 100 mg acetylsalicylic acid. He was not using any other medication and did not have a story of cardiovascular disease. His vital signs were stable (BP:113/72 mmHg, Spo2:97, temperature:36.3°C, HR:90/bpm). In his electrocardiogram, there was ST depression in leads II, III and AVF. In his physical examination, there was only epigastric tenderness, other system examinations were normal. Physical examination through his upper gastrointestinal system showed no bleeding. His laboratory results were as follows: creatinine:1.26 mg/dL, AST:42 U/L, ALT:17 U/L, amylase:78 U/L, lipase:26 U/L, troponin:10.3 pg/ml, WBC:28.9 K/uL, Hgb:12.7 gr/dL, Plt:335 K/uL. His serial high-sensitive troponin levels were also within normal limits, his echocardiography showed no segmental wall motion abnormalities, an acute myocardial infarction was excluded. In his abdominal ultrasound, no pathology was founded. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT and CT angiography reported ‘thickened diaphragmatic cruras are compressing and stenosing truncus celiacus superior, this is likely compatible with MALS’. The patient was consulted to general surgery, and they admitted the patient for laparoscopic ligament release. Results: MALS is a syndrome that causes postprandial pain, nausea and vomiting as its most common symptoms. Affected patients are normally young, slim women between the ages of 30 and 50 who have undergone extensive examinations to find the source of their symptoms. To diagnose MALS, other underlying pathologies should initially be excluded. The gold standard is aortic angiography. Although diagnosis and treatment of MALS are unclear, symptom resolution has been achieved with multiple surgical modalities, including open, laparoscopic or robotic ligament release as well as celiac ganglionectomy, which often requires celiac artery revascularisation.

Keywords: Differential diagnosis, epigastric pain, median arcuate ligament syndrome, celiac trunk

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17 Ionian Sea Aquarium-Museum in Kefallinia Island, Greece: A Hub Developing the Underwater Natural and Cultural Resources in the Ionian Sea and Advancing the Ocean Literacy to the Public

Authors: Ferentinos George, Papatheodorou George, Belmonte Genuario, Geraga Maria, Christodoulou Dimitris, Fakiris Elias, Iatrou Margarita, Kordella Stravroula, Prevenios Michail, Mentogianis Vassilis, Sotiropoulos Makis

Abstract:

The Ionian Sea Aquarium-Museum in Kefallinia Island, Greece and its twinning with that of Santa Maria al Bagno in the Salento peninsula, Italy, are recently established Hubs in the Ionian Sea funded by the European Territorial Cooperation Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013. The objectives of the Ionian Sea Aquarium-Museum are: (i) exhibiting to the public the underwater natural and cultural treasures of the seas surrounding the island, (ii) the functioning of a recreational/vocational hub for all educational levels but also for sea users and stakeholders, to raise their awareness of the seas and engage them in the European notion of the Blue Growth of the Seas and (iii) setting up diving parks in sites of natural and cultural importance. The natural heritage in the Aquarium-Museum is exhibited in five tanks displaying the two most important benthic habitats in the Mediterranean Sea, that is, the Posidonia oceanica and the Coralligene assemblages with the associated rich fauna. The cultural heritage is exhibited in: (i) Dioramas displaying scale model replicas of the three best preserved ancient and historic wrecks. -The Fiscardo Roman wreck dating between 1st cent B.C. and 2nd cent. A.D., which is one of the largest and best preserved in the Mediterranean Sea. -The HMS PERSEUS British submarine, which is known for the second deepest submarine escape from all sunken submarines in WW II, and -A wooden wreck, the Italian ship Alma probably, which was requisitioned by the German army and used for transporting supplies and ammunition. (ii) Documentaries: The first two present the complete story from launching to sinking of: the HMS PERSEUS British submarine, the SS Ardena which is associated with the Italian Aqui Division killed by the German forces in Kefallinia and made known from the book and film “Captain Corelli’s Mandolin” and the third documentary deals with the birth place of seafaring in the world, which took place in the Greek. Archipelago by Neanderthals and modern humans between 115 and 35 thousand years ago. The Aquarium-Museum starts from next year (a) educational programmes for schools and tourists to discover the natural and cultural treasures around Kefallinia island, (b) recreational/vocational holiday activities centered on eco-diving and get involved in mapping and monitoring NATURA 2000 sites around the island and thus actively engaged in the Blue Growth of the seas and (c) summer schools aimed at under/post-graduate students, who are interested in marine archaeology and geo-habitat mapping and are looking for a job in the sustainable management of the seas. The exhibition themes in the Aquarium-Museum as well as the recreational /vocational and educational activities are prepared by the Oceanus Net laboratories of Patras University and were selected after surveying the seafloor using the latest state of art sonar and camera technologies.

Keywords: aquarium-museum, cultural and natural treasures, ionian sea, Kefallinia Island

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16 Participation of Titanium Influencing the Petrological Assemblage of Mafic Dyke: Salem, South India

Authors: Ayoti Banerjee, Meenakshi Banerjee

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The study of metamorphic reaction textures is important in contributing to our understanding of the evolution of metamorphic terranes. Where preserved, they provide information on changes in the P-T conditions during the metamorphic history of the rock, and thus allow us to speculate on the P-T-t evolution of the terrane. Mafic dykes have attracted the attention of petrologists because they act as window to mantle. This rock represents a mafic dyke of doleritic composition. It is fine to medium grained in which clinopyroxene are enclosed by the lath shaped plagioclase grains to form spectacular ophitic texture. At places, sub ophitic texture was also observed. Grains of pyroxene and plagioclase show very less deformation typically plagioclase showing deformed lamella along with plagioclase-clinopyroxene-phyric granoblastic fabric within a groundmass of feldspar microphenocrysts and Fe–Ti oxides. Both normal and reverse zoning were noted in the plagioclase laths. The clinopyroxene grains contain exsolved phases such as orthopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite along the cleavage traces and the orthopyroxene lamella form granules in the periphery of the clinopyroxene grains. Garnet corona also develops preferentially around plagioclase at the contact of clinopyroxene, ilmenite or magnetite. Tiny quartz and K-fs grains showed symplectic intergrowth with garnet at a few places. The product quartz formed along with garnet rims the coronal garnet and the reacting clinopyroxene. Thin amphibole corona formed along the periphery of deformed plagioclase and clinopyroxene occur as patches over the magmatic minerals. The amphibole coronas cannot be assigned to a late magmatic stage and are interpreted as reactive being restricted to the contact between clinopyroxene and plagioclase, thus postdating the crystallization of both. The amphibole and garnet do not share grain boundary in the entire rock and is thus pointing towards simultaneous crystallization. Olivine is absent. Spectacular myrmekitic growth of orthoclase and quartz rimming the plagioclase is consistent with the potash metasomatic effects that is also found in other rocks of this region. These textural features are consistent with a phase of fluid induced metamorphism (retrogression). But the appearance of coronal garnet and amphibole exclusive of each other reflects the participation if Ti as the prime reason. Presence of Ti as a reactant phase is a must for amphibole forming reactions whereas it is not so in case of garnet forming reactions although the reactants are the same plagioclase and clinopyroxene in both cases. These findings are well validated by petrographical and textural analysis. In order to obtain balanced chemical reactions that explain formation of amphibole and garnet in the mafic dyke rocks a matrix operation technique called Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) was adopted utilizing the measured chemical compositions of the minerals. The computer program C-Space was used for this purpose and the required compositional matrix. Data fed to C-Space was after doing cation-calculation of the oxide percentages obtained from EPMA analysis. The Garnet-Clinopyroxene geothermometer yielded a temperature of 650 degrees Celsius. The Garnet-Clinopyroxene-Plagioclase geobarometer and Al-in amphibole yielded roughly 7.5 kbar pressure.

Keywords: corona, dolerite, geothermometer, metasomatism, metamorphic reaction texture, retrogression

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15 Structural Fluxionality of Luminescent Coordination Compounds with Lanthanide Ions

Authors: Juliana A. B. Silva, Caio H. T. L. Albuquerque, Leonardo L. dos Santos, Cristiane K. Oliveira, Ivani Malvestiti, Fernando Hallwass, Ricardo L. Longo

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Complexes with lanthanide ions have been extensively studied due to their applications as luminescent, magnetic and catalytic materials as molecular or extended crystals, thin films, glasses, polymeric matrices, ionic liquids, and in solution. NMR chemical shift data in solution have been reported and suggest fluxional structures in a wide range of coordination compounds with rare earth ions. However, the fluxional mechanisms for these compounds are still not established. This structural fluxionality may affect the photophysical, catalytic and magnetic properties in solution. Thus, understanding the structural interconversion mechanisms may aid the design of coordination compounds with, for instance, improved (electro)luminescence, catalytic and magnetic behaviors. The [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, where btfa= 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedionate and bipy= 2,2’-bipiridyl, has a well-defined X-ray crystallographic structure and preliminary 1H NMR data suggested a structural fluxionality. Thus, we have investigated a series of coordination compounds with lanthanide ions [Ln(btfa)₃L], where Ln = La, Eu, Gd or Yb and L= bipy or phen (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) using a combined theoretical-experimental approach. These complexes were synthesized and fully characterized, and detailed NMR measurements were obtained. They were also studied by quantum chemical computational methods (DFT-PBE0). The aim was to determine the relevant factors in the structure of these compounds that favor or not the fluxional behavior. Measurements of the 1H NMR signals at variable temperature in CD₂Cl₂ of the [Eu(btfa)₃L] complexes suggest that these compounds have a fluxional structure, because the crystal structure has non-equivalent btfa ligands that should lead to non-equivalent hydrogen atoms and thus to more signals in the NMR spectra than those obtained at room temperature, where all hydrogen atoms of the btfa ligands are equivalent, and phen ligand has an effective vertical symmetry plane. For the [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, the broadening of the signals at –70°C provides a lower bound for the coalescence temperature, which indicates the energy barriers involved in the structural interconversion mechanisms are quite small. These barriers and, consequently, the coalescence temperature are dependent upon the radii of the lanthanide ion as well as to their paramagnetic effects. The PBE0 calculated structures are in very good agreement with the crystallographic data and, for the [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, this method provided several distinct structures with almost the same energy. However, the energy barrier for structural interconversion via dissociative pathways were found to be quite high and could not explain the experimental observations. Whereas the pseudo-rotation pathways, involving the btfa and bipy ligands, have very small activation barriers, in excellent agreement with the NMR data. The results also showed an increase in the activation barrier along the lanthanide series due to the decrease of the ionic radii and consequent increase of the steric effects. TD-DFT calculations showed a dependence of the ligand donor state energy with different structures of the complex [Eu(btfa)₃phen], which can affect the energy transfer rates and the luminescence. The energy required to promote the structural fluxionality may also enhance the luminescence quenching in solution. These results can aid in the design of more luminescent compounds and more efficient devices.

Keywords: Computational Chemistry, NMR, lanthanide-based compounds, structural fluxionality

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14 Backward-Facing Step Measurements at Different Reynolds Numbers Using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry

Authors: Maria Amelia V. C. Araujo, Billy J. Araujo, Brian Greenwood

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The flow over a backward-facing step is characterized by the presence of flow separation, recirculation and reattachment, for a simple geometry. This type of fluid behaviour takes place in many practical engineering applications, hence the reason for being investigated. Historically, fluid flows over a backward-facing step have been examined in many experiments using a variety of measuring techniques such as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), hot-wire anemometry, particle image velocimetry or hot-film sensors. However, some of these techniques cannot conveniently be used in separated flows or are too complicated and expensive. In this work, the applicability of the acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) technique is investigated to such type of flows, at various Reynolds numbers corresponding to different flow regimes. The use of this measuring technique in separated flows is very difficult to find in literature. Besides, most of the situations where the Reynolds number effect is evaluated in separated flows are in numerical modelling. The ADV technique has the advantage in providing nearly non-invasive measurements, which is important in resolving turbulence. The ADV Nortek Vectrino+ was used to characterize the flow, in a recirculating laboratory flume, at various Reynolds Numbers (Reh = 3738, 5452, 7908 and 17388) based on the step height (h), in order to capture different flow regimes, and the results compared to those obtained using other measuring techniques. To compare results with other researchers, the step height, expansion ratio and the positions upstream and downstream the step were reproduced. The post-processing of the AVD records was performed using a customized numerical code, which implements several filtering techniques. Subsequently, the Vectrino noise level was evaluated by computing the power spectral density for the stream-wise horizontal velocity component. The normalized mean stream-wise velocity profiles, skin-friction coefficients and reattachment lengths were obtained for each Reh. Turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds shear stresses and normal Reynolds stresses were determined for Reh = 7908. An uncertainty analysis was carried out, for the measured variables, using the moving block bootstrap technique. Low noise levels were obtained after implementing the post-processing techniques, showing their effectiveness. Besides, the errors obtained in the uncertainty analysis were relatively low, in general. For Reh = 7908, the normalized mean stream-wise velocity and turbulence profiles were compared directly with those acquired by other researchers using the LDV technique and a good agreement was found. The ADV technique proved to be able to characterize the flow properly over a backward-facing step, although additional caution should be taken for measurements very close to the bottom. The ADV measurements showed reliable results regarding: a) the stream-wise velocity profiles; b) the turbulent shear stress; c) the reattachment length; d) the identification of the transition from transitional to turbulent flows. Despite being a relatively inexpensive technique, acoustic Doppler velocimetry can be used with confidence in separated flows and thus very useful for numerical model validation. However, it is very important to perform adequate post-processing of the acquired data, to obtain low noise levels, thus decreasing the uncertainty.

Keywords: ADV, experimental data, multiple Reynolds number, post-processing

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13 Understanding New Zealand’s 19th Century Timber Churches: Techniques in Extracting and Applying Underlying Procedural Rules

Authors: Samuel McLennan, Tane Moleta, Andre Brown, Marc Aurel Schnabel

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The development of Ecclesiastical buildings within New Zealand has produced some unique design characteristics that take influence from both international styles and local building methods. What this research looks at is how procedural modelling can be used to define such common characteristics and understand how they are shared and developed within different examples of a similar architectural style. This will be achieved through the creation of procedural digital reconstructions of the various timber Gothic Churches built during the 19th century in the city of Wellington, New Zealand. ‘Procedural modelling’ is a digital modelling technique that has been growing in popularity, particularly within the game and film industry, as well as other fields such as industrial design and architecture. Such a design method entails the creation of a parametric ‘ruleset’ that can be easily adjusted to produce many variations of geometry, rather than a single geometry as is typically found in traditional CAD software. Key precedents within this area of digital heritage includes work by Haegler, Müller, and Gool, Nicholas Webb and Andre Brown, and most notably Mark Burry. What these precedents all share is how the forms of the reconstructed architecture have been generated using computational rules and an understanding of the architects’ geometric reasoning. This is also true within this research as Gothic architecture makes use of only a select range of forms (such as the pointed arch) that can be accurately replicated using the same standard geometric techniques originally used by the architect. The methodology of this research involves firstly establishing a sample group of similar buildings, documenting the existing samples, researching any lost samples to find evidence such as architectural plans, photos, and written descriptions, and then culminating all the findings into a single 3D procedural asset within the software ‘Houdini’. The end result will be an adjustable digital model that contains all the architectural components of the sample group, such as the various naves, buttresses, and windows. These components can then be selected and arranged to create visualisations of the sample group. Because timber gothic churches in New Zealand share many details between designs, the created collection of architectural components can also be used to approximate similar designs not included in the sample group, such as designs found beyond the Wellington Region. This creates an initial library of architectural components that can be further expanded on to encapsulate as wide of a sample size as desired. Such a methodology greatly improves upon the efficiency and adjustability of digital modelling compared to current practices found in digital heritage reconstruction. It also gives greater accuracy to speculative design, as a lack of evidence for lost structures can be approximated using components from still existing or better-documented examples. This research will also bring attention to the cultural significance these types of buildings have within the local area, addressing the public’s general unawareness of architectural history that is identified in the Wellington based research ‘Moving Images in Digital Heritage’ by Serdar Aydin et al.

Keywords: Digital Forensics, Digital Heritage, Gothic Architecture, Houdini, procedural modelling

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12 Application of 3D Apparel CAD for Costume Reproduction

Authors: Tom Cassidy, Zi Y. Kang, Tracy D. Cassidy

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3D apparel CAD is one of the remarkable products in advanced technology which enables intuitive design, visualisation and evaluation of garments through stereoscopic drape simulation. The progressive improvements of 3D apparel CAD have led to the creation of more realistic clothing simulation which is used not only in design development but also in presentation, promotion and communication for fashion as well as other industries such as film, game and social network services. As a result, 3D clothing technology is becoming more ubiquitous in human culture and lives today. This study considers that such phenomenon implies that the technology has reached maturity and it is time to inspect the status of current technology and to explore its potential uses in ways to create cultural values to further move forward. For this reason, this study aims to generate virtual costumes as culturally significant objects using 3D apparel CAD and to assess its capability, applicability and attitudes of the audience towards clothing simulation through comparison with physical counterparts. Since the access to costume collection is often limited due to the conservative issues, the technology may make valuable contribution by democratization of culture and knowledge for museums and its audience. This study is expected to provide foundation knowledge for development of clothing technology and for expanding its boundary of practical uses. To prevent any potential damage, two replicas of the costumes in the 1860s and 1920s at the Museum of London were chosen as samples. Their structural, visual and physical characteristics were measured and collected using patterns, scanned images of fabrics and objective fabric measurements with scale, KES-F (Kawabata Evaluation System of Fabrics) and Titan. Commercial software, DC Suite 5.0 was utilised to create virtual costumes applying collected data and the following outcomes were produced for the evaluation: Images of virtual costumes and video clips showing static and dynamic simulation. Focus groups were arranged with fashion design students and the public for evaluation which exposed the outcomes together with physical samples, fabrics swatches and photographs. The similarities, application and acceptance of virtual costumes were estimated through discussion and a questionnaire. The findings show that the technology has the capability to produce realistic or plausible simulation but expression of some factors such as details and capability of light material requires improvements. While the use of virtual costumes was viewed as more interesting and futuristic replacements to physical objects by the public group, the fashion student group noted more differences in detail and preferred physical garments highlighting the absence of tangibility. However, the advantages and potential of virtual costumes as effective and useful visual references for educational and exhibitory purposes were underlined by both groups. Although 3D apparel CAD has sufficient capacity to assist garment design process, it has limits in identical replication and more study on accurate reproduction of details and drape is needed for its technical improvements. Nevertheless, the virtual costumes in this study demonstrated the possibility of the technology to contribute to cultural and knowledgeable value creation through its applicability and as an interesting way to offer 3D visual information.

Keywords: digital clothing technology, garment simulation, virtual costume

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
11 Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Plasmonic Lens Focused Longitudinal Electric Field Excitation

Authors: Mingqian Zhang

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Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is a scanning probe technique for individual objects and structured surfaces investigation that provides a wealth of enhanced spectral information with nanoscale spatial resolution and high detection sensitivity. It has become a powerful and promising chemical and physical information detection method in the nanometer scale. The TERS technique uses a sharp metallic tip regulated in the near-field of a sample surface, which is illuminated with a certain incident beam meeting the excitation conditions of the wave-vector matching. The local electric field, and, consequently, the Raman scattering, from the sample in the vicinity of the tip apex are both greatly tip-enhanced owning to the excitation of localized surface plasmons and the lightning-rod effect. Typically, a TERS setup is composed of a scanning probe microscope, excitation and collection optical configurations, and a Raman spectroscope. In the illumination configuration, an objective lens or a parabolic mirror is always used as the most important component, in order to focus the incident beam on the tip apex for excitation. In this research, a novel TERS setup was built up by introducing a plasmonic lens to the excitation optics as a focusing device. A plasmonic lens with symmetry breaking semi-annular slits corrugated on gold film was designed for the purpose of generating concentrated sub-wavelength light spots with strong longitudinal electric field. Compared to conventional far-field optical components, the designed plasmonic lens not only focuses an incident beam to a sub-wavelength light spot, but also realizes a strong z-component that dominants the electric field illumination, which is ideal for the excitation of tip-enhancement. Therefore, using a PL in the illumination configuration of TERS contributes to improve the detection sensitivity by both reducing the far-field background and effectively exciting the localized electric field enhancement. The FDTD method was employed to investigate the optical near-field distribution resulting from the light-nanostructure interaction. And the optical field distribution was characterized using an scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope to demonstrate the focusing performance of the lens. The experimental result is in agreement with the theoretically calculated one. It verifies the focusing performance of the plasmonic lens. The optical field distribution shows a bright elliptic spot in the lens center and several arc-like side-lobes on both sides. After the focusing performance was experimentally verified, the designed plasmonic lens was used as a focusing component in the excitation configuration of TERS setup to concentrate incident energy and generate a longitudinal optical field. A collimated linearly polarized laser beam, with along x-axis polarization, was incident from the bottom glass side on the plasmonic lens. The incident light focused by the plasmonic lens interacted with the silver-coated tip apex and enhanced the Raman signal of the sample locally. The scattered Raman signal was gathered by a parabolic mirror and detected with a Raman spectroscopy. Then, the plasmonic lens based setup was employed to investigate carbon nanotubes and TERS experiment was performed. Experimental results indicate that the Raman signal is considerably enhanced which proves that the novel TERS configuration is feasible and promising.

Keywords: Plasmonics, Raman spectroscopy, longitudinal electric field, tip-enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
10 Application of Flow Cytometry for Detection of Influence of Abiotic Stress on Plants

Authors: Dace Grauda, Inta Belogrudova, Isaak Rashal, Alexei Katashev, Linda Lancere

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The goal of study was the elaboration of easy applicable flow cytometry method for detection of influence of abiotic stress factors on plants, which could be useful for detection of environmental stresses in urban areas. The lime tree Tillia vulgaris H. is a popular tree species used for urban landscaping in Europe and is one of the main species of street greenery in Riga, Latvia. Tree decline and low vitality has observed in the central part of Riga. For this reason lime trees were select as a model object for the investigation. During the period of end of June and beginning of July 12 samples from different urban environment locations as well as plant material from a greenhouse were collected. BD FACSJazz® cell sorter (BD Biosciences, USA) with flow cytometer function was used to test viability of plant cells. The method was based on changes of relative fluorescence intensity of cells in blue laser (488 nm) after influence of stress factors. SpheroTM rainbow calibration particles (3.0–3.4 μm, BD Biosciences, USA) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were used for calibration of flow cytometer. BD PharmingenTM PBS (BD Biosciences, USA) was used for flow cytometry assays. The mean fluorescence intensity information from the purified cell suspension samples was recorded. Preliminary, multiple gate sizes and shapes were tested to find one with the lowest CV. It was found that low CV can be obtained if only the densest part of plant cells forward scatter/side scatter profile is analysed because in this case plant cells are most similar in size and shape. The young pollen cells in one nucleus stage were found as the best for detection of influence of abiotic stress. For experiments only fresh plant material was used– the buds of Tillia vulgaris with diameter 2 mm. For the cell suspension (in vitro culture) establishment modified protocol of microspore culture was applied. The cells were suspended in the MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium. For imitation of dust of urban area SiO2 nanoparticles with concentration 0.001 g/ml were dissolved in distilled water. Into 10 ml of cell suspension 1 ml of SiO2 nanoparticles suspension was added, then cells were incubated in speed shaking regime for 1 and 3 hours. As a stress factor the irradiation of cells for 20 min by UV was used (Hamamatsu light source L9566-02A, L10852 lamp, A10014-50-0110), maximum relative intensity (100%) at 365 nm and at ~310 nm (75%). Before UV irradiation the suspension of cells were placed onto a thin layer on a filter paper disk (diameter 45 mm) in a Petri dish with solid MS media. Cells without treatment were used as a control. Experiments were performed at room temperature (23-25 °C). Using flow cytometer BS FACS Software cells plot was created to determine the densest part, which was later gated using oval-shaped gate. Gate included from 95 to 99% of all cells. To determine relative fluorescence of cells logarithmic fluorescence scale in arbitrary fluorescence units were used. 3x103 gated cells were analysed from the each sample. The significant differences were found among relative fluorescence of cells from different trees after treatment with SiO2 nanoparticles and UV irradiation in comparison with the control.

Keywords: Fluorescence, flow cytometry, UV irradiation, SiO2 nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
9 Comparative Production of Secondary Metabolites by Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman Provenances in Cameroon and Some Associated Endophytic Fungi

Authors: Gloria M. Ntuba-Jua, Afui M. Mih, Eneke E. T. Bechem

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Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, commonly known as Pygeum or African cherry belongs to the Rosaceae family. It is a medium to large, evergreen tree with a spreading crown of 10 to 20 m. It is used by the traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of over 45ailments in Cameroon and sub-Sahara Africa. In modern medicine, it is used in the treatment of benign prostrate hyperplasia (BPH), prostate gland hypertrophy (enlarged prostate glands). This is possible because of its ability to produce some secondary metabolites which are believed to have bioactivity against these ailments. The ready international market for the sale of Prunus bark, uncontrolled exploitation, illegal harvesting using inappropriate techniques and poor timing of harvesting have contributed enormously to making the plant endangered. It is known to harbor a large number of endophytic fungi with the potential to produce similar secondary metabolites as the parent plant. Alternative sourcing of medicinal principles through endophytic fungi requires succinct knowledge of the endophytic fungi. This will serve as a conservation measure for Prunus africana by reducing dependence on Prunus bark for such metabolites. This work thus sought to compare the production of some major secondary metabolites produced by P. africana and some of its associated endophytic fungi. The leaves and stem bark of the plant from different provenances were soaked in methanol for 72 hrs to yield the methanolic crude extract. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic crude extracts using different standard procedures revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolics and steroids. Pure cultures of some predominantly isolated endophyte species from the difference Prunus provenances such as Curvularia sp, and Morphospecies P001 were also grown in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) for 21 days and later extracted with Methylene dichloride (MDC) solvent after 24hrs to produce crude culture extracts. Qualitative assessment of crude culture extracts showed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, phenolics and steroids particularly β-Sitosterol, (a major bioactive metabolite) as did the plant tissues. Qualitative analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was done to confirm and compare the production of β-Sitosterol (as marker compounds) in the crude extracts of the plant and endophyte. Samples were loaded on TLC silica gel aluminium barked plate (Kieselgel 60 F254, 0.2 mm, Merck) using acetone/hexane, (3.0:7.0) solvent system. They were visualized under an ultra violet lamp (UV254 and UV360). TLC revealed that leaves had a higher concentration of β-sitosterol in terms of band intensity than stem barks from the different provenances. The intensity of β-sitosterol bands in the culture extracts of endophytes was comparable to the plant extracts except for Curvularia sp (very minute) whose band was very faint. The ability of these fungi to make β-sitosterol was confirmed by TLC analysis with the compound having chromatographic properties (retention factor) similar to those of β-sitosterol standard. The ability of these major endophytes to produce secondary metabolites similar to the host has therefore been demonstrated. There is, therefore, the potential of developing the in vitro production system of Prunus secondary metabolites thereby enhancing its conservation.

Keywords: endophytic fungi, secondary metabolite, Caneroon, Prunus africana

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8 A Multiple Freezing/Thawing Cycles Influence Internal Structure and Mechanical Properties of Achilles Tendon

Authors: Martyna Ekiert, Andrzej Mlyniec, Natalia Grzechnik, Joanna Karbowniczek, Urszula Stachewicz

Abstract:

Tendon grafting is a common procedure performed to treat tendon rupture. Before the surgical procedure, tissues intended for grafts (i.e., Achilles tendon) are stored in ultra-low temperatures for a long time and also may be subjected to unfavorable conditions, such as repetitive freezing (F) and thawing (T). Such storage protocols may highly influence the graft mechanical properties, decrease its functionality and thus increase the risk of complications during the transplant procedure. The literature reports on the influence of multiple F/T cycles on internal structure and mechanical properties of tendons stay inconclusive, confirming and denying the negative influence of multiple F/T at the same time. An inconsistent research methodology and lack of clear limit of F/T cycles, which disqualifies tissue for surgical graft purposes, encouraged us to investigate the issue of multiple F/T cycles by the mean of biomechanical tensile tests supported with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging. The study was conducted on male bovine Achilles tendon-derived from the local abattoir. Fresh tendons were cleaned of excessive membranes and then sectioned to obtained fascicle bundles. Collected samples were randomly assigned to 6 groups subjected to 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 cycles of freezing-thawing (F/T), respectively. Each F/T cycle included deep freezing at -80°C temperature, followed by thawing at room temperature. After final thawing, thin slices of the side part of samples subjected to 1, 4, 8 and 12 F/T cycles were collected for SEM imaging. Then, the width and thickness of all samples were measured to calculate the cross-sectional area. Biomechanical tests were performed using the universal testing machine (model Instron 8872, INSTRON®, Norwood, Massachusetts, USA) using a load cell with a maximum capacity of 250 kN and standard atmospheric conditions. Both ends of each fascicle bundle were manually clamped in grasping clamps using abrasive paper and wet cellulose wadding swabs to prevent tissue slipping while clamping and testing. Samples were subjected to the testing procedure including pre-loading, pre-cycling, loading, holding and unloading steps to obtain stress-strain curves for representing tendon stretching and relaxation. The stiffness of AT fascicles bundle samples was evaluated in terms of modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus), calculated from the slope of the linear region of stress-strain curves. SEM imaging was preceded by chemical sample preparation including 24hr fixation in 3% glutaraldehyde buffered with 0.1 M phosphate buffer, washing with 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and dehydration in a graded ethanol solution. SEM images (Merlin Gemini II microscope, ZEISS®) were taken using 30 000x mag, which allowed measuring a diameter of collagen fibrils. The results confirm a decrease in fascicle bundles Young’s modulus as well as a decrease in the diameter of collagen fibrils. These results confirm the negative influence of multiple F/T cycles on the mechanical properties of tendon tissue.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Soft tissue, collagen, fascicle bundles

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7 Electroactive Ferrocenyl Dendrimers as Transducers for Fabrication of Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor

Authors: Sudeshna Chandra, Christian Gäbler, Christian Schliebe, Heinrich Lang

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Highly branched dendrimers provide structural homogeneity, controlled composition, comparable size to biomolecules, internal porosity and multiple functional groups for conjugating reactions. Electro-active dendrimers containing multiple redox units have generated great interest in their use as electrode modifiers for development of biosensors. The electron transfer between the redox-active dendrimers and the biomolecules play a key role in developing a biosensor. Ferrocenes have multiple and electrochemically equivalent redox units that can act as electron “pool” in a system. The ferrocenyl-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer is capable of transferring multiple numbers of electrons under the same applied potential. Therefore, they can be used for dual purposes: one in building a film over the electrode for immunosensors and the other for immobilizing biomolecules for sensing. Electrochemical immunosensor, thus developed, exhibit fast and sensitive analysis, inexpensive and involve no prior sample pre-treatment. Electrochemical amperometric immunosensors are even more promising because they can achieve a very low detection limit with high sensitivity. Detection of the cancer biomarkers at an early stage can provide crucial information for foundational research of life science, clinical diagnosis and prevention of disease. Elevated concentration of biomarkers in body fluid is an early indication of some type of cancerous disease and among all the biomarkers, IgG is the most common and extensively used clinical cancer biomarkers. We present an IgG (=immunoglobulin) electrochemical immunosensor using a newly synthesized redox-active ferrocenyl dendrimer of generation 2 (G2Fc) as glassy carbon electrode material for immobilizing the antibody. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrodes was assessed in both aqueous and non-aqueous media using varying scan rates to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The potential shift was found to be higher in an aqueous electrolyte due to presence of more H-bond which reduced the electrostatic attraction within the amido groups of the dendrimers. The cyclic voltammetric studies of the G2Fc-modified GCE in 0.1 M PBS solution of pH 7.2 showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks. The peak current decreased significantly with the immobilization of the anti-goat IgG. After the immunosensor is blocked with BSA, a further decrease in the peak current was observed due to the attachment of the protein BSA to the immunosensor. A significant decrease in the current signal of the BSA/anti-IgG/G2Fc/GCE was observed upon immobilizing IgG which may be due to the formation of immune-conjugates that blocks the tunneling of mass and electron transfer. The current signal was found to be directly related to the amount of IgG captured on the electrode surface. With increase in the concentration of IgG, there is a formation of an increasing amount of immune-conjugates that decreased the peak current. The incubation time and concentration of the antibody was optimized for better analytical performance of the immunosensor. The developed amperometric immunosensor is sensitive to IgG concentration as low as 2 ng/mL. Tailoring of redox-active dendrimers provides enhanced electroactivity to the system and enlarges the sensor surface for binding the antibodies. It may be assumed that both electron transfer and diffusion contribute to the signal transformation between the dendrimers and the antibody.

Keywords: immunoglobulin, Amperometry, Electrochemical Immunosensors, ferrocenyl dendrimers

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6 Anti-Infective Potential of Selected Philippine Medicinal Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

Authors: Windell L. Rivera, Demetrio L. Valle Jr., Juliana Janet M. Puzon

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From the various medicinal plants available in the Philippines, crude ethanol extracts of twelve (12) Philippine medicinal plants, namely: Senna alata L. Roxb. (akapulko), Psidium guajava L. (bayabas), Piper betle L. (ikmo), Vitex negundo L. (lagundi), Mitrephora lanotan (Blanco) Merr. (Lanotan), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (luya), Curcuma longa L. (Luyang dilaw), Tinospora rumphii Boerl (Makabuhay), Moringga oleifera Lam. (malunggay), Phyllanthus niruri L. (sampa-sampalukan), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (takip kuhol), and Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam (tsaang gubat) were studied. In vitro methods of evaluation against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR), bacteria were performed on the plant extracts. Although five of the plants showed varying antagonistic activities against the test organisms, only Piper betle L. exhibited significant activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive multidrug-resistant bacteria, exhibiting wide zones of growth inhibition in the disk diffusion assay, and with the lowest concentrations of the extract required to inhibit the growth of the bacteria, as supported by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Further antibacterial studies of the Piper betle L. leaf, obtained by three extraction methods (ethanol, methanol, supercritical CO2), revealed similar inhibitory activities against a multitude of Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay of the leaf extract revealed a maximum of eight compounds with Rf values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV-366 nm. TLC- agar overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds showed the compounds with Rf values of 0.86 and 0.13 having inhibitory activities against Gram-positive MDR bacteria (MRSA and VRE). The compound with an Rf value of 0.86 also possesses inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria (CRE Klebsiella pneumoniae and MBL Acinetobacter baumannii). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was able to identify six volatile compounds, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include 4-(2-propenyl)phenol and eugenol; and the new four compounds were ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, and 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite. Phytochemical screening and investigation of its antioxidant, cytotoxic, possible hemolytic activities, and mechanisms of antibacterial activity were also done. The results showed that the local variant of Piper betle leaf extract possesses significant antioxidant, anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties, attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds, particularly of flavonoids (condensed tannin, leucoanthocyanin, gamma benzopyrone), anthraquinones, steroids/triterpenes and 2-deoxysugars. Piper betle L. is also traditionally known to enhance wound healing, which could be primarily due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. In vivo studies on mice using 2.5% and 5% of the ethanol leaf extract cream formulations in the excised wound models significantly increased the process of wound healing in the mice subjects, the results and values of which are at par with the current antibacterial cream (Mupirocin). From the results of the series of studies, we have definitely proven the value of Piper betle L. as a source of bioactive compounds that could be developed into therapeutic agents against MDR bacteria.

Keywords: Philippine herbal medicine, multidrug-resistant bacteria, Piper betle, TLC-bioautography

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
5 Sampling and Chemical Characterization of Particulate Matter in a Platinum Mine

Authors: Patricia Forbes, Vesta Kohlmeier, George C. Dragan, Juergen Orasche, Ralf Zimmermann, Gert Jakobi

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Underground mining poses a difficult environment for both man and machines. At more than 1000 meters underneath the surface of the earth, ores and other mineral resources are still gained by conventional and motorised mining. Adding to the hazards caused by blasting and stone-chipping, the working conditions are best described by the high temperatures of 35-40°C and high humidity, at low air exchange rates. Separate ventilation shafts lead fresh air into a mine and others lead expended air back to the surface. This is essential for humans and machines working deep underground. Nevertheless, mines are widely ramified. Thus the air flow rate at the far end of a tunnel is sensed to be close to zero. In recent years, conventional mining was supplemented by mining with heavy diesel machines. These very flat machines called Load Haul Dump (LHD) vehicles accelerate and ease work in areas favourable for heavy machines. On the other hand, they emit non-filtered diesel exhaust, which constitutes an occupational hazard for the miners. Combined with a low air exchange, high humidity and inorganic dust from the mining it leads to 'black smog' underneath the earth. This work focuses on the air quality in mines employing LHDs. Therefore we performed personal sampling (samplers worn by miners during their work), stationary sampling and aethalometer (Microaeth MA200, Aethlabs) measurements in a platinum mine in around 1000 meters under the earth’s surface. We compared areas of high diesel exhaust emission with areas of conventional mining where no diesel machines were operated. For a better assessment of health risks caused by air pollution we applied a separated gas-/particle-sampling tool (or system), with first denuder section collecting intermediate VOCs. These multi-channel silicone rubber denuders are able to trap IVOCs while allowing particles ranged from 10 nm to 1 µm in diameter to be transmitted with an efficiency of nearly 100%. The second section is represented by a quartz fibre filter collecting particles and adsorbed semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). The third part is a graphitized carbon black adsorber – collecting the SVOCs that evaporate from the filter. The compounds collected on these three sections were analyzed in our labs with different thermal desorption techniques coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). VOCs and IVOCs were measured with a Shimadzu Thermal Desorption Unit (TD20, Shimadzu, Japan) coupled to a GCMS-System QP 2010 Ultra with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (Shimadzu). The GC was equipped with a 30m, BP-20 wax column (0.25mm ID, 0.25µm film) from SGE (Australia). Filters were analyzed with In-situ derivatization thermal desorption gas chromatography time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (IDTD-GC-TOF-MS). The IDTD unit is a modified GL sciences Optic 3 system (GL Sciences, Netherlands). The results showed black carbon concentrations measured with the portable aethalometers up to several mg per m³. The organic chemistry was dominated by very high concentrations of alkanes. Typical diesel engine exhaust markers like alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected as well as typical lubrication oil markers like hopanes.

Keywords: Mining, aethalometer, diesel emission, personal sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
4 Pisolite Type Azurite/Malachite Ore in Sandstones at the Base of the Miocene in Northern Sardinia: The Authigenic Hypothesis

Authors: S. Fadda, M. Fiori, C. Matzuzzi

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Mineralized formations in the bottom sediments of a Miocene transgression have been discovered in Sardinia. The mineral assemblage consists of copper sulphides and oxidates suggesting fluctuations of redox conditions in neutral to high-pH restricted shallow-water coastal basins. Azurite/malachite has been observed as authigenic and occurs as loose spheroidal crystalline particles associated with the transitional-littoral horizon forming the bottom of the marine transgression. Many field observations are consistent with a supergenic circulation of metals involving terrestrial groundwater-seawater mixing. Both clastic materials and metals come from Tertiary volcanic edifices while the main precipitating anions, carbonates, and sulphides species are of both continental and marine origin. Formation of Cu carbonates as a supergene secondary 'oxide' assemblage, does not agree with field evidences, petrographic observations along with textural evidences in the host-rock types. Samples were collected along the sedimentary sequence for different analyses: the majority of elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence and plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Mineral identification was obtained by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microprobe. Thin sections of the samples were examined in microscopy while porosity measurements were made using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. Cu-carbonates deposited at a temperature below 100 C° which is consistent with the clay minerals in the matrix of the host rock dominated by illite and montmorillonite. Azurite nodules grew during the early diagenetic stage through reaction of cupriferous solutions with CO₂ imported from the overlying groundwater and circulating through the sandstones during shallow burial. Decomposition of organic matter in the bottom anoxic waters released additional carbon dioxide to pore fluids for azurite stability. In this manner localized reducing environments were also generated in which Cu was fixed as Cu-sulphide and sulphosalts. Microscopic examinations of textural features of azurite nodules give evidence of primary malachite/azurite deposition rather than supergene oxidation in place of primary sulfides. Photomicrographs show nuclei of azurite and malachite surrounded by newly formed microcrystalline carbonates which constitute the matrix. The typical pleochroism of crystals can be observed also when this mineral fills microscopic fissures or cracks. Sedimentological evidence of transgression and regression indicates that the pore water would have been a variable mixture of marine water and groundwaters with a possible meteoric component in an alternatively exposed and subaqueous environment owing to water-level fluctuation. Salinity data of the pore fluids, assessed at random intervals along the mineralised strata confirmed the values between about 7000 and 30,000 ppm measured in coeval sediments at the base of Miocene falling in the range of a more or less diluted sea water. This suggests a variation in mean pore-fluids pH between 5.5 and 8.5, compatible with the oxidized and reduced mineral paragenesis described in this work. The results of stable isotopes studies reflect the marine transgressive-regressive cyclicity of events and are compatibile with carbon derivation from sea water. During the last oxidative stage of diagenesis, under surface conditions of higher activity of H₂O and O₂, CO₂ partial pressure decreased, and malachite becomes the stable Cu mineral. The potential for these small but high grade deposits does exist.

Keywords: sedimentary, tertiary, Cu-carbonates, authigenic, Sardinia

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
3 A Low-Cost Disposable PDMS Microfluidic Cartridge with Reagent Storage Silicone Blisters for Isothermal DNA Amplification

Authors: L. Ereku, R. E. Mackay, A. Naveenathayalan, K. Ajayi, W. Balachandran

Abstract:

Over the past decade the increase of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) especially in the developing world due to high cost and lack of sufficient medical testing have given rise to the need for a rapid, low cost point of care medical diagnostic that is disposable and most significantly reproduces equivocal results achieved within centralised laboratories. This paper present the development of a disposable PDMS microfluidic cartridge incorporating blisters filled with reagents required for isothermal DNA amplification in clinical diagnostics and point-of-care testing. In view of circumventing the necessity for external complex microfluidic pumps, designing on-chip pressurised fluid reservoirs is embraced using finger actuation and blister storage. The fabrication of the blisters takes into consideration three proponents that include: material characteristics, fluid volume and structural design. Silicone rubber is the chosen material due to its good chemical stability, considerable tear resistance and moderate tension/compression strength. The case of fluid capacity and structural form go hand in hand as the reagent need for the experimental analysis determines the volume size of the blisters, whereas the structural form has to be designed to provide low compression stress when deformed for fluid expulsion. Furthermore, the top and bottom section of the blisters are embedded with miniature polar opposite magnets at a defined parallel distance. These magnets are needed to lock or restrain the blisters when fully compressed so as to prevent unneeded backflow as a result of elasticity. The integrated chip is bonded onto a large microscope glass slide (50mm x 75mm). Each part is manufactured using a 3D printed mould designed using Solidworks software. Die-casting is employed, using 3D printed moulds, to form the deformable blisters by forcing a proprietary liquid silicone rubber through the positive mould cavity. The set silicone rubber is removed from the cast and prefilled with liquid reagent and then sealed with a thin (0.3mm) burstable layer of recast silicone rubber. The main microfluidic cartridge is fabricated using classical soft lithographic techniques. The cartridge incorporates microchannel circuitry, mixing chamber, inlet port, outlet port, reaction chamber and waste chamber. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, QSil 216) is mixed and degassed using a centrifuge (ratio 10:1) is then poured after the prefilled blisters are correctly positioned on the negative mould. Heat treatment of about 50C to 60C in the oven for about 3hours is needed to achieve curing. The latter chip production stage involves bonding the cured PDMS to the glass slide. A plasma coroner treater device BD20-AC (Electro-Technic Products Inc., US) is used to activate the PDMS and glass slide before they are both joined and adequately compressed together, then left in the oven over the night to ensure bonding. There are two blisters in total needed for experimentation; the first will be used as a wash buffer to remove any remaining cell debris and unbound DNA while the second will contain 100uL amplification reagents. This paper will present results of chemical cell lysis, extraction using a biopolymer paper membrane and isothermal amplification on a low-cost platform using the finger actuated blisters for reagent storage. The platform has been shown to detect 1x105 copies of Chlamydia trachomatis using Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA).

Keywords: point of care, finger actuation, reagent storage, silicone blisters

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2 Sandstone Petrology of the Kolhan Basin, Eastern India: Implications for the Tectonic Evolution of a Half-Graben

Authors: Subhasish Das, Rohini Das, Smruti Rekha Sahoo, Shagupta Yesmin

Abstract:

The Paleoproterozoic Kolhan Group (Purana) ensemble constitutes the youngest lithostratigraphic 'outlier' in the Singhbhum Archaean craton. The Kolhan unconformably overlies both the Singhbhum granite and the Iron Ore Group (IOG). Representing a typical sandstone-shale ( +/- carbonates) sequence, the Kolhan is characterized by the development of thin and discontinuous patches of basal conglomerates draped by sandstone beds. The IOG-fault limits the western 'distal' margin of the Kolhan basin showing evidence of passive subsidence subsequent to the initial rifting stage. The basin evolved as a half-graben under the influence of an extensional stress regime. The assumption of a tectonic setting for the NE-SW trending Kolhan basin possibly relates to the basin opening to the E-W extensional stress system that prevailed during the development of the Newer Dolerite dyke. The Paleoproterozoic age of the Kolhan basin is based on the consideration of the conformable stress pattern responsible both for the basin opening and the development of the conjugate fracture system along which the Newer Dolerite dykes intruded the Singhbhum Archaean craton. The Kolhan sandstones show progressive change towards greater textural and mineralogical maturity in its upbuilding. The trend of variations in different mineralogical and textural attributes, however, exhibits inflections at different lithological levels. Petrological studies collectively indicate that the sandstones were dominantly derived from a weathered granitic crust under a humid climatic condition. Provenance-derived variations in sandstone compositions are therefore a key in unraveling regional tectonic histories. The basin axis controlled the progradation direction which was likely driven by climatically induced sediment influx, a eustatic fall, or both. In the case of the incongruent shift, increased sediment supply permitted the rivers to cross the basinal deep. Temporal association of the Kolhan with tectonic structures in the belt indicates that syn-tectonic thrust uplift, not isostatic uplift or climate, caused the influx of quartz. The sedimentation pattern in the Kolhan reflects a change from braided fluvial-ephemeral pattern to a fan-delta-lacustrine type. The channel geometries and the climate exerted a major control on the processes of sediment transfer. Repeated fault controlled uplift of the source followed by subsidence and forced regression, generated multiple sediment cyclicity that led to the fluvial-fan delta sedimentation pattern. Intermittent uplift of the faulted blocks exposed fresh bedrock to mechanical weathering that generated a large amount of detritus and resulted to forced regressions, repeatedly disrupting the cycles which may reflect a stratigraphic response of connected rift basins at the early stage of extension. The marked variations in the thickness of the fan delta succession and the stacking pattern in different measured profiles reflect the overriding tectonic controls on fan delta evolution. The accumulated fault displacement created higher accommodation and thicker delta sequences. Intermittent uplift of fault blocks exposed fresh bedrock to mechanical weathering, generated a large amount of detritus, and resulted in forced closure of the land-locked basin, repeatedly disrupting the fining upward pattern. The control of source rock lithology or climate was of secondary importance to tectonic effects. Such a retrograding fan delta could be a stratigraphic response of connected rift basins at the early stage of extension.

Keywords: Petrology, Tectonics, sandstone, Kolhan basin

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1 A Spatial Repetitive Controller Applied to an Aeroelastic Model for Wind Turbines

Authors: Riccardo Fratini, Riccardo Santini, Jacopo Serafini, Massimo Gennaretti, Stefano Panzieri

Abstract:

This paper presents a nonlinear differential model, for a three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) suited for control applications. It is based on a 8-dofs, lumped parameters structural dynamics coupled with a quasi-steady sectional aerodynamics. In particular, using the Euler-Lagrange Equation (Energetic Variation approach), the authors derive, and successively validate, such model. For the derivation of the aerodynamic model, the Greenbergs theory, an extension of the theory proposed by Theodorsen to the case of thin airfoils undergoing pulsating flows, is used. Specifically, in this work, the authors restricted that theory under the hypothesis of low perturbation reduced frequency k, which causes the lift deficiency function C(k) to be real and equal to 1. Furthermore, the expressions of the aerodynamic loads are obtained using the quasi-steady strip theory (Hodges and Ormiston), as a function of the chordwise and normal components of relative velocity between flow and airfoil Ut, Up, their derivatives, and section angular velocity ε˙. For the validation of the proposed model, the authors carried out open and closed-loop simulations of a 5 MW HAWT, characterized by radius R =61.5 m and by mean chord c = 3 m, with a nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/sec. The first analysis performed is the steady state solution, where a uniform wind Vw = 11.4 m/s is considered and a collective pitch angle θ = 0.88◦ is imposed. During this step, the authors noticed that the proposed model is intrinsically periodic due to the effect of the wind and of the gravitational force. In order to reject this periodic trend in the model dynamics, the authors propose a collective repetitive control algorithm coupled with a PD controller. In particular, when the reference command to be tracked and/or the disturbance to be rejected are periodic signals with a fixed period, the repetitive control strategies can be applied due to their high precision, simple implementation and little performance dependency on system parameters. The functional scheme of a repetitive controller is quite simple and, given a periodic reference command, is composed of a control block Crc(s) usually added to an existing feedback control system. The control block contains and a free time-delay system eτs in a positive feedback loop, and a low-pass filter q(s). It should be noticed that, while the time delay term reduces the stability margin, on the other hand the low pass filter is added to ensure stability. It is worth noting that, in this work, the authors propose a phase shifting for the controller and the delay system has been modified as e^(−(T−γk)), where T is the period of the signal and γk is a phase shifting of k samples of the same periodic signal. It should be noticed that, the phase shifting technique is particularly useful in non-minimum phase systems, such as flexible structures. In fact, using the phase shifting, the iterative algorithm could reach the convergence also at high frequencies. Notice that, in our case study, the shifting of k samples depends both on the rotor angular velocity Ω and on the rotor azimuth angle Ψ: we refer to this controller as a spatial repetitive controller. The collective repetitive controller has also been coupled with a C(s) = PD(s), in order to dampen oscillations of the blades. The performance of the spatial repetitive controller is compared with an industrial PI controller. In particular, starting from wind speed velocity Vw = 11.4 m/s the controller is asked to maintain the nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/s after an instantaneous increase of wind speed (Vw = 15 m/s). Then, a purely periodic external disturbance is introduced in order to stress the capabilities of the repetitive controller. The results of the simulations show that, contrary to a simple PI controller, the spatial repetitive-PD controller has the capability to reject both external disturbances and periodic trend in the model dynamics. Finally, the nominal value of the angular velocity is reached, in accordance with results obtained with commercial software for a turbine of the same type.

Keywords: Aeroelasticity, Wind turbines, repetitive control, periodic systems

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