Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Maxime Gautier

19 Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot

Authors: Sylvain Devie, Pierre-Philippe Robet, Yannick Aoustin, Maxime Gautier

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to show that the observation of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model, two different procedures were performed in order to identify the mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort applied on it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high effort applications.

Keywords: control, identification, robot, co-manipulation, sensor-less

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18 The Use of Medical Biotechnology to Treat Genetic Disease

Authors: Rachel Matar, Maxime Merheb

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Chemical drugs have been used for many centuries as the only way to cure diseases until the novel gene therapy has been created in 1960. Gene therapy is based on the insertion, correction, or inactivation of genes to treat people with genetic illness (1). Gene therapy has made wonders in Parkison’s, Alzheimer and multiple sclerosis. In addition to great promises in the healing of deadly diseases like many types of cancer and autoimmune diseases (2). This method implies the use of recombinant DNA technology with the help of different viral and non-viral vectors (3). It is nowadays used in somatic cells as well as embryos and gametes. Beside all the benefits of gene therapy, this technique is deemed by some opponents as an ethically unacceptable treatment as it implies playing with the genes of living organisms.

Keywords: gene therapy, genetic disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis

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17 An Experimental Study of the Effectiveness of Lubricants in Reducing the Sidewall Friction

Authors: Jian Zheng, Li Li, Maxime Daviault

Abstract:

In several cases, one needs apply lubrication materials in laboratory tests to reduce the friction (shear strength) along the interfaces between a tested soil and the side walls of container. Several types of lubricants are available. Their effectiveness had been tested mostly through direct shear tests. These testing conditions are quite different than those when the tested soil is placed in the container. Thus, the shear strengths measured from direct shear tests may not be totally representative of those of interfaces between the tested soil and the sidewalls of container. In this paper, the effectiveness of different lubricants used to reduce the friction (shear strength) of soil-structure interfaces has been studied. Results show that the selected lubricants do not significantly reduce the sidewall friction (shear strength). Rather, the application of wax, graphite, grease or lubricant oil has effect to increase the sidewall shear strength due probably to the high viscosity of such materials. Subsequently, the application of lubricants between tested soil and sidewall and neglecting the friction (shear strength) along the sidewalls may lead to inaccurate test results.

Keywords: arching, friction, laboratory tests, lubricants

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16 Behavior of Helical Piles as Foundation of Photovoltaic Panels in Tropical Soils

Authors: Andrea J. Alarcón, Maxime Daulat, Raydel Lorenzo, Renato P. Da Cunha, Pierre Breul

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Brazil has increased the use of renewable energy during the last years. Due to its sunshine and large surface area, photovoltaic panels founded in helical piles have been used to produce solar energy. Since Brazilian territory is mainly cover by highly porous structured tropical soils, when the helical piles are installed this structure is broken and its soil properties are modified. Considering the special characteristics of these soils, helical foundations behavior must be extensively studied. The first objective of this work is to determine the most suitable method to estimate the tensile capacity of helical piles in tropical soils. The second objective is to simulate the behavior of these piles in tropical soil. To obtain the rupture to assess load-displacement curves and the ultimate load, also a numerical modelling using Plaxis software was conducted. Lastly, the ultimate load and the load-displacements curves are compared with experimental values to validate the implemented model.

Keywords: finite element, helical piles, modelling, tropical soil, uplift capacity

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15 Analysis of Incidences of Collapsed Buildings in the City of Douala, Cameroon from 2011-2020

Authors: Theodore Gautier Le Jeune Bikoko, Jean Claude Tchamba, Sofiane Amziane

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This study focuses on the problem of collapsed buildings within the city of Douala over the past ten years, and more precisely, within the period from 2011 to 2020. It was carried out in a bid to ascertain the real causes of this phenomenon, which has become recurrent in the leading economic city of Cameroon. To achieve this, it was first necessary to review some works dealing with construction materials and technology as well as some case histories of structural collapse within the city. Thereafter, a statistical study was carried out on the results obtained. It was found that the causes of building collapses in the city of Douala are: Neglect of administrative procedures, use of poor quality materials, poor composition and confectioning of concrete, lack of Geotechnical study, lack of structural analysis and design, corrosion of the reinforcement bars, poor maintenance in buildings, and other causes. Out of the 46 cases of structural failure of buildings within the city of Douala, 7 of these were identified to have had no geotechnical study carried out, giving a percentage of 15.22%. It was also observed that out of the 46 cases of structural failure, 6 were as a result of lack of proper structural analysis and design, giving a percentage of 13.04%. Subsequently, recommendations and suggestions are made in a bid to placing particular emphasis on the choice of materials, the manufacture and casting of concrete, as well as the placement of the required reinforcements. All this guarantees the stability of a building.

Keywords: collapse buildings, Douala, structural collapse, Cameroon

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14 Monitoring Saltwater Corrosion on Steel Samples Using Coda Wave Interferometry in MHZ Frequencies

Authors: Maxime Farin, Emmanuel Moulin, Lynda Chehami, Farouk Benmeddour, Pierre Campistron

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Assessing corrosion is crucial in the petrochemical and marine industry. Usual ultrasonic methods based on guided waves to detect corrosion can inspect large areas but lack precision. We propose a complementary and sensitive ultrasonic method (~ 10 MHz) based on coda wave interferometry to detect and quantify corrosion at the surface of a steel sample. The method relies on a single piezoelectric transducer, exciting the sample and measuring the scattered coda signals at different instants in time. A laboratory experiment is conducted with a steel sample immersed in salted water for 60~h with parallel coda and temperature measurements to correct coda dependence to temperature variations. Micrometric changes to the sample surface caused by corrosion are detected in the late coda signals, allowing precise corrosion detection. Moreover, a good correlation is found between a parameter quantifying the temperature-corrected stretching of the coda over time with respect to a reference without corrosion and the corrosion surface over the sample recorded with a camera.

Keywords: coda wave interferometry, nondestructive evaluation, corrosion, ultrasonics

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13 Enhancement of Primary User Detection in Cognitive Radio by Scattering Transform

Authors: A. Moawad, K. C. Yao, A. Mansour, R. Gautier

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The detecting of an occupied frequency band is a major issue in cognitive radio systems. The detection process becomes difficult if the signal occupying the band of interest has faded amplitude due to multipath effects. These effects make it hard for an occupying user to be detected. This work mitigates the missed-detection problem in the context of cognitive radio in frequency-selective fading channel by proposing blind channel estimation method that is based on scattering transform. By initially applying conventional energy detection, the missed-detection probability is evaluated, and if it is greater than or equal to 50%, channel estimation is applied on the received signal followed by channel equalization to reduce the channel effects. In the proposed channel estimator, we modify the Morlet wavelet by using its first derivative for better frequency resolution. A mathematical description of the modified function and its frequency resolution is formulated in this work. The improved frequency resolution is required to follow the spectral variation of the channel. The channel estimation error is evaluated in the mean-square sense for different channel settings, and energy detection is applied to the equalized received signal. The simulation results show improvement in reducing the missed-detection probability as compared to the detection based on principal component analysis. This improvement is achieved at the expense of increased estimator complexity, which depends on the number of wavelet filters as related to the channel taps. Also, the detection performance shows an improvement in detection probability for low signal-to-noise scenarios over principal component analysis- based energy detection.

Keywords: channel estimation, cognitive radio, scattering transform, spectrum sensing

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12 Aerodynamic Modelling of Unmanned Aerial System through Computational Fluid Dynamics: Application to the UAS-S45 Balaam

Authors: Maxime A. J. Kuitche, Ruxandra M. Botez, Arthur Guillemin

Abstract:

As the Unmanned Aerial Systems have found diverse utilities in both military and civil aviation, the necessity to obtain an accurate aerodynamic model has shown an enormous growth of interest. Recent modeling techniques are procedures using optimization algorithms and statistics that require many flight tests and are therefore extremely demanding in terms of costs. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the aerodynamic behavior of an unmanned aerial system from a numerical approach using computational fluid dynamic analysis. The study was performed using an unstructured mesh obtained from a grid convergence analysis at a Mach number of 0.14, and at an angle of attack of 0°. The flow around the aircraft was described using a standard k-ω turbulence model. Thus, the Reynold Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were solved using ANSYS FLUENT software. The method was applied on the UAS-S45 designed and manufactured by Hydra Technologies in Mexico. The lift, the drag, and the pitching moment coefficients were obtained at different angles of attack for several flight conditions defined in terms of altitudes and Mach numbers. The results obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis were compared with the results obtained by using the DATCOM semi-empirical procedure. This comparison has indicated that our approach is highly accurate and that the aerodynamic model obtained could be useful to estimate the flight dynamics of the UAS-S45.

Keywords: aerodynamic modelling, CFD Analysis, ANSYS FLUENT, UAS-S45

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11 Propeller Performance Modeling through a Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis Method

Authors: Maxime Alex Junior Kuitche, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Jean-Chirstophe Maunand

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The evolution of aircraft is closely linked to the study and improvement of propulsion systems. Determining the propulsion performance is a real challenge in aircraft modeling and design. In addition to theoretical methodologies, experimental procedures are used to obtain a good estimation of the propulsion performances. For piston-propeller propulsion, the propeller needs several experimental tests which could be extremely demanding in terms of time and money. This paper presents a new procedure to estimate the performance of a propeller from a numerical approach using computational fluid dynamic analysis. The propeller was initially scanned, and then, its 3D model was represented using CATIA. A structured meshing and Shear Stress Transition k-ω turbulence model were applied to describe accurately the flow pattern around the propeller. Thus, the Partial Differential Equations were solved using ANSYS FLUENT software. The method was applied on the UAS-S45’s propeller designed and manufactured by Hydra Technologies in Mexico. An extensive investigation was performed for several flight conditions in terms of altitudes and airspeeds with the aim to determine thrust coefficients, power coefficients and efficiency of the propeller. The Computational Fluid Dynamics results were compared with experimental data acquired from wind tunnel tests performed at the LARCASE Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel. The results of this comparison have demonstrated that our approach was highly accurate.

Keywords: CFD analysis, propeller performance, unmanned aerial system propeller, UAS-S45

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10 Enzymatic Repair Prior To DNA Barcoding, Aspirations, and Restraints

Authors: Maxime Merheb, Rachel Matar

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Retrieving ancient DNA sequences which in return permit the entire genome sequencing from fossils have extraordinarily improved in recent years, thanks to sequencing technology and other methodological advances. In any case, the quest to search for ancient DNA is still obstructed by the damage inflicted on DNA which accumulates after the death of a living organism. We can characterize this damage into three main categories: (i) Physical abnormalities such as strand breaks which lead to the presence of short DNA fragments. (ii) Modified bases (mainly cytosine deamination) which cause errors in the sequence due to an incorporation of a false nucleotide during DNA amplification. (iii) DNA modifications referred to as blocking lesions, will halt the PCR extension which in return will also affect the amplification and sequencing process. We can clearly see that the issues arising from breakage and coding errors were significantly decreased in recent years. Fast sequencing of short DNA fragments was empowered by platforms for high-throughput sequencing, most of the coding errors were uncovered to be the consequences of cytosine deamination which can be easily removed from the DNA using enzymatic treatment. The methodology to repair DNA sequences is still in development, it can be basically explained by the process of reintroducing cytosine rather than uracil. This technique is thus restricted to amplified DNA molecules. To eliminate any type of damage (particularly those that block PCR) is a process still pending the complete repair methodologies; DNA detection right after extraction is highly needed. Before using any resources into extensive, unreasonable and uncertain repair techniques, it is vital to distinguish between two possible hypotheses; (i) DNA is none existent to be amplified to begin with therefore completely un-repairable, (ii) the DNA is refractory to PCR and it is worth to be repaired and amplified. Hence, it is extremely important to develop a non-enzymatic technique to detect the most degraded DNA.

Keywords: ancient DNA, DNA barcodong, enzymatic repair, PCR

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9 From Homogeneous to Phase Separated UV-Cured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: Influence of the System Composition on Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Caroline Rocco, Feyza Karasu, Céline Croutxé-Barghorn, Xavier Allonas, Maxime Lecompère, Gérard Riess, Yujing Zhang, Catarina Esteves, Leendert van der Ven, Rolf van Benthem Gijsbertus de With

Abstract:

Acrylates are widely used in UV-curing technology. Their high reactivity can, however, limit their conversion due to early vitrification. In addition, the free radical photopolymerization is known to be sensitive to oxygen inhibition leading to tacky surfaces. Although epoxides can lead to full polymerization, they are sensitive to humidity and exhibit low polymerization rate. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of both classes of monomers, Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) can be synthesized. They consist of at least two cross linked polymers which are permanently entangled. They can be achieved under thermal and/or light induced polymerization in one or two steps approach. IPNs can display homogeneous to heterogeneous morphologies with various degrees of phase separation strongly linked to the monomer miscibility and also synthesis parameters. In this presentation, we synthesize UV-cured methacrylate - epoxide based IPNs with different chemical compositions in order to get a better understanding of their formation and phase separation. Miscibility before and during the photopolymerization, reaction kinetics, as well as mechanical properties and morphology have been investigated. The key parameters controlling the morphology and the phase separation, namely monomer miscibility and synthesis parameters have been identified. By monitoring the stiffness changes on the film surface, atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) gave, in conjunction with polymerization kinetic profiles and thermomechanical properties, explanations and corroborated the miscibility predictions. When varying the methacrylate / epoxide ratio, it was possible to move from a miscible and highly-interpenetrated IPN to a totally immiscible and phase-separated one.

Keywords: investigation of properties and morphology, kinetics, phase separation, UV-cured IPNs

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8 Short-Term Association of In-vehicle Ultrafine Particles and Black Carbon Concentrations with Respiratory Health in Parisian Taxi Drivers

Authors: Melissa Hachem, Maxime Loizeau, Nadine Saleh, Isabelle Momas, Lynda Bensefa-Colas

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Professional drivers are exposed inside their vehicles to high levels of air pollutants due to the considerable time they spend close to motor vehicle emissions. Little is known about ultrafine particles (UFP) or black carbon (BC) adverse respiratory health effects compared to the regulated pollutants. We aimed to study the short-term associations between UFP and BC concentrations inside vehicles and (1) the onset of mucosal irritation and (2) the acute changes in lung function of Parisian taxi drivers during a working day. An epidemiological study was carried out on 50 taxi drivers in Paris. UFP and BC were measured inside their vehicles with DiSCmini® and microAeth®, respectively. On the same day, the frequency and the severity of nose, eye, and throat irritations were self-reported by each participant and a spirometry test was performed before and after the work shift. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the associations between in-taxis UFP and BC concentrations and mucosal irritation and lung function, after adjustment for potential confounders. In-taxis UFP concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 37.9 × 103 particles/cm³ and BC concentrations from 2.2 to 3.9 μg/m³, during a mean of 9 ± 2 working hours. Significant dose-response relationships were observed between in-taxis UFP concentrations and both nasal irritation and lung function. The increase of in-taxis UFP (for an interquartile range of 20 × 103 particles/cm3) was associated to an increase in nasal irritation (adjusted OR = 6.27 [95% CI: 1.02 to 38.62]) and to a reduction in forced expiratory flow at 25–75% by −7.44% [95% CI: −12.63 to −2.24], forced expiratory volume in one second by −4.46% [95% CI: −6.99 to −1.93] and forced vital capacity by −3.31% [95% CI: −5.82 to −0.80]. Such associations were not found with BC. Incident throat and eye irritations were not related to in-vehicle particles exposure; however, they were associated with outdoor air quality (estimated by the Atmo index) and in-vehicle humidity, respectively. This study is the first to show a significant association, within a short-period of time, between in-vehicle UFP exposure and acute respiratory effects in professional drivers.

Keywords: black carbon, lung function, mucosal irritation, taxi drivers, ultrafine particles

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7 Contribution of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Selective Aspect of Prostate Cancer Treatment by Cold Atmospheric Plasma

Authors: Maxime Moreau, Silvère Baron, Jean-Marc Lobaccaro, Karine Charlet, Sébastien Menecier, Frédéric Perisse

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Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas generated at atmospheric pressure with the temperature of heavy particles (molecules, ions, atoms) close to the room temperature. Recent studies have shown that both in-vitro and in-vivo plasma exposition to many cancer cell lines are efficient to induce the apoptotic way of cell death. In some other works, normal cell lines seem to be less impacted by plasma than cancer cell lines. This is called selectivity of plasma. It is highly likely that the generated RNOS (Reactive Nitrogen Oxygen Species) in the plasma jet, but also in the medium, play a key-role in this selectivity. In this study, two CAP devices will be compared to electrical power, chemical species composition and their efficiency to kill cancer cells. A particular focus on the action of hydrogen peroxide will be made. The experiments will take place as described next for both devices: electrical and spectroscopic characterization for different voltages, plasma treatment of normal and cancer cells to compare the CAP efficiency between cell lines and to show that death is induced by an oxidative stress. To enlighten the importance of hydrogen peroxide, an inhibitor of H2O2 will be added in cell culture medium before treatment and a comparison will be made between the results of cell viability in this case and those from a simple plasma exposition. Besides, H2O2 production will be measured by only treating medium with plasma. Cell lines will also be exposed to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in order to characterize the cytotoxic threshold for cells and to make a comparison with the quantity of H2O2 produced by CAP devices. Finally, the activity of catalase for different cell lines will be quantified. This enzyme is an important antioxidant agent against hydrogen peroxide. A correlation between cells response to plasma exposition and this activity could be a strong argument in favor of the predominant role of H2O2 to explain the selectivity of plasma cancer treatment by cold atmospheric plasma.

Keywords: cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, prostate cancer, selectivity

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6 Bayesian Estimation of Hierarchical Models for Genotypic Differentiation of Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors: Gautier Viaud, Paul-Henry Cournède

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Plant growth models have been used extensively for the prediction of the phenotypic performance of plants. However, they remain most often calibrated for a given genotype and therefore do not take into account genotype by environment interactions. One way of achieving such an objective is to consider Bayesian hierarchical models. Three levels can be identified in such models: The first level describes how a given growth model describes the phenotype of the plant as a function of individual parameters, the second level describes how these individual parameters are distributed within a plant population, the third level corresponds to the attribution of priors on population parameters. Thanks to the Bayesian framework, choosing appropriate priors for the population parameters permits to derive analytical expressions for the full conditional distributions of these population parameters. As plant growth models are of a nonlinear nature, individual parameters cannot be sampled explicitly, and a Metropolis step must be performed. This allows for the use of a hybrid Gibbs--Metropolis sampler. A generic approach was devised for the implementation of both general state space models and estimation algorithms within a programming platform. It was designed using the Julia language, which combines an elegant syntax, metaprogramming capabilities and exhibits high efficiency. Results were obtained for Arabidopsis thaliana on both simulated and real data. An organ-scale Greenlab model for the latter is thus presented, where the surface areas of each individual leaf can be simulated. It is assumed that the error made on the measurement of leaf areas is proportional to the leaf area itself; multiplicative normal noises for the observations are therefore used. Real data were obtained via image analysis of zenithal images of Arabidopsis thaliana over a period of 21 days using a two-step segmentation and tracking algorithm which notably takes advantage of the Arabidopsis thaliana phyllotaxy. Since the model formulation is rather flexible, there is no need that the data for a single individual be available at all times, nor that the times at which data is available be the same for all the different individuals. This allows to discard data from image analysis when it is not considered reliable enough, thereby providing low-biased data in large quantity for leaf areas. The proposed model precisely reproduces the dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana’s growth while accounting for the variability between genotypes. In addition to the estimation of the population parameters, the level of variability is an interesting indicator of the genotypic stability of model parameters. A promising perspective is to test whether some of the latter should be considered as fixed effects.

Keywords: bayesian, genotypic differentiation, hierarchical models, plant growth models

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5 The EU Omnipotence Paradox: Inclusive Cultural Policies and Effects of Exclusion

Authors: Emmanuel Pedler, Elena Raevskikh, Maxime Jaffré

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Can the cultural geography of European cities be durably managed by European policies? To answer this question, two hypotheses can be proposed. (1) Either European cultural policies are able to erase cultural inequalities between the territories through the creation of new areas of cultural attractiveness in each beneficiary neighborhood, city or country. Or, (2) each European region historically rooted in a number of endogenous socio-historical, political or demographic factors is not receptive to exogenous political influences. Thus, the cultural attractiveness of a territory is difficult to measure and to impact by top-down policies in the long term. How do these two logics - European and local - interact and contribute to the emergence of a valued, popular sense of a common European cultural identity? Does this constant interaction between historical backgrounds and new political concepts encourage a positive identification with the European project? The European cultural policy programs, such as ECC (European Capital of Culture), seek to develop new forms of civic cohesion through inclusive and participative cultural events. The cultural assets of a city elected ‘ECC’ are mobilized to attract a wide range of new audiences, including populations poorly integrated into local cultural life – and consequently distant from pre-existing cultural offers. In the current context of increasingly heterogeneous individual perceptions of Europe, the ECC program aims to promote cultural forms and institutions that should accelerate both territorial and cross-border European cohesion. The new cultural consumption pattern is conceived to stimulate integration and mobility, but also to create a legitimate and transnational ideal European citizen type. Our comparative research confronts contrasting cases of ‘European Capitals of Culture’ from the south and from the north of Europe, cities recently concerned by the ECC political mechanism and cities that were elected ECC in the past, multi-centered cultural models vs. highly centralized cultural models. We aim to explore the impacts of European policies on the urban cultural geography, but also to understand the current obstacles for its efficient implementation.

Keywords: urbanism, cultural policies, cultural institutions, european cultural capitals, heritage industries, exclusion effects

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4 Crossing of the Intestinal Barrier Thanks to Targeted Biologics: Nanofitins

Authors: Solene Masloh, Anne Chevrel, Maxime Culot, Leonardo Scapozza, Magali Zeisser-Labouebe

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The limited stability of clinically proven therapeutic antibodies limits their administration by the parenteral route. However, oral administration remains the best alternative as it is the most convenient and less invasive one. Obtaining a targeted treatment based on biologics, which can be orally administered, would, therefore, be an ideal situation to improve patient adherence and compliance. Nevertheless, the delivery of macromolecules through the intestine remains challenging because of their sensitivity to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and their low permeability across the intestinal mucosa. To address this challenge, this project aims to demonstrate that targeting receptor-mediated endocytosis followed by transcytosis could maximize the intestinal uptake and transport of large molecules, such as Nanofitins. These affinity proteins of 7 kDa with binding properties similar to antibodies have already demonstrated retained stability in the digestive tract and local efficiency. However, their size does not allow passive diffusion through the intestinal barrier. Nanofitins having a controlled affinity for membrane receptors involved in the transcytosis mechanism used naturally for the transport of large molecules in humans were generated. Proteins were expressed using ribosome display and selected based on affinity to the targeted receptor and other characteristics. Their uptake and transport ex vivo across viable porcine intestines were investigated using an Ussing chambers system. In this paper, we will report the results achieved while addressing the different challenges linked to this study. To validate the ex vivo model, first, we proved the presence of the receptors targeted in humans on the porcine intestine. Then, after the identification of an optimal way of detection of Nanofitins, transport experiments were performed on porcine intestines with viability followed during the time of the experiment. The results, showing that the physiological process of transcytosis is capable of being triggered by the binding of Nanofitins on their target, will be reported here. In conclusion, the results show that Nanofitins can be transported across the intestinal barrier by triggering the receptor-mediated transcytosis and that the ex vivo model is an interesting technique to assess biologics absorption through the intestine.

Keywords: ex-vivo, Nanofitins, oral administration, transcytosis

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3 Characterization of Thin Woven Composites Used in Printed Circuit Boards by Combining Numerical and Experimental Approaches

Authors: Gautier Girard, Marion Martiny, Sebastien Mercier, Mohamad Jrad, Mohamed-Slim Bahi, Laurent Bodin, Francois Lechleiter, David Nevo, Sophie Dareys

Abstract:

Reliability of electronic devices has always been of highest interest for Aero-MIL and space applications. In any electronic device, Printed Circuit Board (PCB), providing interconnection between components, is a key for reliability. During the last decades, PCB technologies evolved to sustain and/or fulfill increased original equipment manufacturers requirements and specifications, higher densities and better performances, faster time to market and longer lifetime, newer material and mixed buildups. From the very beginning of the PCB industry up to recently, qualification, experiments and trials, and errors were the most popular methods to assess system (PCB) reliability. Nowadays OEM, PCB manufacturers and scientists are working together in a close relationship in order to develop predictive models for PCB reliability and lifetime. To achieve that goal, it is fundamental to characterize precisely base materials (laminates, electrolytic copper, …), in order to understand failure mechanisms and simulate PCB aging under environmental constraints by means of finite element method for example. The laminates are woven composites and have thus an orthotropic behaviour. The in-plane properties can be measured by combining classical uniaxial testing and digital image correlation. Nevertheless, the out-of-plane properties cannot be evaluated due to the thickness of the laminate (a few hundred of microns). It has to be noted that the knowledge of the out-of-plane properties is fundamental to investigate the lifetime of high density printed circuit boards. A homogenization method combining analytical and numerical approaches has been developed in order to obtain the complete elastic orthotropic behaviour of a woven composite from its precise 3D internal structure and its experimentally measured in-plane elastic properties. Since the mechanical properties of the resin surrounding the fibres are unknown, an inverse method is proposed to estimate it. The methodology has been applied to one laminate used in hyperfrequency spatial applications in order to get its elastic orthotropic behaviour at different temperatures in the range [-55°C; +125°C]. Next; numerical simulations of a plated through hole in a double sided PCB are performed. Results show the major importance of the out-of-plane properties and the temperature dependency of these properties on the lifetime of a printed circuit board. Acknowledgements—The support of the French ANR agency through the Labcom program ANR-14-LAB7-0003-01, support of CNES, Thales Alenia Space and Cimulec is acknowledged.

Keywords: homogenization, orthotropic behaviour, printed circuit board, woven composites

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2 Multicenter Evaluation of the ACCESS Anti-HCV Assay on the DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer, for the Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Antibody

Authors: Dan W. Rhodes, Juliane Hey, Magali Karagueuzian, Florianne Martinez, Yael Sandowski, Vanessa Roulet, Mahmoud Badawi, Mohammed-Amine Chakir, Valérie Simon, Jérémie Gautier, Françoise Le Boulaire, Catherine Coignard, Claire Vincent, Sandrine Greaume, Isabelle Voisin

Abstract:

Background: Beckman Coulter, Inc. (BEC) has recently developed a fully automated second-generation anti-HCV test on a new immunoassay platform. The objective of this multicenter study conducted in Europe was to evaluate the performance of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay on the recently CE-marked DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer as an aid in the diagnosis of HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) infection and as a screening test for blood and plasma donors. Methods: The clinical specificity of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay was determined using HCV antibody-negative samples from blood donors and hospitalized patients. Sample antibody status was determined by a CE-marked anti-HCV assay (Abbott ARCHITECTTM anti-HCV assay or Abbott PRISM HCV assay) with an additional confirmation method (Immunoblot testing with INNO-LIATM HCV Score - Fujirebio), if necessary, according to pre-determined testing algorithms. The clinical sensitivity was determined using known HCV antibody-positive samples, identified positive by Immunoblot testing with INNO-LIATM HCV Score - Fujirebio. HCV RNA PCR or genotyping was available on all Immunoblot positive samples for further characterization. The false initial reactive rate was determined on fresh samples from blood donors and hospitalized patients. Thirty (30) commercially available seroconversion panels were tested to assess the sensitivity for early detection of HCV infection. The study was conducted from November 2019 to March 2022. Three (3) external sites and one (1) internal site participated. Results: Clinical specificity (95% CI) was 99.7% (99.6 – 99.8%) on 5852 blood donors and 99.0% (98.4 – 99.4%) on 1527 hospitalized patient samples. There were 15 discrepant samples (positive on ACCESS anti-HCV assay and negative on both ARCHITECT and Immunoblot) observed with hospitalized patient samples, and of note, additional HCV RNA PCR results showed five (5) samples had positive HCV RNA PCR results despite the absence of HCV antibody detection by ARCHITECT and Immunoblot, suggesting a better sensitivity of the ACCESS anti-HCV assay with these five samples compared to the ARCHITECT and Immunoblot anti-HCV assays. Clinical sensitivity (95% CI) on 510 well-characterized, known HCV antibody-positive samples was 100.0% (99.3 – 100.0%), including 353 samples with known HCV genotypes (1 to 6). The overall false initial reactive rate (95% CI) on 6630 patient samples was 0.02% (0.00 – 0.09%). Results obtained on 30 seroconversion panels demonstrated that the ACCESS anti-HCV assay had equivalent sensitivity performances, with an average bleed difference since the first reactive bleed below one (1), compared to the ARCHITECTTM anti-HCV assay. Conclusion: The newly developed ACCESS anti-HCV assay from BEC for use on the DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer demonstrated high clinical sensitivity and specificity, equivalent to currently marketed anti-HCV assays, as well as a low false initial reactive rate.

Keywords: DxI 9000 ACCESS Immunoassay Analyzer, HCV, HCV antibody, Hepatitis C virus, immunoassay

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1 The Ductile Fracture of Armor Steel Targets Subjected to Ballistic Impact and Perforation: Calibration of Four Damage Criteria

Authors: Imen Asma Mbarek, Alexis Rusinek, Etienne Petit, Guy Sutter, Gautier List

Abstract:

Over the past two decades, the automotive, aerospace and army industries have been paying an increasing attention to Finite Elements (FE) numerical simulations of the fracture process of their structures. Thanks to the numerical simulations, it is nowadays possible to analyze several problems involving costly and dangerous extreme loadings safely and at a reduced cost such as blast or ballistic impact problems. The present paper is concerned with ballistic impact and perforation problems involving ductile fracture of thin armor steel targets. The target fracture process depends usually on various parameters: the projectile nose shape, the target thickness and its mechanical properties as well as the impact conditions (friction, oblique/normal impact...). In this work, the investigations are concerned with the normal impact of a conical head-shaped projectile on thin armor steel targets. The main aim is to establish a comparative study of four fracture criteria that are commonly used in the fracture process simulations of structures subjected to extreme loadings such as ballistic impact and perforation. Usually, the damage initiation results from a complex physical process that occurs at the micromechanical scale. On a macro scale and according to the following fracture models, the variables on which the fracture depends are mainly the stress triaxiality ƞ, the strain rate, temperature T, and eventually the Lode angle parameter Ɵ. The four failure criteria are: the critical strain to failure model, the Johnson-Cook model, the Wierzbicki model and the Modified Hosford-Coulomb model MHC. Using the SEM, the observations of the fracture facies of tension specimen and of armor steel targets impacted at low and high incident velocities show that the fracture of the specimens is a ductile fracture. The failure mode of the targets is petalling with crack propagation and the fracture facies are covered with micro-cavities. The parameters of each ductile fracture model have been identified for three armor steels and the applicability of each criterion was evaluated using experimental investigations coupled to numerical simulations. Two loading paths were investigated in this study, under a wide range of strain rates. Namely, quasi-static and intermediate uniaxial tension and quasi-static and dynamic double shear testing allow covering various values of stress triaxiality ƞ and of the Lode angle parameter Ɵ. All experiments were conducted on three different armor steel specimen under quasi-static strain rates ranging from 10-4 to 10-1 1/s and at three different temperatures ranging from 297K to 500K, allowing drawing the influence of temperature on the fracture process. Intermediate tension testing was coupled to dynamic double shear experiments conducted on the Hopkinson tube device, allowing to spot the effect of high strain rate on the damage evolution and the crack propagation. The aforementioned fracture criteria are implemented into the FE code ABAQUS via VUMAT subroutine and they were coupled to suitable constitutive relations allow having reliable results of ballistic impact problems simulation. The calibration of the four damage criteria as well as a concise evaluation of the applicability of each criterion are detailed in this work.

Keywords: armor steels, ballistic impact, damage criteria, ductile fracture, SEM

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