Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 276

Search results for: intensified reactors

276 Predictions of Values in a Causticizing Process

Authors: R. Andreola, O. A. A. Santos, L. M. M. Jorge

Abstract:

An industrial system for the production of white liquor of a paper industry, Klabin Paraná Papé is, formed by ten reactors was modeled, simulated, and analyzed. The developed model considered possible water losses by evaporation and reaction, in addition to variations in volumetric flow of lime mud across the reactors due to composition variations. The model predictions agreed well with the process measurements at the plant and the results showed that the slaking reaction is nearly complete at the third causticizing reactor, while causticizing ends by the seventh reactor. Water loss due to slaking reaction and evaporation occurs more pronouncedly in the slaking reaction than in the final causticizing reactors; nevertheless, the lime mud flow remains nearly constant across the reactors.

Keywords: causticizing, lime, prediction, process

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
275 Prediction of Oxygen Transfer and Gas Hold-Up in Pneumatic Bioreactors Containing Viscous Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Caroline E. Mendes, Alberto C. Badino

Abstract:

Pneumatic reactors have been widely employed in various sectors of the chemical industry, especially where are required high heat and mass transfer rates. This study aimed to obtain correlations that allow the prediction of gas hold-up (Ԑ) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), and compare these values, for three models of pneumatic reactors on two scales utilizing Newtonian fluids. Values of kLa were obtained using the dynamic pressure-step method, while  was used for a new proposed measure. Comparing the three models of reactors studied, it was observed that the mass transfer was superior to draft-tube airlift, reaching  of 0.173 and kLa of 0.00904s-1. All correlations showed good fit to the experimental data (R2≥94%), and comparisons with correlations from the literature demonstrate the need for further similar studies due to shortage of data available, mainly for airlift reactors and high viscosity fluids.

Keywords: bubble column, internal loop airlift, gas hold-up, kLa

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
274 Hydrodynamic Analysis with Heat Transfer in Solid Gas Fluidized Bed Reactor for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Sam Rasoulzadeh, Atefeh Mousavi

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Fluidized bed reactors are known as highly exothermic and endothermic according to uniformity in temperature as a safe and effective mean for catalytic reactors. In these reactors, a wide range of catalyst particles can be used and by using a continuous operation proceed to produce in succession. Providing optimal conditions for the operation of these types of reactors will prevent the exorbitant costs necessary to carry out laboratory work. In this regard, a hydrodynamic analysis was carried out with heat transfer in the solid-gas fluidized bed reactor for solar thermal applications. The results showed that in the fluid flow the input of the reactor has a lower temperature than the outlet, and when the fluid is passing from the reactor, the heat transfer happens between cylinder and solar panel and fluid. It increases the fluid temperature in the outlet pump and also the kinetic energy of the fluid has been raised in the outlet areas.

Keywords: heat transfer, solar reactor, fluidized bed reactor, CFD, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
273 A Qualitative Study for Establishing Critical Success Factors for PPPs in Research Reactors

Authors: Khalid Almarri

Abstract:

The UAE is currently developing a peaceful nuclear energy program as part of its low Carbon energy strategy to meet future energy demands. Research of nuclear energy technologies is required to support nuclear energy generation projects and maximize their performance. Research of this type will require building an operating a research reactor (RR), a costly undertaking in most circumstances. Collaboration between government and private parties through public, private partnerships (PPP) can maximize the benefits expected from the adoption of an RR project. The aim of this research is to establish the critical success factors (CSF) for developing an RR project for newcomer countries, with the UAE taken as a case study, through the utilization of public, private partnerships (PPP). The results of this study were arrived at through the use of semi-structured interviews conducted with ten experts in the field of research reactors, using grounded theory method. Underutilization was identified as the main stumbling block that impairs the success of research reactors.

Keywords: public private partnerships, research reactors, grounded theory, critical success factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
272 Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Evaluation of Two Batch Type Electrocoagulation Stirred Tank Reactors Used in the Removal of Cr (VI) from Waste Water

Authors: Phanindra Prasad Thummala, Umran Tezcan Un

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In this study, hydrodynamics analysis of two batch type electrocoagulation stirred tank reactors, used for the electrocoagulation treatment of Cr(VI) wastewater, was carried using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of mixing characteristics on overall performance of electrocoagulation reactor. The CFD simulations were performed using ANSYS FLUENT 14.4 software. The mixing performance of each reactor was evaluated by numerically modelling tracer dispersion in each reactor configuration. The uniformity in tracer dispersion was assumed when 90% of the ratio of the maximum to minimum concentration of the tracer was realized. In parallel, experimental evaluation of both the electrocoagulation reactors for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater was also carried out. The results of CFD and experimental analysis clearly show that the reactor which can give higher uniformity in lesser time, will perform better as an electrocoagulation reactor for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

Keywords: CFD, stirred tank reactors, electrocoagulation, Cr(VI) wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
271 Treatment of Septic Tank Effluent Using Moving Bed Biological Reactor

Authors: Fares Almomani, Majeda Khraisheh, Rahul Bhosale, Anand Kumar, Ujjal Gosh

Abstract:

Septic tanks (STs) are very commonly used wastewater collection systems in the world especially in rural areas. In this study, the use of moving bed biological reactors (MBBR) for the treatment of septic tanks effluents (STE) was studied. The study was included treating septic tank effluent from one house hold using MBBRs. Significant ammonia removal rate was observed in all the reactors throughout the 180 days of operation suggesting that the MBBRs were successful in reducing the concentration of ammonia from septic tank effluent. The average ammonia removal rate at 25◦C for the reactor operated at hydraulic retention time of 5.7 hr (R1) was 0.540 kg-N/m3and for the reactor operated at hydraulic retention time of 13.3hr (R2) was 0.279 kg-N/m3. Ammonia removal rates were decreased to 0.3208 kg-N/m3 for R1 and 0.212 kg-N/m3 for R3 as the temperature of reactor was decreased to 8 ◦C. A strong correlation exists between theta model and the rates of ammonia removal for the reactors operated in continuous flow. The average ϴ values for the continuous flow reactors during the temperature change from 8°C to 20 °C were found to be 1.053±0.051. MBBR technology can be successfully used as a polishing treatment for septic tank effluent.

Keywords: septic tanks, wastewater treatment, morphology, moving biological reactors, nitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
270 A Study of the Effects of Temperatures and Optimum pH on the Specific Methane Production of Perennial Ryegrass during Anaerobic Digestion Process under a Discontinuous Daily Feeding Condition

Authors: Uchenna Egwu, Paul Jonathan Sallis

Abstract:

Perennial ryegrass is an abundant renewable lignocellulosic biofuel feedstock for biomethane production through anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, six anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were set up in three pairs. Each pair of the CSTRs was then used to study the effects of operating temperatures – psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic, and optimum pH on the specific methane production (SMP) of the ryegrass during AD under discontinuous daily feeding conditions. The reactors were fed at an organic loading rate (OLR) ranging from 1-1.5 kgVS.L⁻¹d⁻¹ and hydraulic residence time, HRT=20 days for 140 days. The pH of the digesters was maintained at the range of 6.8-7.2 using 1 M NH₄HCO₃ solution, but this was replaced with biomass ash-extracts from day 105-140. The results obtained showed that the mean SMP of ryegrass measured between HRT 3 and 4 were 318.4, 425.4 and 335 N L CH₄ kg⁻¹VS.d⁻¹ for the psychrophilic (25 ± 2°C), mesophilic (40 ± 1°C) and thermophilic (60 ± 1°C) temperatures respectively. It was also observed that the buffering ability of the reactors increased with operating temperature, probably due to an increase in the solubility of ammonium bicarbonate (NH₄HCO₃) with temperature. The reactors also achieved a mean VS destruction of 61.9, 68.5 and 63.5%, respectively, which signifies that the mesophilic reactors achieved the highest specific methane production (SMP), while the psychrophilic reactors achieved the lowest. None of the reactors attained steady-state condition due to the discontinuous daily feeding times, and therefore, such feeding practice may not be the most effective for maximum biogas production over long periods of time. The addition of NH₄HCO₃ as supplement provided a good buffering condition in these AD digesters, but the digesters failed in the long run due to inhibition from the accumulation of free ammonia, which later led to decrease in pH, acidification, and souring of the digesters. However, the addition of biomass ash extracts was shown to potentially revive failed AD reactors by providing an adequate buffering and essential trace nutrient supplements necessary for optimal bacterial growth.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, discontinuous feeding, perennial ryegrass, specific methane production, supplements, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
269 Comprehensive Investigation of Solving Analytical of Nonlinear Differential Equations at Chemical Reactions to Design of Reactors by New Method “AGM”

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Pooya Soleimani Besheli, Reza khalili, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji

Abstract:

In this symposium, our aims are accuracy, capabilities and power at solving of the complicate non-linear differential at the reaction chemical in the catalyst reactor (heterogeneous reaction). Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equations at chemical engineering and similar issues with a simple and innovative approach which entitled ‘’Akbari-Ganji's Method’’ or ‘’AGM’’. In this paper we solve many examples of nonlinear differential equations of chemical reactions and its investigate. The chemical reactor with the energy changing (non-isotherm) in two reactors of mixed and plug are separately studied and the nonlinear differential equations obtained from the reaction behavior in these systems are solved by a new method. Practically, the reactions with the energy changing (heat or cold) have an important effect on designing and function of the reactors. This means that possibility of reaching the optimal conditions of operation for the maximum conversion depending on nonlinear nature of the reaction velocity toward temperature, results in the complexity of the operation in the reactor. In this case, the differential equation set which governs the reactors can be obtained simultaneous solution of mass equilibrium and energy and temperature changing at concentration.

Keywords: new method (AGM), nonlinear differential equation, tubular and mixed reactors, catalyst bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
268 Process Development for the Conversion of Organic Waste into Valuable Products

Authors: Ife O. Bolaji

Abstract:

Environmental concerns arising from the use of fossil fuels has increased the interest in the development of renewable and sustainable sources of energy. This would minimize the dependence on fossil fuels and serve as future alternatives. Organic wastes contain carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, which can be utilised as carbon sources for the production of bio-based products. Cellulose is the most abundant natural biopolymer, being the main structural component of lignocellulosic materials. The aim of this project is to develop a biological process for the hydrolysis and fermentation of organic wastes into ethanol and organic acids. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are integrated in a single vessel using undefined mixed culture microorganisms. The anaerobic fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose was investigated in continuous and batch reactors at 25°C with an appropriate growth medium for cellulase formation, hydrolysis, and fermentation. The reactors were inoculated with soil (B1, C1, C3) or sludge from an anaerobic digester (B2, C2) and the breakdown of cellulose was monitored by measuring the production of ethanol, organic acids and the residual cellulose. The batch reactors B1 and B2 showed negligible microbial activity due to inhibition while the continuous reactors, C1, C2 and C3, exhibited little cellulose hydrolysis which was concealed by the cellulose accumulation in the reactor. At the end of the continuous operation, the reactors C1, C2 and C3 were operated under batch conditions. 48%, 34% and 42% cellulose had been fermented by day 88, 55 and 55 respectively of the batch fermentation. Acetic acid, ethanol, propionic acid and butyric acids were the main fermentation products in the reactors. A stable concentration of 0.6 g/l ethanol and 5 g/L acetic acid was maintained in C3 for several weeks due to reduced activity of methanogens caused by the decrease in pH. Thus far, the results have demonstrated that mixed microbial culture is capable of hydrolysing and fermenting cellulose under lenient conditions. The fermentation of cellulose has been found effective in a combination of continuous and batch processes.

Keywords: cellulose, hydrolysis, mixed culture, organic waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
267 Application of Customized Bioaugmentation Inocula to Alleviate Ammonia Toxicity in CSTR Anaerobic Digesters

Authors: Yixin Yan, Miao Yan, Irini Angelidaki, Ioannis Fotidis

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Ammonia, which derives from the degradation of urea and protein-substrates, is the major toxicant of the commercial anaerobic digestion reactors causing loses of up to 1/3 of their practical biogas production, which reflects directly on the overall revenue of the plants. The current experimental work is aiming to alleviate the ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion (AD) process by developing an innovative bioaugmentation method of ammonia tolerant methanogenic consortia. The ammonia tolerant consortia were cultured in batch reactors and immobilized together with biochar in agar (customized inocula). Three continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR), fed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste at a hydraulic retention time of 15 days and operated at thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed. After an ammonia shock of 4 g NH4+-N L-1, the customized inocula were bioaugmented into the CSTR reactors to alleviate ammonia toxicity effect on AD process. Recovery rate of methane production and methanogenic activity will be assessed to evaluate the bioaugmentation performance, while 16s rRNA gene sequence will be used to reveal the difference of microbial community changes through bioaugmentation. At the microbial level, the microbial community structures of the four reactors will be analysed to find the mechanism of bioaugmentation. Changes in hydrogen formation potential will be used to predict direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between ammonia tolerant methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. This experimental work is expected to create bioaugmentation inocula that will be easy to obtain, transport, handled and bioaugment in AD reactors to efficiently alleviate the ammonia toxicity, without alternating any of the other operational parameters including the ammonia-rich feedstocks.

Keywords: artisanal fishing waste, acidogenesis, volatile fatty acids, pH, inoculum/substrate ratio

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266 Fermentation of Xylose and Glucose Mixture in Intensified Reactors by Scheffersomyces stipitis to Produce Ethanol

Authors: S. C. Santos, S. R. Dionísio, A. L. D. De Andrade, L. R. Roque, A. C. Da Costa, J. L. Ienczak

Abstract:

In this work, two fermentations at different temperatures (25 and 30 ºC), with cell recycling, were accomplished to produce ethanol, using a mix of commercial substrates, xylose (70%) and glucose (30%), as organic source for Scheffersomyces stipitis. Five consecutive fermentations of 80 g L-1 (1º, 2º and 3º recycles), 96 g L-1 (4º recycle) and 120 g L-1 (5º recycle)reduced sugars led to a final maximum ethanol concentration of 17.2 and 34.5 g L-1, at 25 and 30 ºC, respectively. Glucose was the preferred substrate; moreover xylose startup degradation was initiated after a remaining glucose presence in the medium. Results showed that yeast acid treatment, performed before each cycle, provided improvements on cell viability, accompanied by ethanol productivity of 2.16 g L-1 h-1 at 30 ºC. A maximum 36% of xylose was retained in the fermentation medium and after five-cycle fermentation an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugars was observed. S. stipitis fermentation capacity and tolerance showed better results at 30 ºC with 83.4% of theoretical yield referenced on initial biomass.

Keywords: 5-carbon sugar, cell recycling fermenter, mixed sugars, xylose-fermenting yeast

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
265 Corrosion Behavior of Steels in Molten Salt Reactors

Authors: Jana Rejková, Marie Kudrnová

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This paper deals with the research of materials for one of the types of reactors IV. generation - reactor with molten salts. One of the advantages of molten salts applied as a coolant in reactors is the ability to operate at relatively low pressures, as opposed to cooling with water or gases. Compared to liquid metal cooling, which also allows lower operating pressures, salt melts are less prone to chemical reactions. The service life of the construction materials used is limited by the operating temperatures of the reactor and the content of impurities in the salts. For the research of corrosion resistance, an experimental device was designed and assembled, enabling exposure at high temperatures without access to oxygen in a flowing atmosphere of inert gas. Nickel alloys Inconel 601, 617, and 625 were tested in a mixture of chloride salts LiCl – KCl (58,2 - 41,8 wt. %). The experiment showed high resistance of the materials used and based on the results and XPS analysis, other construction materials were proposed for the experiments.

Keywords: molten salt, corrosion, nuclear reactor, nickel alloy

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264 Comparison of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket and an Anaerobic Filter for Treating Wheat Straw Washwater

Authors: Syazwani Idrus, S. Charles J. Banks, Sonia Heaven

Abstract:

The study compared the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and anaerobic filters (AF) for the treatment of wheat straw washwater (WSW) which has a high concentration of Potassium ions. The trial was conducted at mesophilic temperatures (37 °C). The digesters were started up over a 48-day period using a synthetic wastewater feed and reached an organic loading rate (OLR) of 6 g COD L^-1 day^-1 with a specific methane production (SMP) of 0.333 L CH4 g^-1 COD. When the feed was switched to WSW it was not possible to maintain the same loading rate as the SMP in all reactors fell sharply to less than 0.1 L CH4 g^-1 COD, with the AF affected more than the UASB. On reducing the OLR to 3 g COD L^-1 day^-1 the reactors recovered to produce 0.21 L CH4 g^-1 CODadded and gave 82% COD removal. A discrepancy between the COD consumed and the methane produced could be accounted for through increased maintenance energy requirement of the microbial community for osmo-regulation as K+ was found to accumulate in the sludge and in the UASB reached a concentration of 4.5 mg K g^-1 wet weight of granules.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, osmotic stress, chemical oxygen demand, specific methane production

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
263 CO2 Utilization by Reverse Water-Shift and Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis for Production of Heavier Fraction Hydrocarbons in a Container-Sized Mobile Unit

Authors: Francisco Vidal Vázquez, Pekka Simell, Christian Frilund, Matti Reinikainen, Ilkka Hiltunen, Tim Böltken, Benjamin Andris, Paolo Piermartini

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Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) are one of the key topics in mitigation of CO2 emissions. There are many different technologies that are applied for the production of diverse chemicals from CO2 such as synthetic natural gas, Fischer-Tropsch products, methanol and polymers. Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquids concepts arise as a synergetic solution for storing energy and producing value added products from the intermittent renewable energy sources and CCU. VTT is a research and technology development company having energy in transition as one of the key focus areas. VTT has extensive experience in piloting and upscaling of new energy and chemical processes. Recently, VTT has developed and commissioned a Mobile Synthesis Unit (MOBSU) in close collaboration with INERATEC, a spin-off company of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Germany). The MOBSU is a multipurpose synthesis unit for CO2 upgrading to energy carriers and chemicals, which can be transported on-site where CO2 emission and renewable energy are available. The MOBSU is initially used for production of fuel compounds and chemical intermediates by combination of two consecutive processes: reverse Water-Gas Shift (rWGS) and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT). First, CO2 is converted to CO by high-pressure rWGS and then, the CO and H2 rich effluent is used as feed for FT using an intensified reactor technology developed and designed by INERATEC. Chemical equilibrium of rWGS reaction is not affected by pressure. Nevertheless, compression would be required in between rWGS and FT in the case when rWGS is operated at atmospheric pressure. This would also require cooling of rWGS effluent, water removal and reheating. For that reason, rWGS is operated using precious metal catalyst in the MOBSU at similar pressure as FT to simplify the process. However, operating rWGS at high pressures has also some disadvantages such as methane and carbon formation, and more demanding specifications for materials. The main parts of FT module are an intensified reactor, a hot trap to condense the FT wax products, and a cold trap to condense the FT liquid products. The FT synthesis is performed using cobalt catalyst in a novel compact reactor technology with integrated highly-efficient water evaporation cooling cycle. The MOBSU started operation in November 2016. First, the FT module is tested using as feedstock H2 and CO. Subsequently, rWGS and FT modules are operated together using CO2 and H2 as feedstock of ca. 5 Nm3/hr total flowrate. On spring 2017, The MOBSU unit will be integrated together with a direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 unit, and a PEM electrolyser unit at Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) premises for demonstration of the SoletAir concept. This would be the first time when synthetic fuels are produced by combination of DAC unit and electrolyser unit which uses solar power for H2 production.

Keywords: CO2 utilization, demonstration, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, intensified reactors, reverse water-gas shift

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
262 Aspen Plus Simulation of Saponification of Ethyl Acetate in the Presence of Sodium Hydroxide in a Plug Flow Reactor

Authors: U. P. L. Wijayarathne, K. C. Wasalathilake

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This work presents the modelling and simulation of saponification of ethyl acetate in the presence of sodium hydroxide in a plug flow reactor using Aspen Plus simulation software. Plug flow reactors are widely used in the industry due to the non-mixing property. The use of plug flow reactors becomes significant when there is a need for continuous large scale reaction or fast reaction. Plug flow reactors have a high volumetric unit conversion as the occurrence for side reactions is minimum. In this research Aspen Plus V8.0 has been successfully used to simulate the plug flow reactor. In order to simulate the process as accurately as possible HYSYS Peng-Robinson EOS package was used as the property method. The results obtained from the simulation were verified by the experiment carried out in the EDIBON plug flow reactor module. The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.98 and it proved that simulation results satisfactorily fit for the experimental model. The developed model can be used as a guide for understanding the reaction kinetics of a plug flow reactor.

Keywords: aspen plus, modelling, plug flow reactor, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
261 The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biogas Production Efficiency Using Different Plant Substrates

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

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The purpose of the present work was to assess the impact of using electromagnetic microwave radiation as a means of stimulating the thermal conditions in anaerobic reactors on biomethanation efficiency of different plant substrates, as measured by the quantity and quality of the resultant biogas. Using electromagnetic microwave radiation to maintain optimal thermal conditions during biomethanation allows for achievement of much higher technological effects in comparison with a conventional heating system. After subjecting different plant substrates to fermentation in the model fermentation chambers, the largest improvements in regard to biogas production efficiency and biogas quality were recorded in the series with corn silage and grass silage. In the first case, the quantity of methane produced in the microwave-stimulated technological system exceeded by 15.26% the quantities produced in reactors heated conventionally. When grass silage was utilized as the organic substrate in the process of biomethanation, anaerobic reactors treated with microwave radiation produced 12.62% more methane.

Keywords: microwave radiation, biogas, methane fermentation, biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
260 Similitude for Thermal Scale-up of a Multiphase Thermolysis Reactor in the Cu-Cl Cycle of a Hydrogen Production

Authors: Mohammed W. Abdulrahman

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The thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is considered as a sustainable and efficient technology for a hydrogen production, when linked with clean-energy systems such as nuclear reactors or solar thermal plants. In the Cu-Cl cycle, water is decomposed thermally into hydrogen and oxygen through a series of intermediate reactions. This paper investigates the thermal scale up analysis of the three phase oxygen production reactor in the Cu-Cl cycle, where the reaction is endothermic and the temperature is about 530 oC. The paper focuses on examining the size and number of oxygen reactors required to provide enough heat input for different rates of hydrogen production. The type of the multiphase reactor used in this paper is the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that is heated by a half pipe jacket. The thermal resistance of each section in the jacketed reactor system is studied to examine its effect on the heat balance of the reactor. It is found that the dominant contribution to the system thermal resistance is from the reactor wall. In the analysis, the Cu-Cl cycle is assumed to be driven by a nuclear reactor where two types of nuclear reactors are examined as the heat source to the oxygen reactor. These types are the CANDU Super Critical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR) and High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR). It is concluded that a better heat transfer rate has to be provided for CANDU-SCWR by 3-4 times than HTGR. The effect of the reactor aspect ratio is also examined in this paper and is found that increasing the aspect ratio decreases the number of reactors and the rate of decrease in the number of reactors decreases by increasing the aspect ratio. Finally, a comparison between the results of heat balance and existing results of mass balance is performed and is found that the size of the oxygen reactor is dominated by the heat balance rather than the material balance.

Keywords: sustainable energy, clean energy, Cu-Cl cycle, heat transfer, hydrogen, oxygen

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
259 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran

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This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

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258 CFD simulation of Near Wall Turbulence and Heat Transfer of Molten Salts

Authors: C. S. Sona, Makrand A. Khanwale, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati

Abstract:

New generation nuclear power plants are currently being developed to be highly economical, to be passive safe, to produce hydrogen. An important feature of these reactors will be the use of coolants at temperature higher than that being used in current nuclear reactors. The molten fluoride salt with a eutectic composition of 46.5% LiF - 11.5% NaF - 42% KF (mol %) commonly known as FLiNaK is a leading candidate for heat transfer coolant for these nuclear reactors. CFD simulations were carried out using large eddy simulations to investigate the flow characteristics of molten FLiNaK at 850°C at a Reynolds number of 10,500 in a cylindrical pipe. Simulation results have been validated with the help of mean velocity profile using direct numerical simulation data. Transient velocity information was used to identify and characterise turbulent structures which are important for transfer of heat across solid-fluid interface. A wavelet transform based methodology called wavelet transform modulus maxima was used to identify and characterise the singularities. This analysis was also used for flow visualisation, and also to calculate the heat transfer coefficient using small eddy model. The predicted Nusselt number showed good agreement with the available experimental data.

Keywords: FLiNaK, heat transfer, molten salt, turbulent structures

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257 Removal of Nutrients from Sewage Using Algal Photo-Bioreactor

Authors: Purnendu Bose, Jyoti Kainthola

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Due to recent advances in illumination technology, artificially illuminated algal-bacterial photo bioreactors are now a potentially feasible option for simultaneous and comprehensive organic carbon and nutrients removal from secondary treated domestic sewage. The experiments described herein were designed to determine the extent of nutrient uptake in photo bioreactors through algal assimilation. Accordingly, quasi steady state data on algal photo bioreactor performance was obtained under 20 different conditions. Results indicated that irrespective of influent N and P levels, algal biomass recycling resulted in superior performance of algal photo bioreactors in terms of both N and P removals. Further, both N and P removals were positively related to the growth of algal biomass in the reactor. Conditions in the reactor favouring greater algal growth also resulted in greater N and P removals. N and P removals were adversely impacted in reactors with low algal concentrations due to the inability of the algae to grow fast enough under the conditions provided. Increasing algal concentrations in reactors over a certain threshold value through higher algal biomass recycling was also not fruitful, since algal growth slowed under such conditions due to reduced light availability due to algal ‘self-shading’. It was concluded that N removals greater than 80% at high influent N concentrations is not possible with the present reactor configuration. Greater than 80% N removals may however be possible in similar reactors if higher light intensity is provided. High P removal is possible only if the influent N: P ratio in the reactor is aligned closely with the algal stoichiometric requirements for P.

Keywords: nutrients, algae, photo, bioreactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
256 Improvement Anaerobic Digestion Performance of Sewage Sludge by Co-Digestion with Cattle Manure

Authors: Raouf Hassan

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Biogas energy production from sewage sludge is an economically feasible and eco-friendly in nature. Sewage sludge is considered nutrient-rich substrates, but had lower values of carbone which consider an energy source for anaerobic bacteria. The lack or lower values of carbone-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N) reduced biogas yield and fermentation rate. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge offers several benefits over mono-digestion such as optimize nutrient balance, increased cost-efficiency and increased degradation rate. The high produced amounts of animal manures, which reach up to 90% of the total collected organic wastes, are recommended for the co-digestion with sewage sludge, especially with the limitations of industrial substrates. Moreover, cattle manures had high methane production potential (500 m3/t vsadded). When mixed with sewage sludge the potential methane production increased with increasing cattle manure content. In this paper, the effect of cattle manure (CM) addition as co-substrates on the sewage sludge (SS) anaerobic digestion performance was investigated under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using anaerobic batch reactors. The batch reactors were operated with a working volume 0.8 liter, and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The research work focus on studying two main parameters; the biogas yield (expressed as VSS) and pH values inside the reactors.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, sewage sludge, cattle manure, mesophilic, biogas yield, pH

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
255 Comparison of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket and an Anaerobic Filter for Treating Wheat Straw Wash Water

Authors: Syazwani Idrus, Charles Banks, Sonia Heaven

Abstract:

The effect of osmotic stress was carried out to determine the ability for biogas production in two types of digesters; anaerobic sludge blanket and anaerobic filters in treating wheat straw washed water. Two anaerobic filters (AF1 and 2) and two UASB reactors (U1 and 2) with working volumes of 1.5 L were employed at mesophilic temperatures (37°C). Digesters AF1 and two were seeded with an inoculum which had previously been fed on with a synthetic wastewater includingSodium Chloride and Potassium Chloride. Digesters U1 and two were seeded with 1 kg wet weight of granular sludge which had previously been treating paper mill effluent. During the first 48 days, all digesters were successfully acclimated with synthetic wastewater (SW) to organic loading rate (OLR) of 6 g COD l^-1 day-1. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.333 l CH4 g-1 COD). The feed was then changed to wash water from a washing operation to reduce the salt content of wheat straw (wheat straw wash water, WSW) at the same OLR. SMP fell sharply in all reactors to less than 0.1 l CH4 g^-1 COD, with the AF affected more than the UASB. The OLR was reduced to 2.5 g COD l^-1 day^-1 to allow adaptation to WSW, and both the UASB and the AF reactors achieved an SMP of 0.21 l CH4 g^-1 COD added at 82% of COD removal. This study also revealed the accumulation of potassium (K) inside the UASB granules to a concentration of 4.5 mg K g^-1 wet weight of granular sludge. The phenomenon of lower SMP and accumulation of K indicates the effect of osmotic stress when fed on WSW. This finding is consistent with the theory that methanogenic organisms operate a Potassium pump to maintain ionic equilibrium, and as this is an energy-driven process, it will, therefore, reduce the overall methane yield.

Keywords: wheat straw wash water, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, anaerobic filter, specific methane production, osmotic stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
254 RBF Modelling and Optimization Control for Semi-Batch Reactors

Authors: Magdi M. Nabi, Ding-Li Yu

Abstract:

This paper presents a neural network based model predictive control (MPC) strategy to control a strongly exothermic reaction with complicated nonlinear kinetics given by Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor that requires a very precise temperature control to maintain product uniformity. In the benchmark scenario, the operation of the reactor must be guaranteed under various disturbing influences, e.g., changing ambient temperatures or impurity of the monomer. Such a process usually controlled by conventional cascade control, it provides a robust operation, but often lacks accuracy concerning the required strict temperature tolerances. The predictive control strategy based on the RBF neural model is applied to solve this problem to achieve set-point tracking of the reactor temperature against disturbances. The result shows that the RBF based model predictive control gives reliable result in the presence of some disturbances and keeps the reactor temperature within a tight tolerance range around the desired reaction temperature.

Keywords: Chylla-Haase reactor, RBF neural network modelling, model predictive control, semi-batch reactors

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
253 Numerical Simulation of Different Configurations for a Combined Gasification/Carbonization Reactors

Authors: Mahmoud Amer, Ibrahim El-Sharkawy, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Elwardany

Abstract:

Gasification and carbonization are two of the most common ways for biomass utilization. Both processes are using part of the waste to be accomplished, either by incomplete combustion or for heating for both gasification and carbonization, respectively. The focus of this paper is to minimize the part of the waste that is used for heating biomass for gasification and carbonization. This will occur by combining both gasifiers and carbonization reactors in a single unit to utilize the heat in the product biogas to heating up the wastes in the carbonization reactors. Three different designs are proposed for the combined gasification/carbonization (CGC) reactor. These include a parallel combination of two gasifiers and carbonized syngas, carbonizer and combustion chamber, and one gasifier, carbonizer, and combustion chamber. They are tested numerically using ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics to ensure homogeneity of temperature distribution inside the carbonization part of the CGC reactor. 2D simulations are performed for the three cases after performing both mesh-size and time-step independent solutions. The carbonization part is common among the three different cases, and the difference among them is how this carbonization reactor is heated. The simulation results showed that the first design could provide only partial homogeneous temperature distribution, not across the whole reactor. This means that the produced carbonized biomass will be reduced as it will only fill a specified height of the reactor. To keep the carbonized product production high, a series combination is proposed. This series configuration resulted in a uniform temperature distribution across the whole reactor as it has only one source for heat with no temperature distribution on any surface of the carbonization section. The simulations provided a satisfactory result that either the first parallel combination of gasifier and carbonization reactor could be used with a reduced carbonized amount or a series configuration to keep the production rate high.

Keywords: numerical simulation, carbonization, gasification, biomass, reactor

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252 Numerical Simulation of Ultraviolet Disinfection in a Water Reactor

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, H. Sobhani, B. Sajadi, M. Degheh

Abstract:

In recent years, experimental and numerical investigation of water UV reactors has increased significantly. The main drawback of experimental methods is confined and expensive survey of UV reactors features. In this study, a CFD model utilizing the eulerian-lagrangian framework is applied to analysis the disinfection performance of a closed conduit reactor which contains four UV lamps perpendicular to the flow. A discrete ordinates (DO) model was employed to evaluate the UV irradiance field. To investigate the importance of each of lamps on the inactivation performance, in addition to the reference model (with 4 bright lamps), several models with one or two bright lamps in various arrangements were considered. All results were reported in three inactivation kinetics. The results showed that the log inactivation of the two central bright lamps model was between 88-99 percent, close to the reference model results. Also, whatever the lamps are closer to the main flow region, they have more effect on microbial inactivation. The effect of some operational parameters such as water flow rate, inlet water temperature, and lamps power were also studied.

Keywords: Eulerian-Lagrangian framework, inactivation kinetics, log inactivation, water UV reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
251 Investigation of the Capability of REALP5 to Solve Complex Fuel Geometry

Authors: D. Abdelrazek, M. NaguibAly, A. A. Badawi, Asmaa G. Abo Elnour, A. A. El-Kafas

Abstract:

This work is developed within IAEA Coordinated Research Program 1496, “Innovative methods in research reactor analysis: Benchmark against experimental data on neutronics and thermal-hydraulic computational methods and tools for operation and safety analysis of research reactors.” The study investigates the capability of Code RELAP5/Mod3.4 to solve complex geometry complexity. Its results are compared to the results of PARET, a common code in thermal hydraulic analysis for research reactors, belonging to MTR-PC groups. The WWR-SM reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in the Republic of Uzbekistan is simulated using both PARET and RELAP5 at steady state. Results from the two codes are compared. REALP5 code succeeded in solving the complex fuel geometry. The PARET code needed some calculations to obtain the final result. Although the final results from the PARET are more accurate, the small differences in both results makes using RELAP5 code recommended in case of complex fuel assemblies.

Keywords: complex fuel geometry, PARET, RELAP5, WWR-SM reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
250 Approaches for Minimizing Radioactive Tritium and ¹⁴C in Advanced High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

Authors: Longkui Zhu, Zhengcao Li

Abstract:

High temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are considered as one of the next-generation advanced nuclear reactors, in which porous nuclear graphite is used as neutron moderators, reflectors, structure materials, and cooled by inert helium. Radioactive tritium and ¹⁴C are generated in terms of reactions of thermal neutrons and ⁶Li, ¹⁴N, ¹⁰B impurely within nuclear graphite and the coolant during HTGRs operation. Currently, hydrogen and nitrogen diffusion behavior together with nuclear graphite microstructure evolution were investigated to minimize the radioactive waste release, using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, the BET and mercury standard porosimetry methods. It is found that the peak value of graphite weight loss emerged at 573-673 K owing to nitrogen diffusion from graphite pores to outside when the system was subjected to vacuum. Macropore volume became larger while porosity for mesopores was smaller with temperature ranging from ambient temperature to 1073 K, which was primarily induced by coalescence of the subscale pores. It is suggested that the porous nuclear graphite should be first subjected to vacuum at 573-673 K to minimize the nitrogen and the radioactive 14°C before operation in HTGRs. Then, results on hydrogen diffusion show that the diffusible hydrogen and tritium could permeate into the coolant with diffusion coefficients of > 0.5 × 10⁻⁴ cm²·s⁻¹ at 50 bar. As a consequence, the freshly-generated diffusible tritium could release quickly to outside once formed, and an effective approach for minimizing the amount of radioactive tritium is to make the impurity contents extremely low in nuclear graphite and the coolant. Besides, both two- and three-dimensional observations indicate that macro and mesopore volume along with total porosity decreased with temperature at 50 bar on account of synergistic effects of applied compression strain, sharpened pore morphology, and non-uniform temperature distribution.

Keywords: advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactor, hydrogen and nitrogen diffusion, microstructure evolution, nuclear graphite, radioactive waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
249 Modeling of Polyethylene Particle Size Distribution in Fluidized Bed Reactors

Authors: R. Marandi, H. Shahrir, T. Nejad Ghaffar Borhani, M. Kamaruddin

Abstract:

In the present study, a steady state population balance model was developed to predict the polymer particle size distribution (PSD) in ethylene gas phase fluidized bed olefin polymerization reactors. The multilayer polymeric flow model (MPFM) was used to calculate the growth rate of a single polymer particle under intra-heat and mass transfer resistance. The industrial plant data were used to calculate the growth rate of polymer particle and the polymer PSD. Numerical simulations carried out to describe the influence of effective monomer diffusion coefficient, polymerization rate and initial catalyst size on the catalyst particle growth and final polymer PSD. The results present that the intra-heat and mass limitation is important for the ethylene polymerization, the growth rate of particle and the polymer PSD in the fluidized bed reactor. The effect of the agglomeration on the PSD is also considered. The result presents that the polymer particle size distribution becomes broader as the agglomeration exits.

Keywords: population balance, olefin polymerization, fluidized bed reactor, particle size distribution, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
248 Characteristics of the Mortars Obtained by Radioactive Recycled Sand

Authors: Claudiu Mazilu, Ion Robu, Radu Deju

Abstract:

At the end of 2011 worldwide there were 124 power reactors shut down, from which: 16 fully decommissioned, 50 power reactors in a decommissioning process, 49 reactors in “safe enclosure mode”, 3 reactors “entombed”, for other 6 reactors it was not yet have specified the decommissioning strategy. The concrete radioactive waste that will be generated from dismantled structures of VVR-S nuclear research reactor from Magurele (e.g.: biological shield of the reactor core and hot cells) represents an estimated amount of about 70 tons. Until now the solid low activity radioactive waste (LLW) was pre-placed in containers and cementation with mortar made from cement and natural fine aggregates, providing a fill ratio of the container of approximately 50 vol. % for concrete. In this paper is presented an innovative technology in which radioactive concrete is crushed and the mortar made from recycled radioactive sand, cement, water and superplasticizer agent is poured in container with radioactive rubble (that is pre-placed in container) for cimentation. Is achieved a radioactive waste package in which the degree of filling of radioactive waste increases substantially. The tests were carried out on non-radioactive material because the radioactive concrete was not available in a good time. Waste concrete with maximum size of 350 mm were crushed in the first stage with a Liebhher type jaw crusher, adjusted to nominal size of 50 mm. Crushed concrete less than 50 mm was sieved in order to obtain useful sort for preplacement, 10 to 50 mm. The rest of the screening > 50 mm obtained from primary crushing of concrete was crushed in the second stage, with different working principles crushers at size < 2.5 mm, in order to produce recycled fine aggregate (sand) for the filler mortar and which fulfills the technical specifications proposed: –jaw crusher, Retsch type, model BB 100; –hammer crusher, Buffalo Shuttle model WA-12-H; presented a series of characteristics of recycled concrete aggregates by predefined class (the granulosity, the granule shape, the absorption of water, behavior to the Los Angeles test, the content of attached mortar etc.), most in comparison with characteristics of natural aggregates. Various mortar recipes were used in order to identify those that meet the proposed specification (flow-rate: 16-50s, no bleeding, min. 30N/mm2 compressive strength of the mortar after 28 days, the proportion of recycled sand used in mortar: min. 900kg/m3) and allow obtaining of the highest fill ratio for mortar. In order to optimize the mortars following compositional factors were varied: aggregate nature, water/cement (W/C) ratio, sand/cement (S/C) ratio, nature and proportion of additive. To confirm the results obtained on a small scale, it made an attempt to fill the mortar in a container that simulates the final storage drums. Was measured the mortar fill ratio (98.9%) compared with the results of laboratory tests and targets set out in the proposed specification. Although fill ratio obtained on the mock-up is lower by 0.8 vol. % compared to that obtained in the laboratory tests (99.7%), the result meets the specification criteria.

Keywords: characteristics, radioactive recycled concrete aggregate, mortars, fill ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
247 Thorium Resources of Georgia – Is It Its Future Energy ?

Authors: Avtandil Okrostsvaridze, Salome Gogoladze

Abstract:

In the light of exhaustion of hydrocarbon reserves of new energy resources, its search is of vital importance problem for the modern civilization. At the time of energy resource crisis, the radioactive element thorium (232Th) is considered as the main energy resource for the future of our civilization. Modern industry uses thorium in high-temperature and high-tech tools, but the most important property of thorium is that like uranium it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors. However, thorium has a number of advantages compared to this element: Its concentration in the earth crust is 4-5 times higher than uranium; extraction and enrichment of thorium is much cheaper than of uranium; it is less radioactive; its waste products complete destruction is possible; thorium yields much more energy than uranium. Nowadays, developed countries, among them India and China, have started intensive work for creation of thorium nuclear reactors and intensive search for thorium reserves. It is not excluded that in the next 10 years these reactors will completely replace uranium reactors. Thorium ore mineralization is genetically related to alkaline-acidic magmatism. Thorium accumulations occur as in endogen marked as in exogenous conditions. Unfortunately, little is known about the reserves of this element in Georgia, as planned prospecting-exploration works of thorium have never been carried out here. Although, 3 ore occurrences of this element are detected: 1) In the Greater Caucasus Kakheti segment, in the hydrothermally altered rocks of the Lower Jurassic clay-shales, where thorium concentrations varied between 51 - 3882g/t; 2) In the eastern periphery of the Dzirula massif, in the hydrothermally alteration rocks of the cambrian quartz-diorite gneisses, where thorium concentrations varied between 117-266 g/t; 3) In active contact zone of the Eocene volcanites and syenitic intrusive in Vakijvari ore field of the Guria region, where thorium concentrations varied between 185 – 428 g/t. In addition, geological settings of the areas, where thorium occurrences were fixed, give a theoretical basis on possible accumulation of practical importance thorium ores. Besides, the Black Sea Guria region magnetite sand which is transported from Vakijvari ore field, should contain significant reserves of thorium. As the research shows, monazite (thorium containing mineral) is involved in magnetite in the form of the thinnest inclusions. The world class thorium deposit concentrations of this element vary within the limits of 50-200 g/t. Accordingly, on the basis of these data, thorium resources found in Georgia should be considered as perspective ore deposits. Generally, we consider that complex investigation of thorium should be included into the sphere of strategic interests of the state, because future energy of Georgia, will probably be thorium.

Keywords: future energy, Georgia, ore field, thorium

Procedia PDF Downloads 343