Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3057

Search results for: vortex induced vibration

3057 Primary Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to a Plane Boundary

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong


The primary resonance of a pipeline close to a plane boundary is investigated in this paper. Based on classic Van der Pol equation and added a nonlinear item, a new wake oscillator model is proposed to predict the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder close to a plane boundary. Then, with the multi-scale method, the approximate solution for the case of the primary resonance is obtained. Besides, to study the characteristic of the primary resonance, the effects of the mass ration, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio on the frequency-response curves of the pipeline are analysed. On the whole, the trend of the numerical results match up with that of the experimental data well and the mass ration, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio play an important role in the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder close to a plane boundary, especially, the smaller is the mass ratio, the larger impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the primary resonance.

Keywords: primary resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3056 Third Super-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong


The third super-harmonic resonance of a pipeline close to the seabed is investigated in this paper. To analyse the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the pipeline close to the seabed, the classic Van der Pol equation is extended with a nonlinear item. Then, on the base of the multi-scale method, the frequency-response curves of the pipeline with regard to the third super-harmonic resonance are studied with a series of parameters, such as the mass ratio, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio. On the whole, the numerical results show that the characters of third super-harmonic resonance are quite from that of primary resonance, though with the same trend that the larger is the mass ratio, the smaller impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the third super-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: the third super-harmonic resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
3055 Investigation of Vortex Induced Vibration and Galloping Characteristic for Various Shape Slender Bridge Hanger

Authors: Matza Gusto Andika, Syariefatunnisa


Hanger at the arch bridges is an important part to transfer load on the bridge deck onto the arch. Bridges are subjected to several types of loadings, such as dead load, temperature load, wind load, moving loads etc. Usually the hanger bridge has a typical bluff body shape such as circle, square, H beam, etc. When flow past bluff body, the flow separates from the body surface generating an unsteady broad wake. These vortices are shed to the wake periodically with some frequency that is related to the undisturbed wind speed and the size of the cross-section body by the well-known Strouhal relationship. The dynamic characteristic and hanger shape are crucial for the evaluation of vortex induced vibrations and structural vibrations. The effect of vortex induced vibration is not catastrophic as a flutter phenomenon, but it can make fatigue failure to the structure. Wind tunnel tests are conducted to investigate the VIV and galloping effect at circle, hexagonal, and H beam bluff body for hanger bridge. From this research, the hanger bridge with hexagonal shape has a minimum vibration amplitude due to VIV phenomenon compared to circle and H beam. However, when the wind bruises the acute angle of hexagon shape, the vibration amplitude of bridge hanger with hexagonal shape is higher than the other bluff body.

Keywords: vortex induced vibration, hanger bridge, wind tunnel, galloping

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3054 Analysis of Vortex-Induced Vibration Characteristics for a Three-Dimensional Flexible Tube

Authors: Zhipeng Feng, Huanhuan Qi, Pingchuan Shen, Fenggang Zang, Yixiong Zhang


Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibration of a three-dimensional flexible tube under uniform turbulent flow are calculated when Reynolds number is 1.35×104. In order to achieve the vortex-induced vibration, the three-dimensional unsteady, viscous, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model are solved with the finite volume approach, the tube is discretized according to the finite element theory, and its dynamic equilibrium equations are solved by the Newmark method. The fluid-tube interaction is realized by utilizing the diffusion-based smooth dynamic mesh method. Considering the vortex-induced vibration system, the variety trends of lift coefficient, drag coefficient, displacement, vertex shedding frequency, phase difference angle of tube are analyzed under different frequency ratios. The nonlinear phenomena of locked-in, phase-switch are captured successfully. Meanwhile, the limit cycle and bifurcation of lift coefficient and displacement are analyzed by using trajectory, phase portrait, and Poincaré sections. The results reveal that: when drag coefficient reaches its minimum value, the transverse amplitude reaches its maximum, and the “lock-in” begins simultaneously. In the range of lock-in, amplitude decreases gradually with increasing of frequency ratio. When lift coefficient reaches its minimum value, the phase difference undergoes a suddenly change from the “out-of-phase” to the “in-phase” mode.

Keywords: vortex induced vibration, limit cycle, LES, CFD, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
3053 Theoretical Calculation of Wingtip Devices for Agricultural Aircraft

Authors: Hashim Bashir


The Vortex generated at the edges of the wing of an Aircraft are called the Wing Tip Vortex. The Wing Tip Vortices are associated with induced drag. The induced drag is responsible for nearly 50% of aircraft total drag and can be reduced through modifications to the wing tip. Some models displace wingtips vortices outwards diminishing the induced drag. Concerning agricultural aircrafts, wing tip vortex position is really important, while spreading products over a plantation. In this work, theoretical calculations were made in order to study the influence in aerodynamic characteristics and vortex position, over Sudanese agricultural aircraft, by the following types of wing tips: delta tip, winglet and down curved. The down curved tip was better for total drag reduction, but not good referring to vortex position. The delta tip gave moderate improvement on aerodynamic characteristic and on vortex position. The winglet had a better vortex position and lift increment, but caused an undesirable result referring to the wing root bending moment. However, winglet showed better development potential for agricultural aircraft.

Keywords: wing tip device, wing tip vortice, agricultural aircaft, winglet

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
3052 Comparison of Wake Oscillator Models to Predict Vortex-Induced Vibration of Tall Chimneys

Authors: Saba Rahman, Arvind K. Jain, S. D. Bharti, T. K. Datta


The present study compares the semi-empirical wake-oscillator models that are used to predict vortex-induced vibration of structures. These models include those proposed by Facchinetti, Farshidian, and Dolatabadi, and Skop and Griffin. These models combine a wake oscillator model resembling the Van der Pol oscillator model and a single degree of freedom oscillation model. In order to use these models for estimating the top displacement of chimneys, the first mode vibration of the chimneys is only considered. The modal equation of the chimney constitutes the single degree of freedom model (SDOF). The equations of the wake oscillator model and the SDOF are simultaneously solved using an iterative procedure. The empirical parameters used in the wake-oscillator models are estimated using a newly developed approach, and response is compared with experimental data, which appeared comparable. For carrying out the iterative solution, the ode solver of MATLAB is used. To carry out the comparative study, a tall concrete chimney of height 210m has been chosen with the base diameter as 28m, top diameter as 20m, and thickness as 0.3m. The responses of the chimney are also determined using the linear model proposed by E. Simiu and the deterministic model given in Eurocode. It is observed from the comparative study that the responses predicted by the Facchinetti model and the model proposed by Skop and Griffin are nearly the same, while the model proposed by Fashidian and Dolatabadi predicts a higher response. The linear model without considering the aero-elastic phenomenon provides a less response as compared to the non-linear models. Further, for large damping, the prediction of the response by the Euro code is relatively well compared to those of non-linear models.

Keywords: chimney, deterministic model, van der pol, vortex-induced vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
3051 Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Two Cylinders in Close Proximity

Authors: Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


The phenomenon of vortex-induced vibration has applications in off-shore industry, power transmission, energy extraction, etc. Two cylinders in crossflow whose centers are displaced in transverse direction are considered in the present work. The effects of the gap distance between the cylinders on the vortex shedding are presented. The inline distance between the cylinder centers is kept at zero. Two setups are considered for the study: first, we assume the two cylinders vibrate as a single rigid body mounted on a spring, and in the other case, each cylinder is mounted on a separate spring with no rigid connection to the other cylinder. The study focuses on the effect of transverse gap on the fluid-structure coupled response of two setups mentioned and corresponding flow contours. Incompressible flow is assumed in the Eulerian framework. The cylinder movement is modeled by a single degree of freedom rigid body motion (translational motion) in the Lagrangian framework. The governing equations were numerically solved by standard Petrov-Galerkin second order finite element schemes.

Keywords: cross-flow, vortex-induced vibrations, cylinder, close proximity

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
3050 Flow-Induced Vibration Marine Current Energy Harvesting Using a Symmetrical Balanced Pair of Pivoted Cylinders

Authors: Brad Stappenbelt


The phenomenon of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) for elastically restrained cylindrical structures in cross-flows is relatively well investigated. The utility of this mechanism in harvesting energy from marine current and tidal flows is however arguably still in its infancy. With relatively few moving components, a flow-induced vibration-based energy conversion device augers low complexity compared to the commonly employed turbine design. Despite the interest in this concept, a practical device has yet to emerge. It is desirable for optimal system performance to design for a very low mass or mass moment of inertia ratio. The device operating range, in particular, is maximized below the vortex-induced vibration critical point where an infinite resonant response region is realized. An unfortunate consequence of this requirement is large buoyancy forces that need to be mitigated by gravity-based, suction-caisson or anchor mooring systems. The focus of this paper is the testing of a novel VIV marine current energy harvesting configuration that utilizes a symmetrical and balanced pair of horizontal pivoted cylinders. The results of several years of experimental investigation, utilizing the University of Wollongong fluid mechanics laboratory towing tank, are analyzed and presented. A reduced velocity test range of 0 to 60 was covered across a large array of device configurations. In particular, power take-off damping ratios spanning from 0.044 to critical damping were examined in order to determine the optimal conditions and hence the maximum device energy conversion efficiency. The experiments conducted revealed acceptable energy conversion efficiencies of around 16% and desirable low flow-speed operating ranges when compared to traditional turbine technology. The potentially out-of-phase spanwise VIV cells on each arm of the device synchronized naturally as no decrease in amplitude response and comparable energy conversion efficiencies to the single cylinder arrangement were observed. In addition to the spatial design benefits related to the horizontal device orientation, the main advantage demonstrated by the current symmetrical horizontal configuration is to allow large velocity range resonant response conditions without the excessive buoyancy. The novel configuration proposed shows clear promise in overcoming many of the practical implementation issues related to flow-induced vibration marine current energy harvesting.

Keywords: flow-induced vibration, vortex-induced vibration, energy harvesting, tidal energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3049 Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Yuanhao Gao


In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.

Keywords: vortex-induced vibrations, marine pipeline, seabed, sub-harmonic resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
3048 On the Effects of External Cross-Flow Excitation Forces on the Vortex-Induced-Vibrations of an Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


Vortex induced vibrations can significantly affect the effectiveness of structures in aerospace as well as offshore marine industries. The oscillatory nature of the forces resulting from the vortex shedding around bluff bodies can result in undesirable effects such as increased loading, stresses, deflections, vibrations and noise in the structures, and also reduced fatigue life of the structures. To date, most studies concentrate on either the free oscillations or the prescribed motion of the bluff bodies. However, the structures in operation are usually subject to the external oscillatory forces (e.g. due to the platform motions in offshore industries). In this work, we present the effects of the external cross-flow forces on the vortex-induced vibrations of an oscillating cylinder. The effects of the amplitude, as well as the frequency of the external force on the fluid-forces on the oscillating cylinder are carefully studied and presented. Moreover, we present the transition of the response to be dominated by the vortex-induced-vibrations to the range where it is mostly dictated by the external oscillatory forces. Furthermore, we will discuss how the external forces can affect the flow structures around a cylinder. All results are compared against free oscillations of the cylinder.

Keywords: circular cylinder, external force, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3047 Aerodynamics and Aeroelastics Studies of Hanger Bridge with H-Beam Profile Using Wind Tunnel

Authors: Matza Gusto Andika, Malinda Sabrina, Syarie Fatunnisa


Aerodynamic and aeroelastics studies on the hanger bridge profile are important to analyze the aerodynamic phenomenon and Aeroelastics stability of hanger. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a model of H-beam profile from hanger bridge. The purpose of this study is to investigate steady aerodynamic characteristics such as lift coefficient (Cl), drag coefficient (Cd), and moment coefficient (Cm) under the different angle of attack for preliminary prediction of aeroelastics stability problems. After investigation the steady aerodynamics characteristics from the model, dynamic testing is also conducted in wind tunnel to know the aeroelastics phenomenon which occurs at the H-beam hanger bridge profile. The studies show that the torsional vortex induced vibration occur when the wind speed is 7.32 m/s until 9.19 m/s with maximum amplitude occur when the wind speed is 8.41 m/s. The result of wind tunnel testing is matching to hanger vibration where occur in the field, so wind tunnel studies has successful to model the problem. In order that the H-beam profile is not good enough for the hanger bridge and need to be modified to minimize the Aeroelastics problem. The modification can be done with structure dynamics modification or aerodynamics modification.

Keywords: aerodynamics, aeroelastic, hanger bridge, h-beam profile, vortex induced vibration, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
3046 On the Effects of the Frequency and Amplitude of Sinusoidal External Cross-Flow Excitation Forces on the Vortex-Induced-Vibrations of an Oscillating Cylinder

Authors: Abouzar Kaboudian, Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


Vortex induced vibrations can significantly affect the effectiveness of structures in aerospace as well as offshore marine industries. The oscillatory nature of the forces resulting from the vortex shedding around bluff bodies can result in undesirable effects such as increased loading, stresses, deflections, vibrations and noise in the structures, and also reduced fatigue life of the structures. To date, most studies concentrate on either the free oscillations or the prescribed motion of the bluff bodies. However, the structures in operation are usually subject to the external oscillatory forces (e.g. due to the platform motions in offshore industries). Periodic forces can be considered as a combinations of sinusoids. In this work, we present the effects of sinusoidal external cross-flow forces on the vortex-induced vibrations of an oscillating cylinder. The effects of the amplitude, as well as the frequency of these sinusoidal external force on the fluid-forces on the oscillating cylinder are carefully studied and presented. Moreover, we present the transition of the response to be dominated by the vortex-induced-vibrations to the range where it is mostly dictated by the external oscillatory forces. Furthermore, we will discuss how the external forces can affect the flow structures around a cylinder. All results are compared against free oscillations of the cylinder.

Keywords: circular cylinder, external force, vortex-shedding, VIV

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
3045 The Reliability Analysis of Concrete Chimneys Due to Random Vortex Shedding

Authors: Saba Rahman, Arvind K. Jain, S. D. Bharti, T. K. Datta


Chimneys are generally tall and slender structures with circular cross-sections, due to which they are highly prone to wind forces. Wind exerts pressure on the wall of the chimneys, which produces unwanted forces. Vortex-induced oscillation is one of such excitations which can lead to the failure of the chimneys. Therefore, vortex-induced oscillation of chimneys is of great concern to researchers and practitioners since many failures of chimneys due to vortex shedding have occurred in the past. As a consequence, extensive research has taken place on the subject over decades. Many laboratory experiments have been performed to verify the theoretical models proposed to predict vortex-induced forces, including aero-elastic effects. Comparatively, very few proto-type measurement data have been recorded to verify the proposed theoretical models. Because of this reason, the theoretical models developed with the help of experimental laboratory data are utilized for analyzing the chimneys for vortex-induced forces. This calls for reliability analysis of the predictions of the responses of the chimneys produced due to vortex shedding phenomena. Although several works of literature exist on the vortex-induced oscillation of chimneys, including code provisions, the reliability analysis of chimneys against failure caused due to vortex shedding is scanty. In the present study, the reliability analysis of chimneys against vortex shedding failure is presented, assuming the uncertainty in vortex shedding phenomena to be significantly more than other uncertainties, and hence, the latter is ignored. The vortex shedding is modeled as a stationary random process and is represented by a power spectral density function (PSDF). It is assumed that the vortex shedding forces are perfectly correlated and act over the top one-third height of the chimney. The PSDF of the tip displacement of the chimney is obtained by performing a frequency domain spectral analysis using a matrix approach. For this purpose, both chimney and random wind forces are discretized over a number of points along with the height of the chimney. The method of analysis duly accounts for the aero-elastic effects. The double barrier threshold crossing level, as proposed by Vanmarcke, is used for determining the probability of crossing different threshold levels of the tip displacement of the chimney. Assuming the annual distribution of the mean wind velocity to be a Gumbel type-I distribution, the fragility curve denoting the variation of the annual probability of threshold crossing against different threshold levels of the tip displacement of the chimney is determined. The reliability estimate is derived from the fragility curve. A 210m tall concrete chimney with a base diameter of 35m, top diameter as 21m, and thickness as 0.3m has been taken as an illustrative example. The terrain condition is assumed to be that corresponding to the city center. The expression for the PSDF of the vortex shedding force is taken to be used by Vickery and Basu. The results of the study show that the threshold crossing reliability of the tip displacement of the chimney is significantly influenced by the assumed structural damping and the Gumbel distribution parameters. Further, the aero-elastic effect influences the reliability estimate to a great extent for small structural damping.

Keywords: chimney, fragility curve, reliability analysis, vortex-induced vibration

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3044 Effects of Viscous and Pressure Forces in Vortex and Wake Induced Vibrations

Authors: Ravi Chaithanya Mysa, Abouzar Kaboudian, Boo Cheong Khoo, Rajeev Kumar Jaiman


Cross-flow vortex-induced vibrations of a circular cylinder are compared with the wake-induced oscillations of the downstream cylinder of a tandem cylinder arrangement. It is known that the synchronization of the frequency of vortex shedding with the natural frequency of the structure leads to large amplitude motions. In the case of tandem cylinders, the large amplitudes of the downstream cylinder found are compared to single cylinder setup. In this work, in the tandem arrangement, the upstream cylinder is fixed and the downstream cylinder is free to oscillate in transverse direction. We show that the wake from the upstream cylinder interacts with the downstream cylinder which influences the response of the coupled system. Extensive numerical experiments have been performed on single cylinder as well as tandem cylinder arrangements in cross-flow. Here, the wake interactions in connection to the forces generated are systematically studied. The ratio of the viscous loads to the pressure loads is found to play a major role in the displacement response of the single and tandem cylinder arrangements, as the viscous forces dissipate the energy.

Keywords: circular cylinder, vortex-shedding, VIV, wake-induced, vibrations

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3043 Numerical Approach for Characterization of Flow Field in Pump Intake Using Two Phase Model: Detached Eddy Simulation

Authors: Rahul Paliwal, Gulshan Maheshwari, Anant S. Jhaveri, Channamallikarjun S. Mathpati


Large pumping facility is the necessary requirement of the cooling water systems for power plants, process and manufacturing facilities, flood control and water or waste water treatment plant. With a large capacity of few hundred to 50,000 m3/hr, cares must be taken to ensure the uniform flow to the pump to limit vibration, flow induced cavitation and performance problems due to formation of air entrained vortex and swirl flow. Successful prediction of these phenomena requires numerical method and turbulence model to characterize the dynamics of these flows. In the past years, single phase shear stress transport (SST) Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes Models (like k-ε, k-ω and RSM) were used to predict the behavior of flow. Literature study showed that two phase model will be more accurate over single phase model. In this paper, a 3D geometries simulated using detached eddy simulation (LES) is used to predict the behavior of the fluid and the results are compared with experimental results. Effect of different grid structure and boundary condition is also studied. It is observed that two phase flow model can more accurately predict the mean flow and turbulence statistics compared to the steady SST model. These validate model will be used for further analysis of vortex structure in lab scale model to generate their frequency-plot and intensity at different location in the set-up. This study will help in minimizing the ill effect of vortex on pump performance.

Keywords: grid structure, pump intake, simulation, vibration, vortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
3042 3D Model of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of Inclined Cable

Authors: Viet-Hung Truong, Seung-Eock Kim


Rain–wind induced vibration of inclined cable is a special aerodynamic phenomenon because it is easily influenced by many factors, especially the distribution of rivulet and wind velocity. This paper proposes a new 3D model of inclined cable, based on single degree-of-freedom model. Aerodynamic forces are firstly established and verified with the existing results from a 2D model. The 3D model of inclined cable is developed. The 3D model is then applied to assess the effects of wind velocity distribution and the continuity of rivulets on the cable. Finally, an inclined cable model with small sag is investigated.

Keywords: 3D model, rain - wind induced vibration, rivulet, analytical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
3041 Numerical Study of a Butterfly Valve for Vibration Analysis and Reduction

Authors: Malik I. Al-Amayreh, Mohammad I. Kilani, Ahmed S. Al-Salaymeh


This works presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a butterfly valve used to control the flow of combustible gas mixture in an industrial process setting. The work uses CFD simulation to analyze the flow characteristics in the vicinity of the valve, including the velocity distributions, streamlines and path lines. Frequency spectrum of the pressure pulsations downstream the valves, and the vortex shedding allow predicting the torque fluctuations acting on the valve shaft and the possibility of generating mechanical vibration and resonance. These fluctuations are due to aerodynamic torque resulting from fluid turbulence and vortex shedding in the valve vicinity. The valve analyzed is located in a pipeline between two opposing 90o elbows, which exposes the valve and the surrounding structure to the turbulence generated upstream and downstream the elbows at either end of the pipe. CFD simulations show that the best location for the valve from a vibration point of view is in the middle of the pipe joining the elbows.

Keywords: butterfly valve vibration analysis, computational fluid dynamics, fluid flow circuit design, fluctuation

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3040 Unsteady Characteristics Investigation on the Precessing Vortex Breakdown and Energy Separation in a Vortex Tube

Authors: Xiangji Guo, Bo Zhang


In this paper, the phenomenon of vortex breakdown in a vortex tube was analyzed within the scope of unsteady character in swirl flows. A 3-D Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) closed by the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) was adopted to simulate the large-scale vortex structure in vortex tube, and the numerical model was verified by the steady results. The swirl number was calculated for the vortex tube and the flow field was classed as strong swirl flow. According to the results, a time-dependent spiral flow field gyrates around a central recirculation zone which is precessing around the axis of the tube, and manifests the flow structure is the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown. The vortex breakdown is crucial for the formation of the central recirculation zone (CRZ), a further discussion was about the affection on CRZ with the different external conditions of vortex tube, the study on the unsteady characters was expected to hope to design of vortex tube and analyze the energy separation effect.

Keywords: vortex tube, vortex breakdown, central recirculation zone, unsteady, energy separation

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3039 Investigation and Analysis of Vortex-Induced Vibrations in Sliding Gate Valves Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Kianoosh Ahadi, Mustafa Ergil


In this study, the event of vibrations caused by vortexes and the distribution of induced hydrodynamic forces due to vortexes on the sliding gate valves has been investigated. For this reason, a sliding valve with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software was simulated in Two-dimensional )2D(, where the flow and turbulence equations were solved for three different valve openings (full, half, and 16.7 %) models. The variety of vortexes formed within the vicinity of the valve structure was investigated based on time where the trend of fluctuations and their occurrence regions have been detected. From the gathered solution dataset of the numerical simulations, the pressure coefficient (CP), the lift force coefficient (CL), the drag force coefficient (CD) and the momentum coefficient due to hydrodynamic forces (CM) were examined and relevant figures were generated were from these results, the vortex-induced vibrations were analyzed.

Keywords: vortexes, turbulence, computational fluid dynamic, induced vibrations

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3038 Energy Separation Mechanism in Uni-Flow Vortex Tube Using Compressible Vortex Flow

Authors: Hiroshi Katanoda, Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof


A theoretical investigation from the viewpoint of gas-dynamics and thermodynamics was carried out, in order to clarify the energy separation mechanism in a viscous compressible vortex, as a primary flow element in a uni-flow vortex tube. The mathematical solutions of tangential velocity, density and temperature in a viscous compressible vortical flow were used in this study. It is clear that a total temperature in the vortex core falls well below that distant from the vortex core in the radial direction, causing a region with higher total temperature, compared to the distant region, peripheral to the vortex core.

Keywords: energy separation mechanism, theoretical analysis, vortex tube, vortical flow

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3037 LES Investigation of the Natural Vortex Length in a Small-Scale Gas Cyclone

Authors: Dzmitry Misiulia, Sergiy Antonyuk


Small-scale cyclone separators are widely used in aerosol sampling. The flow field in a cyclone sampler is very complex, especially the vortex behavior. Most of the existing models for calculating cyclone efficiency use the same stable vortex structure while the vortex demonstrates dynamic variations rather than the steady-state picture. It can spontaneously ‘end’ at some point within the body of the separator. Natural vortex length is one of the most critical issues when designing and operating gas cyclones and is crucial to proper cyclone performance. The particle transport along the wall to the grid pot is not effective beyond this point. The flow field and vortex behavior inside the aerosol sampler have been investigated for a wide range of Reynolds numbers using Large Eddy Simulations. Two characteristics types of vortex behavior have been found with simulations. At low flow rates the vortex created in the cyclone dissipates in free space (without attaching to a surface) while at higher flow rates it attaches to the cyclone wall. The effects of the Reynolds number on the natural vortex length and the rotation frequency of the end of the vortex have been revealed.

Keywords: cyclone, flow field, natural vortex length, pressure drop

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3036 A Case Study of Control of Blast-Induced Ground Vibration on Adjacent Structures

Authors: H. Mahdavinezhad, M. Labbaf, H. R. Tavakoli


In recent decades, the study and control of the destructive effects of explosive vibration in construction projects has received more attention, and several experimental equations in the field of vibration prediction as well as allowable vibration limit for various structures are presented. Researchers have developed a number of experimental equations to estimate the peak particle velocity (PPV), in which the experimental constants must be obtained at the site of the explosion by fitting the data from experimental explosions. In this study, the most important of these equations was evaluated for strong massive conglomerates around Dez Dam by collecting data on explosions, including 30 particle velocities, 27 displacements, 27 vibration frequencies and 27 acceleration of earth vibration at different distances; they were recorded in the form of two types of detonation systems, NUNEL and electric. Analysis showed that the data from the explosion had the best correlation with the cube root of the explosive, R2=0.8636, but overall the correlation coefficients are not much different. To estimate the vibration in this project, data regression was performed in the other formats, which resulted in the presentation of new equation with R2=0.904 correlation coefficient. Finally according to the importance of the studied structures in order to ensure maximum non damage to adjacent structures for each diagram, a range of application was defined so that for distances 0 to 70 meters from blast site, exponent n=0.33 and for distances more than 70 m, n =0.66 was suggested.

Keywords: blasting, blast-induced vibration, empirical equations, PPV, tunnel

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3035 Numerical Investigation of Two Turbulence Models for Predicting the Temperature Separation in Conical Vortex Tube

Authors: M. Guen


A three-dimensional numerical study is used to analyze the behavior of the flow inside a vortex tube. The vortex tube or Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a simple device which is capable of dividing compressed air from the inlet nozzle tangentially into two flow with different temperatures warm and cold. This phenomenon is known from literature by temperature separation. The K ω-SST and K-ε turbulence models are used to predict the turbulent flow behaviour inside the tube. The vortex tube is an Exair 708 slpm (25 scfm) commercial tube. The cold and hot exits areas are 30.2 and 95 mm2 respectively. The vortex nozzle consists of 6 straight slots; the height and the width of each slot are 0.97 mm and 1.41 mm. The total area normal to the flow associated with six nozzles is therefore 8.15 mm 2. The present study focuses on a comparison between two turbulence models K ω-SST, K-ε by using a new configuration of vortex tube (Conical Vortex Tube). The performance curves of the temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction were calculated and compared with experimental and numerical study of other researchers.

Keywords: conical vortex tube, temperature separation, cold mass fraction, turbulence

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
3034 An Experimental Study of Downstream Structures on the Flow-Induced Vibrations Energy Harvester Performances

Authors: Pakorn Uttayopas, Chawalit Kittichaikarn


This paper presents an experimental investigation for the characteristics of an energy harvesting device exploiting flow-induced vibration in a wind tunnel. A stationary bluff body is connected with a downstream tip body via an aluminium cantilever beam. Various lengths of aluminium cantilever beam and different shapes of downstream tip body are considered. The results show that the characteristics of the energy harvester’s vibration depend on both the length of the aluminium cantilever beam and the shape of the downstream tip body. The highest ratio between vibration amplitude and bluff body diameter was found to be 1.39 for an energy harvester with a symmetrical triangular tip body and L/D1 = 5 at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077). Using this configuration, the electrical energy was extracted with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam with different load resistances, of which the optimal value could be found on each Reynolds number. The highest power output was found to be 3.19 µW, at 9.8 m/s of flow speed (Re = 20077) and 27 MΩ of load resistance.

Keywords: downstream structures, energy harvesting, flow-induced vibration, piezoelectric material, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
3033 Torque Loss Prediction Test Method of Bolted Joints in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Authors: Volkan Ayik


Loosening as a result of torque loss in bolted joints is one of the most encountered problems resulting in loss of connection between parts. The main reason for this is the dynamic loads to which the joints are subjected while the vehicle is moving. In particular, vibration-induced loads can loosen the joints in any size and geometry. The aim of this study is to study an improved method due to road-induced vibration in heavy commercial vehicles for estimating the vibration performance of bolted joints of the components connected to the chassis, before conducting prototype level vehicle structural strength tests on a proving ground. The frequency and displacements caused by the road conditions-induced vibration loads have been determined for the parts connected to the chassis, and various experimental design scenarios have been formed by matching specific components and vibration behaviors. In the studies, the performance of the torque, washer, test displacement, and test frequency parameters were observed by maintaining the connection characteristics on the vehicle, and the sensitivity ratios for these variables were calculated. As a result of these experimental design findings, tests performed on a developed device based on Junker’s vibration device and proving ground conditions versus test correlation levels were found.

Keywords: bolted joints, junker’s test, loosening failure, torque loss

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3032 Contributions at the Define of the Vortex Plane Cyclic Motion

Authors: Petre Stan, Marinica Stan


In this paper, a new way to define the vortex plane cyclic motion is exposed, starting from the physical cause of reacting the vortex. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in cylindrical coordinates for viscous fluids in laminar motion, and are integrated in case of a infinite long revolving cylinder which rotates around a pintle in a viscous fluid that occupies the entire space up to infinite. In this way, a revolving field of velocities in fluid is obtained, having the shape of a vortex in which the intensity is obtained objectively, being given by the physical phenomenon that generates this vortex.

Keywords: cylindrical coordinates, Navier-Stokes equations, viscous fluid, vortex plane

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3031 Flow Reproduction Using Vortex Particle Methods for Wake Buffeting Analysis of Bluff Structures

Authors: Samir Chawdhury, Guido Morgenthal


The paper presents a novel extension of Vortex Particle Methods (VPM) where the study aims to reproduce a template simulation of complex flow field that is generated from impulsively started flow past an upstream bluff body at certain Reynolds number Re-Vibration of a structural system under upstream wake flow is often considered its governing design criteria. Therefore, the attention is given in this study especially for the reproduction of wake flow simulation. The basic methodology for the implementation of the flow reproduction requires the downstream velocity sampling from the template flow simulation; therefore, at particular distances from the upstream section the instantaneous velocity components are sampled using a series of square sampling-cells arranged vertically where each of the cell contains four velocity sampling points at its corner. Since the grid free Lagrangian VPM algorithm discretises vorticity on particle elements, the method requires transformation of the velocity components into vortex circulation, and finally the simulation of the reproduction of the template flow field by seeding these vortex circulations or particles into a free stream flow. It is noteworthy that the vortex particles have to be released into the free stream exactly at same rate of velocity sampling. Studies have been done, specifically, in terms of different sampling rates and velocity sampling positions to find their effects on flow reproduction quality. The quality assessments are mainly done, using a downstream flow monitoring profile, by comparing the characteristic wind flow profiles using several statistical turbulence measures. Additionally, the comparisons are performed using velocity time histories, snapshots of the flow fields, and the vibration of a downstream bluff section by performing wake buffeting analyses of the section under the original and reproduced wake flows. Convergence study is performed for the validation of the method. The study also describes the possibilities how to achieve flow reproductions with less computational effort.

Keywords: vortex particle method, wake flow, flow reproduction, wake buffeting analysis

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3030 Interaction between Unsteady Supersonic Jet and Vortex Rings

Authors: Kazumasa Kitazono, Hiroshi Fukuoka, Nao Kuniyoshi, Minoru Yaga, Eri Ueno, Naoaki Fukuda, Toshio Takiya


The unsteady supersonic jet formed by a shock tube with a small high-pressure chamber was used as a simple alternative model for pulsed laser ablation. Understanding the vortex ring formed by the shock wave is crucial in clarifying the behavior of unsteady supersonic jet discharged from an elliptical cell. Therefore, this study investigated the behavior of vortex rings and a jet. The experiment and numerical calculation were conducted using the schlieren method and by solving the axisymmetric two-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations, respectively. In both, the calculation and the experiment, laser ablation is conducted for a certain duration, followed by discharge through the exit. Moreover, a parametric study was performed to demonstrate the effect of pressure ratio on the interaction among vortex rings and the supersonic jet. The interaction between the supersonic jet and the vortex rings increased the velocity of the supersonic jet up to the magnitude of the velocity at the center of the vortex rings. The interaction between the vortex rings increased the velocity at the center of the vortex ring.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, shock-wave, unsteady jet, vortex ring

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3029 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime

Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela


Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of self-sustain flight when a big Airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in airliner’s wake vortex. The paper presents results of climb analysis with a goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliner’s cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Then, flight performance of the UAV in the wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between the airliner and the UAV during the climb is determined. The results are encouraging, therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.

Keywords: flight in formation, self-sustained flight, UAV, wake vortex

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3028 Effects of Humidity and Silica Sand Particles on Vibration Generation by Friction Materials of Automotive Brake System

Authors: Mostafa M. Makrahy, Nouby M. Ghazaly, G. T. Abd el-Jaber


This paper presents the experimental study of vibration generated by friction materials of an automotive disc brake system using brake test rig. Effects of silica sand particles which are available on the road surface as an environmental condition with a size varied from 150 μm to 600 μm are evaluated. Also, the vibration of the brake disc is examined against the friction material in humidity environment conditions under variable rotational speed. The experimental results showed that the silica sand particles have significant contribution on the value of vibration amplitude which enhances with increasing the size of silica sand particles at different speed conditions. Also, it is noticed that the friction material is sensitive to humidity and the vibration magnitude increases under wet testing conditions. Moreover, it can be reported that with increasing the applied pressure and rotational speed of the braking system, the vibration amplitudes decrease for all cases.

Keywords: disc brake vibration, friction-induced vibration, silica sand particles, brake operational and environmental conditions

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