Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 838

Search results for: hydrogen fluoride

838 Using RASCAL and ALOHA Codes to Establish an Analysis Methodology for Hydrogen Fluoride Evaluation

Authors: J. R. Wang, Y. Chiang, W. S. Hsu, H. C. Chen, S. H. Chen, J. H. Yang, S. W. Chen, C. Shih


In this study, the RASCAL and ALOHA codes are used to establish an analysis methodology for hydrogen fluoride (HF) evaluation. There are three main steps in this study. First, the UF6 data were collected. Second, one postulated case was analyzed by using the RASCAL and UF6 data. This postulated case assumes that fire occurring and UF6 is releasing from a building. Third, the results of RASCAL for HF mass were as the input data of ALOHA. Two postulated cases of HF were analyzed by using ALOHA code and the results of RASCAL. These postulated cases assume fire occurring and HF is releasing with no raining (Case 1) or raining (Case 2) condition. According to the analysis results of ALOHA, the HF concentration of Case 2 is smaller than Case 1. The results can be a reference for the preparing of emergency plans for the release of HF.

Keywords: RASCAL, ALOHA, UF₆, hydrogen fluoride

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837 Evaluation of Fluoride Contents of Kirkuk City's Drinking Water and Its Source: Lesser Zab River and Its Effect on Human Health

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Safa H. Abdulrahman


In this study, forty samples had been collected from water of Lesser Zab River and drinking water to determine fluoride concentration and show the impact of fluoride on general health of society of Kirkuk city. Estimation of fluoride concentration and determination of its proportion in water samples were performed attentively using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The fluoride concentrations in the Lesser Zab River samples were between 0.0265 ppm and 0.0863 ppm with an average of 0.0451 ppm, whereas the average fluoride concentration in drinking water samples was 0.102 ppm and ranged from 0.010 to 0.289 ppm. A comparison between results obtained with World Health Organization (WHO) show a low concentration of fluoride in the samples of the study. Thus, for health concerns we should increase the concentration of this ion in water of Kirkuk city at least to about (1.0 ppm) and this will take place after fluorination process.

Keywords: fluoride concentration, lesser zab river, drinking water, health society, Kirkuk city

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
836 Fluoride Immobilization in Plaster Board Waste: A Safety Measure to Prevent Soil and Water Pollution

Authors: Venkataraman Sivasankar, Kiyoshi Omine, Hideaki Sano


The leaching of fluoride from Plaster Board Waste (PBW) is quite feasible in soil and water environments. The Ministry of Environment, Japan recommended the standard limit of 0.8 mgL⁻¹ or less for fluoride. Although the utilization of PBW as a substitute for cement is rather meritorious, its fluoride leaching behavior deteriorates the quality of soil and water and therefore envisaged as a demerit. In view of this fluoride leaching problem, the present research is focused on immobilizing fluoride in PBW. The immobilization experiments were conducted with four chemical systems operated by DAHP (diammonium hydrogen phosphate) and phosphoric acid carbonization of bamboo mass coupled with certain inorganic reactions using reagents such as calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and aqueous ammonia. The fluoride immobilization was determined after shaking the reactor contents including the plaster board waste for 24 h at 25˚C. In the DAHP system, the immobilization of fluoride was evident from the leaching of fluoride in the range 0.071-0.12 mgL⁻¹, 0.026-0.14 mgL⁻¹ and 0.068-0.12 mgL⁻¹ for the reaction temperatures at 30˚C, 50˚C, and 90˚C, respectively, with final pH of 6.8. The other chemical systems designated as PACCa, PACAm, and PACNa could immobilize fluoride in PBW, and the resulting solution was analyzed with the fluoride less than the Japanese environmental standard of 0.8 mgL⁻¹. In the case of PACAm and PACCa systems, the calcium concentration was found undetectable and witnessed the formation of phosphate compounds. The immobilization of fluoride was found inversely proportional to the increase in the volume of leaching solvent and dose of PBW. Characterization studies of PBW and the solid after fluoride immobilization was done using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM ( Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy) with EDAX (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The results revealed the formation of new calcium phosphate compounds such as apatite, monetite, and hydroxylapatite. The participation of such new compounds in fluoride immobilization seems indispensable through the exchange mechanism of hydroxyl and fluoride groups. Acknowledgment: First author thanks to Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) for the award of the fellowship (ID No. 16544).

Keywords: characterization, fluoride, immobilization, plaster board waste

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835 Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for Optimization of Fluoride Removal by Using Banana Peel

Authors: Pallavi N., Gayatri Jadhav


Good quality water is of prime importance for a healthy living. Fluoride is one such mineral present in water which causes many health problems in humans and specially children. Fluoride is said to be a double edge sword because lesser and higher concentration of fluoride in drinking water can cause both dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride is one of the important mineral usually present at a higher concentration in ground water. There are many researches being carried out for defluoridation method. In the present research, fluoride removal is demonstrated using banana peel which is a biowaste as a biocoagulant. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a statistical design tool which is used to design the experiment. Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to determine the influence of the pH and dosage of the coagulant on the optimal removal of fluoride from a simulated water sample. 895 of fluoride removal were obtained in a acidic pH range of 4 – 9 and bio coagulant dosage of dosage of 18 – 20mg/L.

Keywords: Fluoride, Response Surface Methodology, Dosage, banana peel

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834 Biosorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solutions by Tinospora Cordifolia Leaves

Authors: Srinivasulu Dasaiah, Kalyan Yakkala, Gangadhar Battala, Pavan Kumar Pindi, Ramakrishna Naidu Gurijala


Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass used for the removal fluoride from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption technique was applied, pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration was studied. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques used to study the surface characteristics and the presence of chemical functional groups on the biosorbent. Biosorption isotherm models and kinetic models were applied to understand the sorption mechanism. Results revealed that pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration played a significant effect on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. The developed biosorbent derived from Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass found to be a low-cost biosorbent and could be used for the effective removal of fluoride in synthetic as well as real water samples.

Keywords: biosorption, contact time, fluoride, isotherms

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833 Effect of Hydrogen Content and Structure in Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Hydrogen Permeation Properties

Authors: Motonori Tamura


The hydrogen barrier properties of the coatings of diamond-like carbon (DLC) were evaluated. Using plasma chemical vapor deposition and sputtering, DLC coatings were deposited on Type 316L stainless steels. The hydrogen permeation rate was reduced to 1/1000 or lower by the DLC coatings. The DLC coatings with high hydrogen content had high hydrogen barrier function. For hydrogen diffusion in coatings, the movement of atoms through hydrogen trap sites such as pores in coatings, and crystal defects such as dislocations, is important. The DLC coatings are amorphous, and there are both sp3 and sp2 bonds, and excess hydrogen could be found in the interstitial space and the hydrogen trap sites. In the DLC coatings with high hydrogen content, these hydrogen trap sites are likely already filled with hydrogen atoms, and the movement of new hydrogen atoms could be limited.

Keywords: hydrogen permeation, stainless steels, diamond-like carbon, hydrogen trap sites

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832 Effect of Nickel Coating on Corrosion of Alloys in Molten Salts

Authors: Divya Raghunandanan, Bhavesh D. Gajbhiye, C. S. Sona, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


Molten fluoride salts are considered as potential coolants for next generation nuclear plants where the heat can be utilized for production of hydrogen and electricity. Among molten fluoride salts, FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) is a potential candidate for the coolant due to its superior thermophysical properties such as high temperature stability, boiling point, volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Major technical challenge in implementation is the selection of structural material which can withstand corrosive nature of FLiNaK. Corrosion study of alloys SS 316L, Hastelloy B, Ni-201 was performed in molten FLiNaK at 650°C. Nickel was found to be more resistant to corrosive attack in molten fluoride medium. Corrosion experiments were performed to study the effect of nickel coating on corrosion of alloys SS 316L and Hastelloy B. Weight loss of the alloys due to corrosion was measured and corrosion rate was estimated. The surface morphology of the alloys was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Keywords: corrosion, FLiNaK, hastelloy, weight loss

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831 Transition to Hydrogen Cities in Korea and Japan

Authors: Minhee Son, Kyung Nam Kim


This study explores the plan of the Korean and Japanese governments to transition into the hydrogen economy. Two motor companies, Hyundai Motor Company from Korea and Toyota from Japan, released the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle to monopolize the green energy automobile market. Although, they are the main countries which emit greenhouse gas, hydrogen energy can bring from a certain industry places, such as chemical plants and steel mills. Recent, the two countries have been focusing on the hydrogen industry including a fuel cell vehicle, a hydrogen station, a fuel cell plant, a residential fuel cell. The purpose of this paper is to find out the differences of the policies in the two countries to be hydrogen societies. We analyze the behavior of the public and private sectors in Korea and Japan about hydrogen energy and fuel cells for the transition of the hydrogen economy. Finally we show the similarities and differences of both countries in hydrogen fuel cells. And some cities have feature such as Hydrogen cities. Hydrogen energy can make impact environmental sustainability.

Keywords: fuel cell, hydrogen city, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, hydrogen station, hydrogen energy

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830 Salinity Reduction from Saharan Brackish Water by Fluoride Removal on Activated Natural Materials: A Comparative Study

Authors: Amina Ramadni, Safia Taleb, André Dératani


The present study presents, firstly, to characterize the physicochemical quality of brackish groundwater of the Terminal Complex (TC) from the region of Eloued-souf and to investigate the presence of fluoride, and secondly, to study the comparison of adsorbing power of three materials, such as (activated alumina AA, sodium clay SC and hydroxyapatite HAP) against the groundwater in the region of Eloued-souf. To do this, a sampling campaign over 16 wells and consumer taps was undertaken. The results show that the groundwater can be characterized by very high fluoride content and excessive mineralization that require in some cases, specific treatment before supply. The study of adsorption revealed removal efficiencies fluoride by three adsorbents, maximum adsorption is achieved after 45 minutes at 90%, 83.4% and 73.95%, and with an adsorbed fluoride content of 0.22 mg/L, 0.318 mg/L and 0.52 mg/L for AA, HAP and SC, respectively. The acidity of the medium significantly affects the removal fluoride. Results deducted from the adsorption isotherms also showed that the retention follows the Langmuir model. The adsorption tests by adsorbent materials show that the physicochemical characteristics of brackish water are changed after treatment. The adsorption mechanism is an exchange between the OH- ions and fluoride ions. Three materials are proving to be effective adsorbents for fluoride removal that could be developed into a viable technology to help reduce the salinity of the Saharan hyper-fluorinated waters. Finally, a comparison between the results obtained from the different adsorbents allowed us to conclude that the defluoridation by AA is the process of choice for many waters of the region of Eloued-souf, because it was shown to be a very interesting and promising technique.

Keywords: fluoride removal, hydrochemical characterization of groundwater, natural materials, nanofiltration

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829 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama


This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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828 Design and Development of Novel Anion Selective Chemosensors Derived from Vitamin B6 Cofactors

Authors: Darshna Sharma, Suban K. Sahoo


The detection of intracellular fluoride in human cancer cell HeLa was achieved by chemosensors derived from vitamin B6 cofactors using fluorescence imaging technique. These sensors were first synthesized by condensation of pyridoxal/pyridoxal phosphate with 2-amino(thio)phenol. The anion recognition ability was explored by experimental (UV-VIS, fluorescence and 1H NMR) and theoretical DFT [(B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)] methods in DMSO and mixed DMSO-H2O system. All the developed sensors showed both naked-eye detectable color change and remarkable fluorescence enhancement in the presence of F- and AcO-. The anion recognition was occurred through the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes between these anions and sensor, followed by the partial deprotonation of sensor. The detection limit of these sensors were down to micro(nano) molar level of F- and AcO-.

Keywords: chemosensors, fluoride, acetate, turn-on, live cells imaging, DFT

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827 Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare-Earth Materials from the Domestic Ore and Preparation of Rare-Earth Hydrogen Storage Alloys

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Yoo, Hanjung Kwon, Sung-Wook Cho


Fused salt electrolysis was studied to make the high purity rare-earth metals using domestic rare-earth ore. The target metals of the fused salt electrolysis were Mm (Misch metal), La, Ce, Nd, etc. Fused salt electrolysis was performed with the supporting salt such as chloride and fluoride at the various temperatures and ampere. The metals made by fused salt electrolysis were analyzed to identify the phase and composition using the methods of XRD and ICP. As a result, the acquired rare-earth metals were the high purity ones which had more than 99% purity. Also, VIM (vacuum induction melting) was studied to make the kg level rare-earth alloy for the use of secondary battery and hydrogen storage. In order to indentify the physicochemical properties such as phase, impurity gas, alloy composition and hydrogen storage, the alloys were investigated. The battery characteristics were also analyzed through the various tests in the real production line of a battery company.

Keywords: domestic rare-earth ore, fused salt electrolysis, rare-earth materials, hydrogen storage alloy, secondary battery

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826 Microstructure of Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings

Authors: Motonori Tamura


Ceramics coatings consisting of fine crystal grains, with diameters of about 100 nm or less, provided superior hydrogen-permeation barriers. Applying TiN, TiC or Al₂O₃ coatings on a stainless steel substrate reduced the hydrogen permeation by a factor of about 100 to 5,000 compared with uncoated substrates. Effect of the microstructure of coatings on hydrogen-permeation behavior is studied. The test specimens coated with coatings, with columnar crystals grown vertically on the substrate, tended to exhibit higher hydrogen permeability. The grain boundaries of the coatings became trap sites for hydrogen, and microcrystalline structures with many grain boundaries are expected to provide effective hydrogen-barrier performance.

Keywords: hydrogen permeation, tin coating, microstructure, crystal grain, stainless steel

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825 Investigating the Effects of Hydrogen on Wet Cement for Underground Hydrogen Storage Applications in Oil and Gas Wells

Authors: Hamoud Al-Hadrami, Hossein Emadi, Athar Hussain


Green hydrogen is quickly emerging as a new source of renewable energy for the world. Hydrogen production using water electrolysis is deemed as an environmentally friendly and safe source of energy for transportation and other industries. However, storing a high volume of hydrogen seems to be a significant challenge. Abandoned hydrocarbon reservoirs are considered as viable hydrogen storage options because of the availability of the required infrastructure such as wells and surface facilities. However, long-term wellbore integrity in these wells could be a serious challenge. Hydrogen reduces the compressive strength of a set cement if it gets in contact with the cement slurry. Also, mixing hydrogen with cement slurry slightly increases its density and rheological properties, which need to be considered to have a successful primary cementing operation.

Keywords: hydrogen, well bore integrity, clean energy, cementing

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824 Evaluation of Malva sylvestris L. Effect on Sodium Fluoride-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rat

Authors: A. Babaei Zarch, S. Kianbakht, H. Fallah Huseini, P. Changaei, A. Mirjalili, J. Salehi


Background: Malva Sylvestris L. has antioxidant property and is widely used in the traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and urological disorders. Objective: In this study the protective effect of Malva Sylvestris against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity in rat were evaluated. Methods: The Malva Sylvestris flower extract was prepared and injected intraperitoneally at the doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day to group of rats ( 10 in each group) for 1 week and subsequently 600 ppm sodium fluoride was added to the rats drinking water for 1 additional week. After these steps, the rats’ serum levels of urea, creatinine, reduced glutathione, catalase and malondialdehyde were determined. The histopathologies of the rats’ kidneys were also studied. Results: Sodium fluoride administration increased levels of BUN, creatinine glutathione, catalase activity and decreased malondialdehyde indicating induction of nephrotoxicity in rats. Malva Sylvestris extract pretreatment significantly decreased the BUN and creatinine levels (P<0.05). Moreover, the levels of catalase and glutathione were increased by Malva, and this increase were also statistically significant (P<0.05). All three doses of Malva extract decreased the malondialdehyde level, but it was significant only for the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (P<0.05). Histopathological findings also showed protective effect of Malva against renal damage induced by sodium fluoride. Conclusion: The results suggest that Malva Sylvestris has protective effect against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity maybe mediated by its antioxidant property.

Keywords: malva sylvestris, nephrotoxicity, sodium fluoride, rat

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823 Dental Fluorosis in Domestic Animals Inhabiting Industrial Area of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Authors: Lalita Panchal, Zulfiya Sheikh


Fluoride is essential for teeth and bones development not only for human beings but also for animals. But excess intake of fluoride causes harmful effects on health. Fluorosis is a worldwide health hazard and India is also one of the endemic countries. Udaipur district of Rajasthan is also prone to fluorosis and superphosphate industries are aggravating fluoride toxicity in this area. Grazing fields for animals in the close vicinity of the industries, fodder and water are fluoride contaminated. Fluoride toxicity in the form of dental fluorosis was observed in domestic animals, inhabiting industrial area near Udaipur, where superphosphate fertilizer plants are functioning and releasing fluoride and fumes and effluents into the surroundings. These fumes and gases directly affect the vegetation of grazing field, thus allowing entry of fluoride into the food chain. A survey was conducted in this area to assess the severity of fluorosis, in 2015-16. It was a house to house survey and animal owners were asked for their fodder and water supply. Anterior teeth of the animal were observed. Domestic animals exhibited mild to severe signs of dental fluorosis. Teeth showed deep brown staining, patches, lines and abrasions. Even immature animals were affected badly. Most of the domestic animals were affected, but goats of this area showed chronic symptoms of fluorosis. Due to abrasion of teeth and paining teeth their chewing or grazing capacity and appetite reduced. Eventually, it reduced the life span of animals and increased the mortality rate.

Keywords: domestic animals, fluoride toxicity, industrial fluorosis, superphosphate fertilizers

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822 Protective Effect of Malva sylvestris L. against Sodium Fluoride-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rat

Authors: Ali Babaei Zarch, S. Kianbakht, H. Fallah Huseini, P. Changaei, A. Mirjalili, J. Salehi


Background: Malva sylvestris L. is widely used in the traditional medicine of Iran and other countries to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and urological Disorders. Moreover, it has antioxidant property. Objective: In this study the protective effect of Malva sylvestris against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were evaluated. Methods: The Malva sylvestris flower extract was injected intraperitoneally at the doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day to groups of rats ( 10 in each group) for 1 week and subsequently 600 ppm sodium fluoride was added daily to the rats drinking water for 1 additional week. After these steps, the rats’ serum levels of urea, creatinine, reduced glutathione, catalase and malondialdehyde were determined. The histopathology of the rats’ kidney was also studied. Results: Malva sylvesteries extract with doses of 400 mg/kg/day significantly decreased the urea and creatinine levels (P<0.05). Moreover, the levels of catalase and glutathione were increased by this dose, but only the catalase increase was statistically significant (P<0.05). All three extract doses of Malva decreased the malondialdehyde level, but it was significant only for the dose 400 mg/kg/day (P<0.05). Histopathological findings also showed a protective effect of Malva against renal damage induced by sodium fluoride. Conclusion: The results suggest that Malva sylvestris has a protective effect against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity through its antioxidant property.

Keywords: Malva sylvestris, mephrotoxicity, sodium fluoride, rat  

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821 Hydrogen Storage in Carbonized Coconut Meat (Kernel)

Authors: Viney Dixit, Rohit R. Shahi, Ashish Bhatnagar, P. Jain, T. P. Yadav, O. N. Srivastava


Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen absorption kinetics and low cost. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to synthesize carbon based material which shows moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of natural precursor coconut kernel is studied in this work. The hydrogen storage measurement reveals that the as-synthesized materials have good hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with fast kinetics. The synthesized material absorbs 8 wt.% of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature and 2.3 wt.% at room temperature. This could be due to the presence of certain elements (KCl, Mg, Ca) which are confirmed by TEM.

Keywords: coconut kernel, carbonization, hydrogenation, KCl, Mg, Ca

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820 Thermal Stability of Hydrogen in ZnO Bulk and Thin Films: A Kinetic Monte Carlo Study

Authors: M. A. Lahmer, K. Guergouri


In this work, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method was applied to study the thermal stability of hydrogen in ZnO bulk and thin films. Our simulation includes different possible events such as interstitial hydrogen (Hi) jumps, substitutional hydrogen (HO) formation and dissociation, oxygen and zinc vacancies jumps, hydrogen-VZn complexes formation and dissociation, HO-Hi complex formation and hydrogen molecule (H2) formation and dissociation. The obtained results show that the hidden hydrogen formed during thermal annealing or at room temperature is constituted of both hydrogen molecule and substitutional hydrogen. The ratio of this constituants depends on the initial defects concentration as well as the annealing temperature. For annealing temperature below 300°C hidden hydrogen was found to be constituted from both substitutional hydrogen and hydrogen molecule, however, for higher temperature it is composed essentially from HO defects only because H2 was found to be unstable. In the other side, our results show that the remaining hydrogen amount in sample during thermal annealing depend greatly on the oxygen vacancies in the material. H2 molecule was found to be stable for thermal annealing up to 200°C, VZnHn complexes are stable up to 350°C and HO was found to be stable up to 450°C.

Keywords: ZnO, hydrogen, thermal annealing, kinetic Monte Carlo

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819 Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications

Authors: Julian David Hunt, Andreas Nascimento


Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.

Keywords: green hydrogen, electrolysis ship, renewable energies, seasonal variations

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818 Enhanced Stability of Piezoelectric Crystalline Phase of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) and Its Copolymer upon Epitaxial Relationships

Authors: Devi Eka Septiyani Arifin, Jrjeng Ruan


As an approach to manipulate the performance of polymer thin film, epitaxy crystallization within polymer blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) was studied in this research, which involves the competition between phase separation and crystal growth of constitutive semicrystalline polymers. The unique piezoelectric feature of poly(vinylidene fluoride) crystalline phase is derived from the packing of molecular chains in all-trans conformation, which spatially arranges all the substituted fluorene atoms on one side of the molecular chain and hydrogen atoms on the other side. Therefore, the net dipole moment is induced across the lateral packing of molecular chains. Nevertheless, due to the mutual repulsion among fluorene atoms, this all-trans molecular conformation is not stable, and ready to change above curie temperature, where thermal energy is sufficient to cause segmental rotation. This research attempts to explore whether the epitaxial interactions between piezoelectric crystals and crystal lattice of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) crystalline platelet is able to stabilize this metastable all-trans molecular conformation or not. As an aromatic crystalline compound, the melt of HMB was surprisingly found able to dissolve the poly(vinylidene fluoride), resulting in homogeneous eutectic solution. Thus, after quenching this binary eutectic mixture to room temperature, subsequent heating or annealing processes were designed to explore the involve phase separation and crystallization behavior. The phase transition behaviors were observed in-situ by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The molecular packing was observed via transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the principles of electron diffraction were brought to study the internal crystal structure epitaxially developed within thin films. Obtained results clearly indicated the occurrence of heteroepitaxy of PVDF/PVDF-TrFE on HMB crystalline platelet. Both the concentration of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and the mixing ratios of these two constitutive polymers have been adopted as the influential factors for studying the competition between the epitaxial crystallization of PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) on HMB crystalline. Furthermore, the involved epitaxial relationship is to be deciphered and studied as a potential factor capable of guiding the wide spread of piezoelectric crystalline form.

Keywords: epitaxy, crystallization, crystalline platelet, thin film and mixing ratio

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817 Modelling Fluoride Pollution of Groundwater Using Artificial Neural Network in the Western Parts of Jharkhand

Authors: Neeta Kumari, Gopal Pathak


Artificial neural network has been proved to be an efficient tool for non-parametric modeling of data in various applications where output is non-linearly associated with input. It is a preferred tool for many predictive data mining applications because of its power , flexibility, and ease of use. A standard feed forward networks (FFN) is used to predict the groundwater fluoride content. The ANN model is trained using back propagated algorithm, Tansig and Logsig activation function having varying number of neurons. The models are evaluated on the basis of statistical performance criteria like Root Mean Squarred Error (RMSE) and Regression coefficient (R2), bias (mean error), Coefficient of variation (CV), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and the index of agreement (IOA). The results of the study indicate that Artificial neural network (ANN) can be used for groundwater fluoride prediction in the limited data situation in the hard rock region like western parts of Jharkhand with sufficiently good accuracy.

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), FFN (Feed-forward network), backpropagation algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, groundwater fluoride contamination

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816 Recovery of Hydrogen Converter Efficiency Affected by Poisoning of Catalyst with Increasing of Temperature

Authors: Enayat Enayati, Reza Behtash


The purpose of the H2 removal system is to reduce a content of hydrogen and other combustibles in the CO2 feed owing to avoid developing a possible explosive condition in the synthesis. In order to reduce the possibility of forming an explosive gas mixture in the synthesis as much as possible, the hydrogen percent in the fresh CO2, will be removed in hydrogen converter. Therefore the partly compressed CO2/Air mixture is led through Hydrogen converter (Reactor) where the H2, present in the CO2, is reduced by catalytic combustion to values less than 50 ppm (vol). According the following exothermic chemical reaction: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O + Heat. The catalyst in hydrogen converter consist of platinum on a aluminum oxide carrier. Low catalyst activity maybe due to catalyst poisoning. This will result in an increase of the hydrogen content in the CO2 to the synthesis. It is advised to shut down the plant when the outlet of hydrogen converter increased above 100 ppm, to prevent undesirable gas composition in the plant. Replacement of catalyst will be time exhausting and costly so as to prevent this, we increase the inlet temperature of hydrogen converter according to following Arrhenius' equation: K=K0e (-E_a/RT) K is rate constant of a chemical reaction where K0 is the pre-exponential factor, E_a is the activation energy, and R is the universal gas constant. Increment of inlet temperature of hydrogen converter caused to increase the rate constant of chemical reaction and so declining the amount of hydrogen from 125 ppm to 70 ppm.

Keywords: catalyst, converter, poisoning, temperature

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815 Hydrogen Embrittlement Properties of the Hot Stamped Carbon Steels

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu, Lele Yang, Koji Shimotsu


The effects of microstructural characteristics on the mechanical and hydrogen embrittlement properties of 1,800MPa grade hot stamping carbon steel were investigated experimentally. The tensile strength increased with increasing the hot stamping temperature until around 921°C, but that decreased with increasing the temperature in more than 921°C due to the increment of the size of lath martensite and prior austenite. With the hot stamping process, internal strain was slightly created in the sample, which led to the slight increment of the hardness value although no clear change of the microstructural formation was detected. Severity of hydrogen embrittlement was investigated using the hot stamped carbon steels after the immersion in a hydrogen gas, and that was directly attributed to the infiltration of the hydrogen into their grain boundaries. The high strength carbon steel with tiny lath martensite microstructure could make severe hydrogen brittleness as the hydrogen was strongly penetrated in the grain boundaries in the hydrogen gas for a month. Because of weak embrittlement for the as-received carbon (ferrite and pearlite), hydrogen embrittlement is caused by the high internal strain and high dislocation density. The hydrogen embrittlement for carbon steel is attributed to amount of the hydrogen immersed in-between grain boundaries, which is caused by the dislocation density and internal strain.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, hot stamping process, carbon steel, mechanical property

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814 Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua


Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.

Keywords: alternative fuels, hydrogen, methanol, performance, spark ignition engines

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813 Feasibility Studies on the Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Using Agro-Based Waste Materials

Authors: G. Anusha, J. Raja Murugadoss


In recent years, the problem of water contaminant is drastically increasing due to the disposal of industrial wastewater containing iron, fluoride, mercury, lead, cadmium, phosphorus, silver etc. into water bodies. The non-biodegradable heavy metals could accumulate in the human system through food chain and cause various dreadful diseases and permanent disabilities and in worst cases it leads to casual losses. Further, the presence of the excess quantity of such heavy metals viz. Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel, Zinc, Copper, Iron etc. seriously affect the natural quality of potable water and necessitates the treatment process for removal. Though there are dozens of standard procedures available for the removal of heavy metals, their cost keeps the industrialists away from adopting such technologies. In the present work, an attempt has been made to remove such contaminants particularly fluoride and to study the efficiency of the removal of fluoride by adsorption using a new agro-based materials namely Limonia acidissima and Emblica officinalis which is commonly referred as wood apple and gooseberry respectively. Accordingly a set of experiments has been conducted using batch and column processes, with the help of activated carbon prepared from the shell of wood apple and seeds of gooseberries. Experiments reveal that the adsorption capacity of the shell of wood apple is significant to yield promising solutions.

Keywords: adsorption, fluoride, agro-based waste materials, Limonia acidissima, Emblica officinalis

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812 Fluoride-Induced Stress and Its Association with Bone Developmental Pathway in Osteosarcoma Cells

Authors: Deepa Gandhi, Pravin K. Naoghare, Amit Bafana, Krishnamurthi Kannan, Saravanadevi Sivanesana


Oxidative stress is known to depreciate normal functioning of osteoblast cells. Present study reports oxidative/inflammatory signatures in fluoride exposed human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and its possible association with the genes involved in bone developmental pathway. Microarray analysis was performed to understand the possible molecular mechanisms of stress-mediated bone lose in HOS cells. Cells were chronically exposed with sub-lethal concentration of fluoride. Global gene expression is profiling revealed 34 up regulated and 2598 down-regulated genes, which were associated with several biological processes including bone development, osteoblast differentiation, stress response, inflammatory response, apoptosis, regulation of cell proliferation. Microarray data were further validated through qRT-PCR and western blot analyses using key representative genes. Based on these findings, it can be proposed that chronic exposure of fluoride may impair bone development via oxidative and inflammatory stress. The present finding also provides important biological clues, which will be helpful for the development of therapeutic targets against diseases related bone.

Keywords: bone, HOS cells, microarray, stress

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811 Green Hydrogen: Exploring Economic Viability and Alluring Business Scenarios

Authors: S. Sakthivel


Currently, the global economy is based on the hydrocarbon economy, which is referencing the global hydrocarbon industry. Problems of using these fossil fuels (like oil, NG, coal) are emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs) and price fluctuation, supply/distribution, etc. These challenges can be overcome by using clean energy as hydrogen. The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for hydrogen vehicles, alternative industrial feedstock, power generation, and energy storage, etc. Engineering consulting firms have a significant role in this ambition and green hydrogen value chain (i.e., integration of renewables, production, storage, and distribution to end-users). Typically, the cost of green hydrogen is a function of the price of electricity needed, the cost of the electrolyser, and the operating cost to run the system. This article focuses on economic viability and explores the alluring business scenarios globally. Break-even analysis was carried out for green hydrogen production and in order to evaluate and compare the impact of the electricity price on the production costs of green hydrogen and relate it to fossil fuel-based brown/grey/blue hydrogen costs. It indicates that the cost of green hydrogen production will fall drastically due to the declining costs of renewable electricity prices and along with the improvement and scaling up of electrolyser manufacturing. For instance, in a scenario where electricity prices are below US$ 40/MWh, green hydrogen cost is expected to reach cost competitiveness.

Keywords: green hydrogen, cost analysis, break-even analysis, renewables, electrolyzer

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810 The Effect of Immobilization Conditions on Hydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

Authors: A. W. Zularisam, Lakhveer Singh, Mimi Sakinah Abdul Munaim


In this study, the optimization of hydrogen production using polyethylene glycol (PEG) immobilized sludge was investigated in batch tests. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is used as a substrate that can act as a carbon source. Experiment focus on the effect of some important affecting factors on fermentative hydrogen production. Results showed that immobilized sludge demonstrated the maximum hydrogen production rate of 340 mL/L-POME/h under follow optimal condition: amount of biomass 10 mg VSS/ g bead, PEG concentration 10%, and cell age 24 h or 40 h. More importantly, immobilized sludge not only enhanced hydrogen production but can also tolerate the harsh environment and produce hydrogen at the wide ranges of pH. The present results indicate the potential of PEG-immobilized sludge for large-scale operations as well; these factors play an important role in stable and continuous hydrogen production.

Keywords: bioydrogen, immobilization, polyethylene glycol, palm oil mill effluent, dark fermentation

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809 Study on Pressurized Reforming System for the Application of Hydrogen Permeable Membrane Applying to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Kwangho Lee, Joongmyeon Bae


Fuel cells are spotlighted in the world for being highly efficient and environmentally friendly. A hydrogen fuel for a fuel cell is obtained from a number of sources. Most of fuel cell for APU(Auxiliary power unit) system using diesel fuel as a hydrogen source. Diesel fuel has many advantages, such as high hydrogen storage density, easy to transport and also well-infra structure. However, conventional diesel reforming system for PEMFC(Proton exchange membrane fuel cell) requires a large volume and complex CO removal system for the lower the CO level to less than 10ppm. In addition, the PROX(Preferential Oxidation) reaction cooling load is needed because of the strong exothermic reaction. However, the hydrogen separation membrane that we propose can be eliminated many disadvantages, because the volume is small and permeates only pure hydrogen. In this study, we were conducted to the pressurized diesel reforming and water-gas shift reaction experiment for the hydrogen permeable membrane application.

Keywords: hydrogen, diesel, reforming, ATR, WGS, PROX, membrane, pressure

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