Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 502

Search results for: deficit financing

502 The Effect of Deficit Financing on Macro-Economic Variables in Nigeria (1970-2013)

Authors: Ezeoke Callistus Obiora, Ezeoke Nneka Angela

Abstract:

The study investigated the effect of deficit financing on macroeconomic variables in Nigeria. The specific objectives included to find out the relationship between deficit financing and GDP, interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate and private investment respectively on a time series covering a period of 44 years (1970 – 2013). The Ordinary Least Square multiple regression produced statistics for the coefficient of determination (R2), F-test, t-test used for the interpretation of the study. The findings revealed that Deficit financing has significant positive effect on GDP and exchange rate. Again, deficit financing has a positive and insignificant relationship inflation, money supply and investment. Only interest rate recorded negative yet insignificant relationship with deficit financing. The implications of the findings are that deficit financing can be a veritable tool for boosting economic development in Nigeria, but the influential positively rising exchange rate implies that deficit financing devalues the Naira exchange rate to other currencies indicating that deficit financing can affect Nigerians competitive advantage at the world market. Thus, the study concludes that deficit financing has not encouraged economic growth in Nigeria.

Keywords: deficit financing, money supply, exchange rate, inflation, GDP, investment, Nigeria

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501 Confusion on the Definition of Terrorism and Difficulty in Criminalizing Terrorist Financing

Authors: Hamed Tofangsaz

Abstract:

In the absence of an internationally agreed definition of terrorism, the question which needs to be posed is whether there is a clear and common understanding of what constitutes terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist groups, the financing of which needs to be stopped. That is, from a criminal law perspective, whether the Terrorist Financing Convention, as the backbone of the counter-terrorist financing regime, clarifies what types of conduct, by who, in what circumstances and when, against whom (targets or victims) and with what intention or motivation should be considered terrorism? It will be explained how and why it has been difficult to reach an agreement on the definition of terrorism. The endeavour of the drafters of the Terrorist Financing Convention and others involved in countering terrorist financing to establish a general definition of terrorism will be examined. The record of attempts to define the elements of terrorism proves that it is hardly possible to reach an agreement on a generic definition of terrorism because the concept of terrorism is elusive and subject to various understandings. Even the definition provided by the Terrorist Financing Convention, is not convincing. With regard to the findings, this paper calls for further research on the legal consequences of the implementation of the terrorist financing-counter measures while the scope of terrorism, terrorist acts and terrorist organizations have been left vague.

Keywords: terrorism, terrorist financing, crime, convention

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500 A Pilot Study on the Sensory Processing Difficulty Pattern Association between the Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Deficit Child

Authors: Sheng-Fen Fan, Sung-Hui Tseng

Abstract:

Attention deficit hyperactivity deficit (ADHD) child display diverse sensory processing difficulty behaviors. There is less evidence to figure out how the association between executive function and sensory deficit. To determine whether sensory deficit influence the executive functions, we examined sensory processing by SPM and try to indicate hot/cold executive function (EF) by BRIEF2, respectively. We found that the hot executive function deficit might associate with auditory processing in a variety of settings, and vestibular input to maintain balance and upright posture; the cold EF deficit might opposite to the hot EF deficit, the vestibular sensory modulation difficulty association with emotion shifting and emotional regulation. These results suggest that sensory processing might be another consideration factor to influence the higher cognitive control or emotional regulation of EF. Overall, this study indicates the distinction between hot and cold EF impairments with different sensory modulation problem. Moreover, for clinician, it needs more cautious consideration to conduct intervention with ADHD.

Keywords: hot executive function, cold executive function, sensory processing, ADHD

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499 Stability or Instabilty? Triplet Deficit Analysis In Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karaçor, Volkan Alptekin, Gökhan Akar, Tuba Akar

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This paper aims to review the phenomenon of triplet deficit which is called interaction of budget balance that make up the overall balance of the economy, investment savings balance and current accounts balance in terms of Turkey. In this paper, triplet deficit state in Turkish economy has been analyzed with vector autoregressive model and Granger causality test using data covering the period of 1980-2010. According to VAR results, increase in current accounts is perceived on public sector borrowing requirement. These two variables influence each other bilaterally. Therefore, current accounts increase public deficit, whereas public deficit increases current accounts. It is not possible to mention the existence of a short-term Granger causality between variables at issue.

Keywords: internal and external deficit, stability, triplet deficit, Turkey economy

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498 An Analysis of the Effect of Sharia Financing and Work Relation Founding towards Non-Performing Financing in Islamic Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Bahrul Ilmi

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of Islamic financing and work relation founding simultaneously and partially towards non-performing financing in Islamic banks. This research was regression quantitative field research, and had been done in Muammalat Indonesia Bank and Islamic Danamon Bank in 3 months. The populations of this research were 15 account officers of Muammalat Indonesia Bank and Islamic Danamon Bank in Surakarta, Indonesia. The techniques of collecting data used in this research were documentation, questionnaire, literary study and interview. Regression analysis result shows that Islamic financing and work relation founding simultaneously has positive and significant effect towards non performing financing of two Islamic Banks. It is obtained with probability value 0.003 which is less than 0.05 and F value 9.584. The analysis result of Islamic financing regression towards non performing financing shows the significant effect. It is supported by double linear regression analysis with probability value 0.001 which is less than 0.05. The regression analysis of work relation founding effect towards non-performing financing shows insignificant effect. This is shown in the double linear regression analysis with probability value 0.161 which is bigger than 0.05.

Keywords: Syariah financing, work relation founding, non-performing financing (NPF), Islamic Bank

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497 Owner/Managers’ External Financing Used and Preference towards Islamic Banking

Authors: Khalid Hassan Abdesamed, Kalsom Abd Wahab

Abstract:

Economic development and growth are significantly linked to the consistent and sustainable sector of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Banks are the frontrunners in financing and advising SMEs. The main objective of the study is to assess the tendency of SMEs to use the Islamic bank. Model was developed using quantitative method with a hypothetical-deductive testing approach. Model (N = 364) used primary data on the tendency of SMEs to use Islamic banks gathered from questionnaire. It is found by Mann-Whitney test that the tendency to use Islamic bank varies between those firms which consider formal financing with the ones relying on informal financing with the latter tends more to use Islamic bank. This study can serve academic researchers, policy makers, and developing countries as a model of SMEs’ desirability to Islamic banking.

Keywords: formal financing, informal financing, Islamic bank, SMEs

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496 WAQF Financing Using WAQF Sukuk in Iran

Authors: Meysam Doaei, Mojtaba Kavand

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WAQF as a part of Islamic social security system is developed in Islam. Traditional WAQF has some limitations which are resolved in WAQF Sukuk. In regard to acceptability of Islamic finance in the world, WAQF Sukuk also has been developing in Islamic countries. In this paper, concept of WAQF, traditional and modern WAQF financing are presented. Then, WAQF Sukuk, its application and its model in Iran are developed.

Keywords: Al-mawqūfat development, traditional financing, modern financing, WAQF Sukuk

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495 Islamic Banking and Finance in Theory and Practice: The Experience of Malaysia and Algeria

Authors: Zidane Abderrezaq

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This paper’s primary objective is to identify the relative importance of various Islamic financial products, in theory and in practice, by examining the financing records of the Bank Islam Malaysia (Berhad) and the Algeria Islamic Bank. Currently, seven available Islamic financing products are considered viable alternatives to interest-based conventional contracts: mudarabah (trust financing), musharakah (equity financing), ijarah (lease financing), murabahah (trade financing), qard al-hassan (welfare loan), bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil (deferred payment financing), and istisna` (progressive payments). Among these financial products, mudarabah and musharakah are the most distinct. Their unique characteristics (at least in theory) make Islamic banks and Islamic financing viable alternatives to the conventional interest-based financial system. The question before us is to determine the extent of mudarabah and musharakah in Islamic financing in practice. The data are as follows: the average mudarabah is 5% of total financing, and the average musharakah is less than 3%. The combined average of mudarabah and musharakah for the two Islamic banks is less than 4% of the total finance and advances. The average qard al-hassan is about 4%, while istisna` does not yet exist in practice. Murabahah is the most popular and dominates all other modes of Islamic financing. The average use of murabahah is over 54%. When the bay` bi al-thaman al-ajil is added to the murabahah, the percentage of total financing is shown to be 82.68%. This paper also explores some possible reasons why these two Islamic banks appear to prefer murabahah to mudarabah and musharakah.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Islamic banking rofitability, investment banking

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494 Glycine Betaine Affects Antioxidant Response and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Genotypes under Water-Deficit Conditions

Authors: S. K. Thind, Neha Gupta

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Glycine betaine (N, N’, N’’– trimethyl glycine), (GB) as aqueous solution (100 mM) containing 0.1% TWEEN-20 (Ploythylene glycol sorbitan monolaurate) was sprayed on selected nineteen wheat genotypes at maximum tillering and anthesis stages. Water-deficit conditions resulted in lipid peroxidation. GB applications reduced lipid peroxidation in all wheat genotypes at both the stages. Catalase (CAT) activity was recorded more in control than under stressed conditions in selected wheat genotypes at both the stages; GB had no effect. The ascorbic acid content in leaves of selected genotypes increased under water deficit. A genotypic variability in Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) activity was recorded and GB treatment decreased it. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased significantly under water-deficit at both stages in all genotypes. In present study, prolonged water-deficit conditions caused CAT deficiency/suppression which was compensated by APX and SOD; and GB exogenous application mitigated negative effect of water-deficit stress on lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: glycine-betaine, lipid peroxidation, ROS, water deficit stress

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493 Twin Deficits Hypothesis: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Mucuk, Ayşen Edirneligil

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Budget and current account deficits are main problems for all countries. There are different approaches about the relationship between budget deficit and current account deficit. While Keynesian view accepts that there is a casual link between these variables, Ricardian equivalence hypothesis rejects it. The aim of this study is to analyze the validity of Keynesian view for Turkish Economy using VAR analysis with the monthly data in the period of 2006-2014. In this context, it will be used Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse-Response Function and Variance Decomposition Tests.

Keywords: budget deficit, current account deficit, Turkish economy, twin deficits

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492 Influence Analysis of Profit Sharing Agreement and Financing Risk to Profitability in Islamic Bank of Indonesia

Authors: Irena Paramita Pramono

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Islamic bank is a financial industry with huge potential to grow in Indonesia. Profit-sharing agreement in the operations of Islamic banks distinguishes Islamic banks with conventional banks. Profit-sharing agreement allows sharing of benefits and risks between shahibul maal and mudharib in islamic bank. This study aimed to observe the patterns of influence between the risk-sharing agreement, financing risk and Profitability in Islamic banks. This research used several Islamic banks as sample and path analysis method. The empirical results of this research shows that the profit-sharing agreement in deposits structure has no direct significant effect to ROA, but it has indirect effect to ROA through profit-sharing financing. On the other hand, profit-sharing financing has direct and indirect influence to ROA through financing risk. This research shows that profit-sharing financing has a positive significant effect to the financing risk and also to the ROA. The research recommends Islamic banks to continue using and developing profit-sharing agreement in its operational activities, hence to create value.

Keywords: Islamic bank, profit-loss sharing agreement, financing risk, profitability

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491 Determining Factors Influencing the Total Funding in Islamic Banking of Indonesia

Authors: Euphrasia Susy Suhendra, Lies Handrijaningsih

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The banking sector as an intermediary party or intermediaries occupies a very important position in bridging the needs of working capital investment in the real sector with funds owner. This will certainly make money more effectively to improve the economic value added. As an intermediary, Islamic banks raise funds from the public and then distribute in the form of financing. In practice, the distribution of funding that is run by Islamic Banking is not as easy as, in theory, because, in fact, there are many financing problems; some are caused by lacking the assessment and supervision of banks to customers. This study aims to analyze the influence of the Third Party Funds, Return on Assets (ROA), Non Performing Financing (NPF), and Financing Deposit Ratio (FDR) to Total Financing provided to the Community by Islamic Banks in Indonesia. The data used is monthly data released by Bank of Indonesia in Islamic Banking Statistics in the time period of January 2009 - December 2013. This study uses cointegration test to see the long-term relationship, and use error correction models to examine the relationship of short-term. The results of this study indicate that the Third Party Fund has a short-term effect on total funding, Return on Assets has a long term effect on the total financing, Non Performing Financing has long-term effects of total financing, and Financing deposit ratio has the effect of short-term and long-term of the total financing provided by Islamic Banks in Indonesia.

Keywords: Islamic banking, third party fund, return on asset, non-performing financing, financing deposit ratio

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490 A Modified Diminishing Partnership for Home Financing

Authors: N. Yachou, R. Aboulaich

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Home is a basic necessity for human life, that why home financing takes a large chunk of people’s income. Therefore, Islamic and Conventional Banks try to offer new product in order to respond to customer needs related to home financing. Basing on this fact, we propose a Modified Diminishing Partnership model based on profit and loss sharing to reduce the duration of getting the full shares in the house property. Our proposition will be represented by the rental that customer has to give every month to the bank with redemption to increase his shares on the property of the house.

Keywords: home financing, interest rate, rental rate, modified diminishing partnership

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489 Implication of Attention Deficit and Task Avoidance on the Mathematics Performance of Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Matthew Bamidele Ojuawo

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To some parents, task avoidance implies the time when argument ensues between parents and their children in order to get certain things done correctly without being forced. However, some children avoid certain task because of the fears that it is too hard or cannot be done without parental help. Laziness plays a role in task avoidance when children do not want to do something because they do not feel like it is easy enough or if they just want their parent help them get it over with more quickly. Children with attention deficit disorder more often have difficulties with social skills, such as social interaction and forming and maintaining friendships. The focus of this study is how task avoidance and attention deficit have effect on the mathematics performance of pupils in the lower basic classroom. Mathematics performance of pupils with learning disabilities has been seriously low due to avoidance of task and attention deficit posed as carried out in the previous researches, but the research has not been carried out in the lower basic classroom in Oyo, Oyo state, Nigeria.

Keywords: task avoidance, parents, children with attention deficit, mathematics

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488 Terrorist Financing through Ilegal Fintech Hacking: Case Study of Rizki Gunawan

Authors: Ishna Indika Jusi, Rifana Meika

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Terrorism financing method in Indonesia is developing at an alarming rate, to the point, it is now becoming more complex than before. Terrorists traditionally use conventional methods like robberies, charities, and courier services to fund their activities; today terrorists are able to utilize modern methods in financing their activities due to the rapid development in financial technology nowadays; one example is by hacking an illegal Fintech Company. Therefore, this research is conducted in order to explain and analyze the consideration behind the usage of an illegal fintech company to finance terrorism activities and how to prevent it. The analysis in this research is done by using the theory that is coined by Michael Freeman about the reasoning of terrorists when choosing their financing method. The method used in this research is a case study, and the case that is used for this research is the terrorism financing hacking of speedline.com in 2011 by Rizki Gunawan. Research data are acquired from interviews with the perpetrators, experts from INTRAC (PPATK), Special Detachment 88, reports, and journals that are relevant to the research. As a result, this study found that the priority aspects in terms of terrorist financing are security, quantity, and simplicity while obtaining funds.

Keywords: Fintech, illegal, Indonesia, technology, terrorism financing

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487 A Strategy of Green Sukuk to Promote Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Indonesia

Authors: Amrial, Yuri Oktaviani, Ziyan Muhammad Farhan

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On the phase of shifting paradigm into sustainability, Indonesia is involved in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) project. That act is revealed by creating Medium and Long Term Roadmap for Sustainable Finance in Indonesia which collaborated design by Indonesia Financial Service Board (OJK) and Ministry of Environment and Forestry. One of alternative for that infrastructure financing is sharia-based financing, Green Sukuk (Sukuk specified on sustainable infrastructure project). Green Sukuk for infrastructure financing in Indonesia can be issued by the government in the form of Sukuk Project Financing. Moreover, banks in Indonesia can also participate for the issuance of Green Sukuk. So that the banks can create a financing for people who are concerned about environmental issues. By using qualitative methods and literature review, this paper aims to discuss potential, strategy and planning of Green Sukuk for financing sustainable infrastructure in the purpose of SDGs. This paper will benefit for government to give scientific discussion on the strategy of Green Sukuk in promoting sustainable goals infrastructure project in Indonesia.

Keywords: green sukuk, infrastructure, SDGs, sustainable

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486 Six Steps of Entrepreneurial Finance and Development, from Idea to Corporation Case of Kuwait

Authors: Andri Ottesen, Sam Toglaw, Mirna Safa

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Entrepreneurial companies on their developing path from an idea to a corporation go through a similar six-step process. Each of these six development steps is supported by a distinctive financing path. This paper explores the Kuwait model for Entrepreneurial Finance and Development through in-depth interviews with ten successful Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. This paper offers insight into the development and financing of entrepreneurial companies in this oil-rich, predominantly Islamic country that are in many ways different from the steps. Western entrepreneurial companies go through. This model could be used to understand the commonalities and the difference between entrepreneurial development and financing and could be used to bridge the gap.

Keywords: entrepreneurial-financing, entrepreneurial-developing, Kuwait, Vancouver school

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485 Financing Innovation: Differences across National Innovation Systems

Authors: Núria Arimany Serrat, Xavier Ferràs Hernández, Petra A. Nylund, Eric Viardot

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Innovation is an increasingly important antecedent to firm competitiveness and growth. Successful innovation, however, requires a significant financial commitment and the means of financing accessible to the firm may affect its ability to innovate. The access to equity financing such as venture capital has been connected to innovativeness for young firms. For established enterprises, debt financing of innovation may be a more realistic option. Continuous innovation and growth would otherwise require a constant increase of equity. We, therefore, investigate the relation between debt financing and innovation for large firms and hypothesize that those firms that carry more debt will be more innovative. The need for debt financing of innovation may be reduced for very profitable firms, which can finance innovation with cash flow. We thus hypothesize a moderating effect of profitability on the relationship between debt financing and innovation. We carry out an empirical investigation using a longitudinal data set including 167 large European firms over five years, resulting in 835 firm years. We apply generalized least squares (GLS) regression with fixed firm effects to control for firm heterogeneity. The findings support our hypotheses and we conclude that access to debt finding is an important antecedent of innovation, with profitability as a moderating factor. The results do however differ across national innovation systems and we find a strong relationship for British, Dutch, French, and Italian firms but not for German and Spanish entities. We discuss differences in the national systems of innovation and financing which contextualize the variations in the findings and thus make a nuanced contribution to the research in innovation financing. The cross-country differences calls for differentiated advice to managers, institutions, and researchers depending on the national context.

Keywords: innovation, R&D, national innovation systems, financing

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484 Disclosure of Financial Risk on Sharia Banks in Indonesia

Authors: Renny Wulandari

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This study aims to determine how the influence of Non Performing Financing, Financing Deposit Ratio, Operating Expenses and Operating Revenue and Net Income Margin on the disclosure of financial risk in Sharia banks. To achieve these objectives conducted associative research method with data source in the form of secondary data that is annual report data with period 2013-2016. The population in this study is the sharia banking industry in Indonesia and who issued the annual financial statements. A method of sampling use probability sampling. Analysis in this research is with SEM-PLS. The result is Net Income Margin has a significant effect on financial risk disclosure while Non Performing Financing (NPF) Financing to Deposit Ratio (FDR), Operating Expenses and Operating Revenue (OEOR) have no effect on the disclosure of financial risk in sharia bank.

Keywords: Sharia banks, disclosure of risk financial, non performing financing, financing deposit ratio, operating expenses and operating revenue, net income margin

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483 Revisiting the Impact of Oil Price on Trade Deficit of Pakistan: Evidence from Nonlinear Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag Model and Asymmetric Multipliers

Authors: Qaiser Munir, Hamid Hussain

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Oil prices are believed to have a major impact on several economic indicators, leading to several instances where a comparison between oil prices and a trade deficit of oil-importing countries have been carried out. Building upon the narrative, this paper sheds light on the ongoing debate by inquiring upon the possibility of asymmetric linkages between oil prices, industrial production, exchange rate, whole price index, and trade deficit. The analytical tool used to further understand the complexities of a recent approach called nonlinear auto-regressive distributed lag model (NARDL) is utilised. Our results suggest that there are significant asymmetric effects among the main variables of interest. Further, our findings indicate that any variation in oil prices, industrial production, exchange rate, and whole price index on trade deficit tend to fluctuate in the long run. Moreover, the long-run picture denotes that increased oil price leads to a negative impact on the trade deficit, which, in its true essence, is a disproportionate impact. In addition to this, the Wald test simultaneously conducted concludes the absence of any significant evidence of the asymmetry in the oil prices impact on the trade balance in the short-run.

Keywords: trade deficit, oil prices, developing economy, NARDL

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482 Comparison of Risk and Return on Trading and Profit Sharing Based Financing Contract in Indonesian Islamic Bank

Authors: Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum, Imron Mawardi, Achsania Hendratmi

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Murabaha is the most popular contract by the Islamic banks in Indonesia, since there is opinion stating that the risk level of mudharaba and musyaraka are higher and the return is uncertain. This research aims to analyze the difference of return, risk, and variation coefficient between profit sharing-based and trading-based financing in Islamic bank. This research uses quantitative approach using Wilcoxon signed rank test with data sampled from 13 Indonesian Islamic banks, collected from their quarterly financial reports from 2011 to 2015. The result shows the significant difference in return, while risk and variation coefficient are almost same. From the analysis, it can be concluded that profit sharing-based financing is less desirable not because of its risk. Trading-based financing is more desirable than the profit sharing because of its return.

Keywords: financing, Islamic bank, return, risk

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481 The Role of College Teachers’ in Identifying Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Students

Authors: Hargunjeet Shergill, Palwinder Singh

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The present paper analyzes the lack of teachers' awareness and knowledge regarding the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the college students. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder causes individuals to consistently display extreme inattention, impulsivity and in many cases hyperactivity as a result of the physiological differences of the brain. Teachers have a formative influence on their students and can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Despite the pervasiveness and salience of this disorder, educators at college continue to labor under a number of misconceptions about the nature of ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, it is imperative for teachers to have explicit knowledge about this disorder. ADHD in college students remains the most under-recognized and undertreated mental health condition. The overall aim of this study is to investigate teachers’ knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD with a particular focus on recognition, assessment and management of ADHD in adult college students. It designed to assess the college teachers' knowledge, opinions, and experience related to the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and by maintaining open lines of communication with the students and understanding some key elements that can affect students’ overall growth and ability. The discussion focuses on the value of the role of teachers and their relationship with each college student dealing with ADHD.

Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, development of ADHD, diagnostic criteria, role of teachers

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480 Anti-Money Laundering and Countering of Terrorist Financing: The Role of Domestic Financial Institutions to Prevent Money Laundering

Authors: Dinesh Sivaguru, Kamal Thilakasiri

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Preventing money laundering and terrorist financing is a major national and international problem today. Several attempts have been made to prevent money laundering by national and international dimension. These are often counteracted by the multi dynamic nature of the crimes. However, launders are often to use remittance systems to clean their ill-gotten money. This study presents the role of domestic financial institutions and the effective practices and actions should implement within domestic financial institutions to control and prevent financial crimes. This thesis highlights the progress that is required to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing, further it is an original contribution to the knowledge in an under researched field in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: money laundering, terrorists financing, financial institutions, regulatory bodies

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479 The Effect of Family Controlling Ownership on Financing Policy

Authors: Vera Diyanty, Akhmad Syahroza

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This research aims to describe an empirical evidence of the influence of family control on the company’s financing policy. Additionally, this research also shows the effect of leadership from family member and the effectiveness of the board of commissioners on companies’ financing policy. The result of this study found that family control through direct and indirect ownership mechanism have a positive impact on the choice of bank loan compare to public debt. Nevertheless, this research also shows that companies’ founders who become CEO and the effectiveness of board of commissioners do not prove to increase the alignment effect nor decrease the negative impact of entrenchment effect on the bank loan preference.

Keywords: family controlling, family CEO, board effectiveness, financing policy

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478 Contractual Risk Transfer in Islamic Home Financing: Analysis in Bank Malaysia

Authors: Ahmad Dahlan Salleh, Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani, Muhamad Firdaus M. Hatta

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Risk management has implications on pricing, governance arrangements, business practices and strategy. Nowadays, home financing contract offers more in the risk transfer form to increase bank profit. This is parallel with Islamic jurisprudence method al-Kharaj bi al-thaman (gain accompanies liability for loss) and al-ghurm bil ghunm (gain is justified with risk) that determine the matching between risk transfer and returns. Malaysian financing trend is to buy house. Besides, exists transparency lacking risk transfer issues to the clients because of not been informed clearly. Terms and conditions of each financing also do not reflect clearly that the risk has been transferred to the client, justifying a determination price been made. The assumption on risk occurrence is also inaccurate as each risk is different with the type of financing contract. This makes the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 in providing standards that transparent and consistent can be used by Islamic financial institution less effective. This study examines how far the level of the risk and obligation incurred by bank and client under various Islamic home financing contract. This research is qualitative by using two methods, document analysis, and semi-structured interviews. Document analysis from literature review to identify profile, themes and risk transfer element in home financing from Islamic jurisprudence perspective. This study finds that need to create a risk transfer parameter by banks which are consistent with risk transfer theory according to Islamic jurisprudence. This study has potential to assist the authority in Islamic finance such as The Central Bank of Malaysia (Bank Negara Malaysia) in regulating Islamic banking industry so that the risk transfer valuation in home financing contract based on home financing good practice and determined risk limits.

Keywords: risk transfer, home financing contract, Sharia compliant, Malaysia

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477 Base Deficit Profiling in Patients with Isolated Blunt Traumatic Brain Injury – Correlation with Severity and Outcomes

Authors: Shahan Waheed, Muhammad Waqas, Asher Feroz

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Objectives: To determine the utility of base deficit in traumatic brain injury in assessing the severity and to correlate with the conventional computed tomography scales in grading the severity of head injury. Methodology: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care facility from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2012. All patients with isolated traumatic brain injury presenting within 24 hours of the injury to the emergency department were included in the study. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale and base deficit values were taken at presentation, the patients were followed during their hospital stay and CT scan brain findings were recorded and graded as per the Rotterdam scale, the findings were cross-checked by a radiologist, Glasgow Outcome Scale was taken on last follow up. Outcomes were dichotomized into favorable and unfavorable outcomes. Continuous variables with normal and non-normal distributions are reported as mean ± SD. Categorical variables are presented as frequencies and percentages. Relationship of the base deficit with GCS, GOS, CT scan brain and length of stay was calculated using Spearman`s correlation. Results: 154 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the patients were 30 years and 137 were males. The severity of brain injuries as per the GCS was 34 moderate and 109 severe respectively. 34 percent of the total has an unfavorable outcome with a mean of 18±14. The correlation was significant at the 0.01 level with GCS on presentation and the base deficit 0.004. The correlation was not significant between the Rotterdam CT scan brain findings, length of stay and the base deficit. Conclusion: The base deficit was found to be a good predictor of severity of brain injury. There was no association of the severity of injuries on the CT scan brain as per the Rotterdam scale and the base deficit. Further studies with large sample size are needed to further evaluate the associations.

Keywords: base deficit, traumatic brain injury, Rotterdam, GCS

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476 Analyzing the Investment Decision and Financing Method of the French Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Eliane Abdo, Olivier Colot

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SMEs are always considered as a national priority due to their contribution to job creation, innovation and growth. Once the start-up phase is crossed with encouraging results, the company enters the phase of growth. In order to improve its competitiveness, maintain and increase its market share, the company is in the necessity even the obligation to develop its tangible and intangible investments. SMEs are generally closed companies with special and critical financial situation, limited resources and difficulty to access the capital markets; their shareholders are always living in a conflict between their independence and their need to increase capital that leads to the entry of new shareholder. The capital structure was always considered the core of research in corporate finance; moreover, the financial crisis and its repercussions on the credit’s availability, especially for SMEs make SME financing a hot topic. On the other hand, financial theories do not provide answers to capital structure’s questions; they offer tools and mode of financing that are more accessible to larger companies. Yet, SME’s capital structure can’t be independent of their governance structure. The classic financial theory supposes independence between the investment decision and the financing decision. Thus, investment determines the volume of funding, but not the split between internal or external funds. In this context, we find interesting to study the hypothesis that SMEs respond positively to the financial theories applied to large firms and to check if they are constrained by conventional solutions used by large companies. In this context, this research focuses on the analysis of the resource’s structure of SME in parallel with their investments’ structure, in order to highlight a link between their assets and liabilities structure. We founded our conceptual model based on two main theoretical frameworks: the Pecking order theory, and the Trade Off theory taking into consideration the SME’s characteristics. Our data were generated from DIANE database. Five hypotheses were tested via a panel regression to understand the type of dependence between the financing methods of 3,244 French SMEs and the development of their investment over a period of 10 years (2007-2016). The results show dependence between equity and internal financing in case of intangible investments development. Moreover, this type of business is constraint to financial debts since the guarantees provided are not sufficient to meet the banks' requirements. However, for tangible investments development, SMEs count sequentially on internal financing, bank borrowing, and new shares issuance or hybrid financing. This is compliant to the Pecking Order Theory. We, therefore, conclude that unlisted SMEs incur more financial debts to finance their tangible investments more than their intangible. However, they always prefer internal financing as a first choice. This seems to be confirmed by the assumption that the profitability of the company is negatively related to the increase of the financial debt. Thus, the Pecking Order Theory predictions seem to be the most plausible. Consequently, SMEs primarily rely on self-financing and then go, into debt as a priority to finance their financial deficit.

Keywords: capital structure, investments, life cycle, pecking order theory, trade off theory

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475 Improved Water Productivity by Deficit Irrigation: Implications for Water Saving in Orange, Olive and Vineyard Orchards in Arid Conditions of Tunisia

Authors: K. Nagaz, F. El Mokh, M. Masmoudi, N. Ben Mechlia, M. O. Baba Sy, G. Ghiglieri

Abstract:

Field experiments on deficit irrigation (DI) were performed in Médenine, Tunisia on drip-irrigated olive, orange and grapevine orchards during 2013 and 2014. Four irrigation treatments were compared: full irrigation (FI), which was irrigated at 100% of ETc for the whole season; two deficit irrigation (DI) strategies -DI75 and DI50- which received, respectively, 25 and 50% less water than FI; and traditional farming management (FM) - with water input much less than actually needed. The traditional farming (FM) applied 11, 18, 30 and 33% less water than the FI treatment, respectively, in orange, grapevine and table and oil olive orchards, indicating that the farmers practices represent a form of unintended deficit irrigation. Yield was reduced when deficit irrigation was applied and there were significant differences between DI75, DI50 and FM treatments. Significant differences were not observed between DI50 and FM treatments even though numerically smaller yield was observed in the former (DI50) as compared to the latter (FM). The irrigation water productivity (IWP) was significantly affected by irrigation treatments. The smallest IWP was recorded under the FI treatment, while the largest IWP was obtained under the deficit irrigation treatment (DI50). The DI50 and FM treatments reduced the economic return compared to the full treatment (FI), while the DI75 treatment resulted in a better economic return in respect to DI50 and FM. Full irrigation (FI) could be recommended for olive, orange and grapevine irrigation under the arid climate of Tunisia. Nevertheless, the treatment DI75 can be applied as a strategy under water scarcity conditions in commercial olive, orange and grapevine orchards allowing water savings up to 25% but with some reduction in yield and net return. The results would be helpful in adopting deficit irrigation in ways that enhance net financial returns.

Keywords: water productivity, deficit irrigation, drip irrigation, orchards

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474 Effects of Deficit Watering and Potassium Fertigation on Growth and Yield Response of Cassava

Authors: Daniel O. Wasonga, Jouko Kleemola, Laura Alakukku, Pirjo Makela

Abstract:

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major food crop for millions of people in the tropics. Growth and yield of cassava in the arid-tropics are seriously constrained by intermittent water deficit and low soil K content. Therefore, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of interaction between water deficit and K fertigation on growth and yield response of biofortified cassava at early growth phase. Yellow cassava cultivar was grown under controlled glasshouse conditions in 5-L pots containing 1.7 kg of pre-fertilized potting mix. Plants were watered daily for 30 days after planting. Treatments were three watering levels (30%, severe water deficit; 60%, mild water deficit; 100%, well-watered), on which K (0.01, 1, 4, 16 and 32 mM) was split. Plants were harvested at 90 days after planting. Leaf area was smallest in plants grown with 30% watering and 0.01 mM K, and largest in plants grown with 100% watering and 32 mM K. Leaf, root, and total dry mass decreased in water-stressed plants. However, dry mass was markedly higher when plants were grown with 16 mM K under all watering levels in comparison to other K concentrations. The highest leaf, root and total dry mass were in plants with 100% watering and 16 mM K. In conclusion, K improved the growth of plants under water deficit and thus, K application on soils with low moisture and low K may improve the productivity of cassava.

Keywords: dry mass, interaction, leaf area, Manihot esculenta

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473 Financing Energy Efficiency: Innovative Options

Authors: Rahul Ravindranathan, R. P. Gokul

Abstract:

India, in its efforts towards economic and social development, is currently experiencing a heavy demand for energy. Due to the lack of sufficient domestic energy reserves, the country is highly dependent on energy imports which has increased rapidly at a rate of about 12 % per annum since 2005. Hence, India is currently focusing its efforts to manage this energy supply and demand gap and eventually achieve energy security. One of the most cost effective means to reduce this gap is by adopting Energy efficiency measures in the country. Initial assessments have shown that Energy efficiency measures have an energy conservation potential of about 23%. For an estimated investment potential of USD 8 Billion, the annual energy savings was estimated to be about 180 Billion Units per annum. In order to explore this huge energy conservation potential, many critical factors need to be considered to achieve practical energy savings. Financing options for these investments is one such major factor. Not only has India come out with various policy level as well as technology level drives to promote Energy efficiency but it has also developed various financing schemes to promote investment in Energy Efficiency projects. The Public sector has already come out with certain financing schemes such as the Partial Risk Guarantee Fund (PRGF), Venture Capital Fund (VCF), Partial Risk Sharing Fund (PRSF) etc., and various sectors are gradually utilizing these schemes to implement energy saving measures. However, additional financing options are required in order to explore the untouched energy conservation potential in the country. Hence, there is a need to develop some innovative financing options for India which would motivate the private sectors as well as financing institutions to invest in these energy saving measures. This paper shall review the existing financing schemes launched by the Government of India and highlight the key benefits as well as challenges with respect to these schemes. In addition to this, the paper would also review new and innovative financing schemes for India and how the same could be adopted in other parts of the globe especially in South and South East Asia. This review would provide an insight to the various Governments as well as Financial Institutions in coming out with new financing schemes for their country.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, financing, India

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