Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 466

Search results for: fairness hierarchy

466 Fairness in Recommendations Ranking: From Pairwise Approach to Listwise Approach

Authors: Patik Joslin Kenfack, Polyakov Vladimir Mikhailovich

Abstract:

Machine Learning (ML) systems are trained using human generated data that could be biased by implicitly containing racist, sexist, or discriminating data. ML models learn those biases or even amplify them. Recent research in work on has begun to consider issues of fairness. The concept of fairness is extended to recommendation. A recommender system will be considered fair if it doesn’t under rank items of protected group (gender, race, demographic...). Several metrics for evaluating fairness concerns in recommendation systems have been proposed, which take pairs of items as ‘instances’ in fairness evaluation. It doesn’t take in account the fact that the fairness should be evaluated across a list of items. The paper explores a probabilistic approach that generalize pairwise metric by using a list k (listwise) of items as ‘instances’ in fairness evaluation, parametrized by k. We also explore new regularization method based on this metric to improve fairness ranking during model training.

Keywords: Fairness, Recommender System, Ranking, Listwise Approach

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465 Occupational Stress, Perceived Fairness, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Bank Workers in Nigeria

Authors: K. M. Ngbea, F. Ugwu, J. M. Uwouku, P. Atsehe, A. Ucho, P. N. Achakpa-Ikyo, P. Azende

Abstract:

This study examined occupational stress, perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior among bank workers. The participants were 198 (118) males and (80) female's bank employees from selected banks within Makurdi metropolis and questionnaire were used for data collection. Three hypotheses were tested and it was found that employees with high perception of occupational stress differ significantly from their counterparts at perceived fairness also influenced organizational citizenship behavior.On the other hand, there is no interaction effect of occupational stress and perceived fairness on organizational citizenship behavior. The implication of findings, limitations, recommendations and conclusions were discussed.

Keywords: occupational stress, perceived fairness, organizational citizenship, behavior

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464 Analysis of Spatiotemporal Efficiency and Fairness of Railway Passenger Transport Network Based on Space Syntax: Taking Yangtze River Delta as an Example

Authors: Lin Dong, Fei Shi

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Based on the railway network and the principles of space syntax, the study attempts to reconstruct the spatial relationship of the passenger network connections from space and time perspective. According to the travel time data of main stations in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration obtained by the Internet, the topological drawing of railway network under different time sections is constructed. With the comprehensive index composed of connection and integration, the accessibility and network operation efficiency of the railway network in different time periods is calculated, while the fairness of the network is analyzed by the fairness indicators constructed with the integration and location entropy from the perspective of horizontal and vertical fairness respectively. From the analysis of the efficiency and fairness of the railway passenger transport network, the study finds: (1) There is a strong regularity in regional system accessibility change; (2) The problems of efficiency and fairness are different in different time periods; (3) The improvement of efficiency will lead to the decline of horizontal fairness to a certain extent, while from the perspective of vertical fairness, the supply-demand situation has changed smoothly with time; (4) The network connection efficiency of Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang regions is higher than that of the western regions such as Anqing and Chizhou; (5) The marginalization of Nantong, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Taizhou is obvious. The study explores the application of spatial syntactic theory in regional traffic analysis, in order to provide a reference for the development of urban agglomeration transportation network.

Keywords: spatial syntax, the Yangtze River Delta, railway passenger time, efficiency and fairness

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463 An Efficient Subcarrier Scheduling Algorithm for Downlink OFDMA-Based Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Hassen Hamouda, Mohamed Ouwais Kabaou, Med Salim Bouhlel

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The growth of wireless technology made opportunistic scheduling a widespread theme in recent research. Providing high system throughput without reducing fairness allocation is becoming a very challenging task. A suitable policy for resource allocation among users is of crucial importance. This study focuses on scheduling multiple streaming flows on the downlink of a WiMAX system based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). In this paper, we take the first step in formulating and analyzing this problem scrupulously. As a result, we proposed a new scheduling scheme based on Round Robin (RR) Algorithm. Because of its non-opportunistic process, RR does not take in account radio conditions and consequently it affect both system throughput and multi-users diversity. Our contribution called MORRA (Modified Round Robin Opportunistic Algorithm) consists to propose a solution to this issue. MORRA not only exploits the concept of opportunistic scheduler but also takes into account other parameters in the allocation process. The first parameter is called courtesy coefficient (CC) and the second is called Buffer Occupancy (BO). Performance evaluation shows that this well-balanced scheme outperforms both RR and MaxSNR schedulers and demonstrate that choosing between system throughput and fairness is not required.

Keywords: OFDMA, opportunistic scheduling, fairness hierarchy, courtesy coefficient, buffer occupancy

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462 A Study on the Relationship between Transaction Fairness, Social Capital, Supply Chain Integration and Sustainability: Focusing on Manufacturing Companies of South Korea

Authors: Sung-Min Park, Chan Kwon Park, Chae-Bogk Kim

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability. Based on the previous studies, measurement items were determined by using SPSS 22 and exploratory factor analysis was performed, and again, using AMOS 21 for confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis was performed by using study items that satisfy reliability, validity, and appropriateness of measurement model. It has shown that transaction fairness has a (+) significant effect on social capital, social capital on supply chain integration, supply chain integration on economic sustainability and social sustainability, and has a (+), but not significant effect on environmental sustainability. It has shown that supply chain integration has been proven to play a role as a parameter between social capital and economic and social sustainability, but not as a parameter between environmental sustainability. Through this study, it is suggested that clearly examining the relationship between fairness of trade, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability, maintaining fairness of the transaction make formation of social capital, and further integration of supply chain, and achieve sustainability of entire supply chain.

Keywords: transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration, sustainability

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461 Selecting the Best Software Product Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process Modules

Authors: Anas Hourani, Batool Ahmad

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Software applications play an important role inside any institute. They are employed to manage all processes and store entities-related data in the computer. Therefore, choosing the right software product that meets institute requirements is not an easy decision in view of considering multiple criteria, different points of views, and many standards. As a case study, Mutah University, located in Jordan, is in essential need of customized software, and several companies presented their software products which are very similar in quality. In this regard, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (Fuzzy-AHP) models are proposed in this research to identify the most suitable and best-fit software product that meets the institute requirements. The results indicate that both modules are able to help the decision-makers to make a decision, especially in complex decision problems.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, decision modeling, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, software product

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460 Transparency within the Hierarchy of the Catholic Church in the Treatment of Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

Authors: Brang Mai Lazing

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The central argument of this paper proposes that while democracy cannot guarantee transparency, authentic transparency within the hierarchy of the Church can be pursued as a means of dealing with cases of clergy sexual abuse. Amid the recent global scandal of clergy sexual abuse cases, a previous study has argued that a democratic rule should be applied to the administration of the Church so that, while a democratic Church could be compelled to exercise greater transparency when handling such cases, the Church might thereby regain credibility. Using the methodology of literature analysis, this paper explores the necessity for hierarchy and finds that democracy cannot be a guarantee for transparency. Further, through a dialogue between the theological insights of Benedict XVI and Edward Schillebeeckx, this paper argues that transparency practices are possible within the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in dealing with clergy sexual abuse cases. Finally, three implications of transparency in dealing with clergy sexual abuse cases are proposed, viz.: (a) that the harm which is ultimately done to the sacred faith of believers and to the sacred origin of the hierarchy through clergy sexual abuse cases should be given greater emphasis, (b) that the removal of unnecessary layers within the Church hierarchy or replacement with layers empowered with the authority to effect change might help implement accountability and transparency practices, and (c) that any changes made to enhance transparency should be made in terms of ‘adaptability’.

Keywords: Benedict XVI, clergy sexual abuses, democracy, Edward Schillebeeckx, hierarchy, transparency

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459 Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development: Modality of Hierarchy of Needs in Supporting Parents with Special Needs

Authors: Fadzilah Abdul Rahman

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Emotional development is developed between the parents and their child. Behavioural development is also developed between the parents and their child. Social Development is how parents can help their special needs child to adapt to society and to face challenges. In promoting a lifelong learning mindset, enhancing skill sets and readiness to face challenges, parents would be able to counter balance these challenges during their care giving process and better manage their expectations through understanding the hierarchy of needs modality towards a positive attitude, and in turn, improve their quality of life and participation in society. This paper aims to demonstrate how the hierarchy of needs can be applied in various situations of caregiving for parents with a special needs child.

Keywords: hierarchy of needs, parents, special needs, care-giving

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458 Lies of Police Interrogators in the Ultimatum Game

Authors: Eitan Elaad

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The present study's purpose was to examine lyingand pretend fairness by police interrogators in sharing situations. Forty police officers and 40 laypeople from the community, all males, self-assessed their lie-telling ability, rated the frequency of their lies, evaluated the acceptability of lying, and indicated using rational and intuitive thinking while lying. Next, according to the ultimatum game procedure, participants were asked to share 100 points with a virtual target, either a male police interrogator or a male layman. Participantsallocated points to the target person bearing in mind that the other person must accept their offer. Participants' goal was to retain as many points as possible, and to this end, they could tell the target person that fewer than 100 points were available for distribution. The difference between the available 100 points and the sum of points designated for sharing defines lying. The ratio of offered and designated points defines pretend fairness. Results indicate that those police officers lied more than laypeople. Similar results emergedeven when the target person was a police interrogator. However, police interrogators presented higher pretend fairness than laypeople. The higher pretend fairness may be in line with interrogation tactics of persuasion used in the criminal interrogation. Higher-lying frequency reported by police interrogators compared with laypeople support the present results. Finally, lie acceptability predicted lying in the ultimatum game. Specifically, participants who rated lying as more acceptable tended to lie more than low acceptability raters.

Keywords: lying, police interrogators, lie acceptability, ultimatum game, pretend fairness

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457 Lies and Pretended Fairness of Police Officers in Sharing

Authors: Eitan Elaad

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The current study aimed to examine lying and pretended fairness by police personnel in sharing situations. Forty Israeli police officers and 40 laypeople from the community, all males, self-assessed their lie-telling ability, rated the frequency of their lies, evaluated the acceptability of lying, and indicated using rational and intuitive thinking while lying. Next, according to the ultimatum game procedure, participants were asked to share 100 points with an imagined target, either a male policeman or a male non-policeman. Participants allocated points to the target person bearing in mind that the other person must accept or reject their offer. Participants' goal was to retain as many points as possible, and to this end, they could tell the target person that fewer than 100 points were available for distribution. We defined concealment or lying as the difference between the available 100 points and the sum of points designated for sharing. Results indicated that police officers lied less to their fellow police targets than non-police targets, whereas laypeople lied less to non-police targets than imagined police targets. The ratio between the points offered to the imagined target person and the points endowed by the participant as available for sharing defined pretended fairness.Enhanced pretended fairness indicates higher motivation to display fair sharing even if the fair sharing is fictitious. Police officers presented higher pretended fairness to police targets than laypeople, whereas laypeople set off more fairness to non-police targets than police officers. We discussed the results concerning occupation solidarity and loyalty among police personnel. Specifically, police work involves uncertainty, danger and risk, coercive authority, and the use of force, which isolates the police from the community and dictates strong bonds of solidarity between police personnel. No wonder police officers shared more points (lied less) to fellow police targets than non-police targets. On the other hand, police legitimacy or the belief that the police are acting honestly in the best interest of the citizens constitutes citizens' attitudes toward the police. The relatively low number of points shared for distribution by laypeople to police targets indicates difficulties with the legitimacy of the Israeli police.

Keywords: lying, fairness, police solidarity, police legitimacy, sharing, ultimatum game

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456 Enhancing a Recidivism Prediction Tool with Machine Learning: Effectiveness and Algorithmic Fairness

Authors: Marzieh Karimihaghighi, Carlos Castillo

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This work studies how Machine Learning (ML) may be used to increase the effectiveness of a criminal recidivism risk assessment tool, RisCanvi. The two key dimensions of this analysis are predictive accuracy and algorithmic fairness. ML-based prediction models obtained in this study are more accurate at predicting criminal recidivism than the manually-created formula used in RisCanvi, achieving an AUC of 0.76 and 0.73 in predicting violent and general recidivism respectively. However, the improvements are small, and it is noticed that algorithmic discrimination can easily be introduced between groups such as national vs foreigner, or young vs old. It is described how effectiveness and algorithmic fairness objectives can be balanced, applying a method in which a single error disparity in terms of generalized false positive rate is minimized, while calibration is maintained across groups. Obtained results show that this bias mitigation procedure can substantially reduce generalized false positive rate disparities across multiple groups. Based on these results, it is proposed that ML-based criminal recidivism risk prediction should not be introduced without applying algorithmic bias mitigation procedures.

Keywords: algorithmic fairness, criminal risk assessment, equalized odds, recidivism

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455 Scene Classification Using Hierarchy Neural Network, Directed Acyclic Graph Structure, and Label Relations

Authors: Po-Jen Chen, Jian-Jiun Ding, Hung-Wei Hsu, Chien-Yao Wang, Jia-Ching Wang

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A more accurate scene classification algorithm using label relations and the hierarchy neural network was developed in this work. In many classification algorithms, it is assumed that the labels are mutually exclusive. This assumption is true in some specific problems, however, for scene classification, the assumption is not reasonable. Because there are a variety of objects with a photo image, it is more practical to assign multiple labels for an image. In this paper, two label relations, which are exclusive relation and hierarchical relation, were adopted in the classification process to achieve more accurate multiple label classification results. Moreover, the hierarchy neural network (hierarchy NN) is applied to classify the image and the directed acyclic graph structure is used for predicting a more reasonable result which obey exclusive and hierarchical relations. Simulations show that, with these techniques, a much more accurate scene classification result can be achieved.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, label relation, hierarchy neural network, scene classification

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454 The Doctor-Patient Interaction Experience Hierarchy Using Rasch Measurement Model Analysis

Authors: Wan Nur'ashiqin Wan Mohamad, Zarina Othman, Mohd Azman Abas, Azizah Ya'acob, Rozmel Abdul Latiff

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Effective doctor-patient interaction is vital to both doctor and patient relationship. It is the cornerstone of good practice and an integral quality of a healthcare institution. This paper presented the hierarchy of the communication elements in doctor-patient interaction during medical consultations in a medical centre in Malaysia. This study adapted The Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire (2002) to obtain the information from patients. The questionnaire survey was responded by 100 patients between the ages of 20 and 50. Data collected were analysed using Rasch Measurement Model to yield the hierarchy of the communication elements in doctor-patient interaction. The findings showed that the three highest ranking on the doctor-patient interaction were doctor’s treatment, important information delivery and patient satisfaction of doctor’s responses. The results are valuable in developing the framework for communication ethics of doctors.

Keywords: communication elements, doctor-patient interaction, hierarchy, Rasch measurement model

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453 Multichannel Scheme under Fairness Environment for Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Hans Marquez Ramos, Cesar Hernandez, Ingrid Páez

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This paper develops a multiple channel assignment model, which allows to take advantage in most efficient way, spectrum opportunities in cognitive radio networks. Developed scheme allows make several available and frequency adjacent channel assignments, which require a bigger wide band, under an equality environment. The hybrid assignment model it is made by to algorithms, one who makes the ranking and select available frequency channels and the other one in charge of establishing an equality criteria, in order to not restrict spectrum opportunities for all other secondary users who wish to make transmissions. Measurements made were done for average bandwidth, average delay, as well fairness computation for several channel assignment. Reached results were evaluated with experimental spectrum occupational data from GSM frequency band captured. Developed model, shows evidence of improvement in spectrum opportunity use and a wider average transmit bandwidth for each secondary user, maintaining equality criteria in channel assignment.

Keywords: bandwidth, fairness, multichannel, secondary users

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452 A Study on Hierarchy and Popularity of Foreign TV Series with Different Origin Countries among Chinese Audiences from a Uses and Gratification Perspective

Authors: Terigele

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Cultural products are always shelved into different classes of a hierarchy that separates so-called highbrow and lowbrow cultures. This study illustrated that audiences might even construct a hierarchy according to the origin countries when consuming certain products. Chinese audiences now have access to TV series from all around the world thanks to the internet. TV series from different origin countries show some particular features in terms of length, theme, plots, accessibility, seriousness etc. Their audiences were therefore stereotyped because of what they watch. Based on in-depth interviews with 20 participants, this research has following findings: 1) Most popular origin countries of foreign TV series in China are Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan and European countries in a descending order. Korean TV series are most popular because they are less serious and more accessible compared to others. 2) In the hierarchy of the TV series, European TV series stand on the top followed by British and American TV series. Japanese TV series are also categorized into highbrow class. Korean TV series are at the bottom and always seen as lowbrow cultural products. 3) Most audiences consume TV series from more than one origin countries and have different needs when watching them. Participants reported that they watch European TV series because those TV series are more artistic than their counterparts and of great quality. They watch British and American TV series mainly to improve their English and to learn about the culture. They find Japanese TV series very enjoyable with a large variety of themes and impressive lines. Audiences watch Korean TV series mostly to entertain and kill time. 4) Audiences do care about cultural taste. Especially those who watch European, British and American TV series usually tend to consider audiences who watch nothing but Korean TV series to be shallow. On the other hand, Korean TV series’ audiences seem to care less about the hierarchy of the TV series. Even when they discuss the hierarchy, they tend to accept the judgments with ironies and jokes. Future studies can dig deeply into the genre and content of TV series with different origin countries and also investigate more about the psychology of audiences regarding the gender, age, education, socioeconomic status etc.

Keywords: foreign TV series, hierarchy, popularity, uses and gratification

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451 Harvard Lawyers Perception of Intellectual Property and Digital Rights

Authors: Dariusz Jemielniak

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The near future will bring significant changes to contemporary organizations and management, because of the rapidly increasing role of immaterial goods and knowledge workers. The area of copyright, IP, as well as digital (non-material) goods and media redistribution seems to be one of the major challenges for the economy and society in general, and management and organization studies in particular. The proposed paper shows the views and perceptions of fairness of digital media sharing among Harvard Law School LL.M. students, basing on 50 qualitative interviews and 100 questionnaires. The researcher took an ethnographic approach to the study and joined the 2016 Harvard LL.M. Facebook group, which allowed natural socializing and joining for in-person events and private parties more easily. After making acquaintance with many of the students, the researcher conducted a quantitative questionnaire with 100 respondents, allowing to better understand the respondents perception of fairness in digital files sharing in different contexts (depending on the price of the media, its availability, regional licensing, status of the copyright holder, etc.). Basing on the results of the questionnaire, the researcher followed up with long-term, open ended, loosely structured ethnographic interviews (50 interviews were conducted) to further deepen the understanding of the results. The major finding of the study is that Harvard lawyers, in spite of the highest possible understanding of law, as well as professional standards, generally approve of digital piracy in certain contexts. Interestingly, they are also more likely to approve of it if they work for the government rather than the private sector. The conclusions from this study allow a better understanding of how ‘fairness’ is perceived by the younger generation of law professionals, and also open grounds for a more rational licensing policing.

Keywords: piracy, digital sharing, perception of fairness, legal profession

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450 Effects of Hierarchy on Poisson’s Ratio and Phononic Bandgaps of Two-Dimensional Honeycomb Structures

Authors: Davood Mousanezhad, Ashkan Vaziri

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As a traditional cellular structure, hexagonal honeycombs are known for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Here, we introduce a class of fractal-appearing hierarchical metamaterials by replacing the vertices of the original non-hierarchical hexagonal grid with smaller hexagons and iterating this process to achieve higher levels of hierarchy. It has been recently shown that the isotropic in-plane Young's modulus of this hierarchical structure at small deformations becomes 25 times greater than its regular counterpart with the same mass. At large deformations, we find that hierarchy-dependent elastic buckling introduced at relatively early stages of deformation decreases the value of Poisson's ratio as the structure is compressed uniaxially leading to auxeticity (i.e., negative Poisson's ratio) in subsequent stages of deformation. We also show that the topological hierarchical architecture and instability-induced pattern transformations of the structure under compression can be effectively used to tune the propagation of elastic waves within the structure. We find that the hierarchy tends to shift the existing phononic bandgaps (defined as frequency ranges of strong wave attenuation) to lower frequencies while opening up new bandgaps. Deformation is also demonstrated as another mechanism for opening more bandgaps in hierarchical structures. The results provide new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in regulating mechanical properties of materials at both the static and dynamic regimes.

Keywords: cellular structures, honeycombs, hierarchical structures, metamaterials, multifunctional structures, phononic crystals, auxetic structures

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449 The Analysis of Changes in Urban Hierarchy of Isfahan Province in the Fifty-Year Period (1956-2006)

Authors: Hamidreza Joudaki, Yousefali Ziari

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The appearance of city and urbanism is one of the important processes which have affected social communities. Being industrialized urbanism developed along with each other in the history. In addition, they have had simple relationship for more than six thousand years, that is, from the appearance of the first cities. In 18th century by coming out of industrial capitalism, progressive development took place in urbanism in the world. In Iran, the city of each region made its decision by itself and the capital of region (downtown) was the only central part and also the regional city without any hierarchy, controlled its realm. However, this method of ruling during these three decays, because of changing in political, social and economic issues that have caused changes in rural and urban relationship. Moreover, it has changed the variety of performance of cities and systematic urban network in Iran. Today, urban system has very vast imbalanced apace and performance. In Isfahan, the trend of urbanism is like the other part of Iran and systematic urban hierarchy is not suitable and normal. This article is a quantitative and analytical. The statistical communities are Isfahan Province cities and the changes in urban network and its hierarchy during the period of fifty years (1956 -2006) has been surveyed. In addition, those data have been analyzed by model of Rank and size and Entropy index. In this article Iran cities and also the factor of entropy of primate city and urban hierarchy of Isfahan Province have been introduced. Urban residents of this Province have been reached from 55 percent to 83% (2006). As we see the analytical data reflects that there is mismatching and imbalance between cities. Because the entropy index was.91 in 1956.And it decreased to.63 in 2006. Isfahan city is the primate city in the whole of these periods. Moreover, the second and the third cities have population gap with regard to the other cities and finally, they do not follow the system of rank-size.

Keywords: urban network, urban hierarchy, primate city, Isfahan province, urbanism, first cities

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448 Examination Scheduling System with Proposed Algorithm

Authors: Tabrej Khan

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Examination Scheduling System (ESS) is a scheduling system that targets as an exam committee in any academic institute to help them in managing the exams automatically. We present an algorithm for Examination Scheduling System. Nowadays, many universities have challenges with creating examination schedule fast with less confliction compared to hand works. Our aims are to develop a computerized system that can be used in examination scheduling in an academic institute versus available resources (Time, Hall, Invigilator and instructor) with no contradiction and achieve fairness among students. ESS was developed using HTML, C# language, Crystal Report and ASP.NET through Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 as developing tools with integrated SQL server database. This application can produce some benefits such as reducing the time spent in creating an exam schedule and achieving fairness among students

Keywords: examination scheduling system (ESS), algorithm, ASP.NET, crystal report

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447 Prioritizing the TQM Enablers and IT Resources in the ICT Industry: An AHP Approach

Authors: Suby Khanam, Faisal Talib, Jamshed Siddiqui

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Total Quality Management (TQM) is a managerial approach that improves the competitiveness of the industry, meanwhile Information technology (IT) was introduced with TQM for handling the technical issues which is supported by quality experts for fulfilling the customers’ requirement. Present paper aims to utilise AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) methodology to priorities and rank the hierarchy levels of TQM enablers and IT resource together for its successful implementation in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry. A total of 17 TQM enablers (nine) and IT resources (eight) were identified and partitioned into 3 categories and were prioritised by AHP approach. The finding indicates that the 17 sub-criteria can be grouped into three main categories namely organizing, tools and techniques, and culture and people. Further, out of 17 sub-criteria, three sub-criteria: Top management commitment and support, total employee involvement, and continuous improvement got highest priority whereas three sub-criteria such as structural equation modelling, culture change, and customer satisfaction got lowest priority. The result suggests a hierarchy model for ICT industry to prioritise the enablers and resources as well as to improve the TQM and IT performance in the ICT industry. This paper has some managerial implication which suggests the managers of ICT industry to implement TQM and IT together in their organizations to get maximum benefits and how to utilize available resources. At the end, conclusions, limitation, future scope of the study are presented.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, information technology, information and communication technology, prioritization, total quality management

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446 Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Hadia Rafi

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To make any decision in any work/task/project it involves many factors that needed to be looked. The analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) is based on the judgments of experts to derive the required results this technique measures the intangibles and then by the help of judgment and software analysis the comparisons are made which shows how much a certain element/unit leads another. AHP includes how an inconsistent judgment should be made consistent and how the judgment should be improved when possible. The Priority scales are obtained by multiplying them with the priority of their parent node and after that they are added.

Keywords: AHP, priority scales, parent node, software analysis

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445 A Study on Selection Issues of an Integrated Service Provider Using Analytical Hierarchy Process

Authors: M. Pramila Devi, J. Praveena

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In today’s industrial scenario, the expectations and demand of customers are reaching great heights. In order to satisfy the customer requirements the users are increasingly turning towards fourth party logistics (4PL) service providers to manage their total supply chain operations. In this present research, initially, the criteria for the selection of integrated service providers have been identified and an integrated modal based on their inter-relationship has been developed with help of shippers, with this idea of what factors to be considered and their inter-relationships while selecting integrated service provider. Later, various methods deriving the priority weights viz. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) have been employed for 4PL service provider selection. The derived priorities of 4PL alternatives using methods have been critically analyzed and compared for effective selection. The use of the modal indicates that the computed quantitative evaluation can be applied to improve the precision of the selection.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, fourth party logistics, priority weight, criteria selection

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444 Striking a Balance between Certainty and Flexibility: The Role of Ubuntu in South African Contract Law

Authors: Yeukai Mupangavanhu

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The paper examines the concept of ubuntu and the extent to which it can play a role in ensuring fairness and justice in contractual relationships. Courts are expected to balance sanctity of contract and fairness. Public policy is currently a mechanism which is used by courts when balancing the above two competing interests. It, however, generally favours the freedom and sanctity of contract. The question which is addressed in this paper is whether the concept of ubuntu is an alternative mechanism that may be used to mitigate the sometimes harsh and unfair consequences of the doctrine of freedom and sanctity of contract. A comparative study and case analysis is the methodology that is used in this article. Unfairness in contracts is generally related to the problem of inequality in bargaining power underscored by deeply entrenched social and economic inequalities that are a consequence of apartheid and patriarchy. The transformative nature of the constitution demands the inclusion of African legal ideas and values in the legal order. There is a need for the harmonisation of western ideals which are based on the classical model of law of contract with relevant African principles. In order to attain a transformative legal order that promotes a societal transformation and enhances the lives of everyone courts cannot continue to frown upon African values. Ubuntu has the potential of steering the law of contract in a more equitable direction. The substantive rules of contract law undoubtedly need to be infused with the notion of ubuntu. The reconciliation of Western and African values is at the heart of legal transformation.

Keywords: fairness, sanctity of contract, contractual justice, transformative constitutionalism

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443 Forest Fire Risk Mapping Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS-Based Application: A Case Study in Hua Sai District, Thailand

Authors: Narissara Nuthammachot, Dimitris Stratoulias

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Fire is one of the main causes of environmental and ecosystem change. Therefore, it is a challenging task for fire risk assessment fire potential mapping. The study area is Hua Sai district, Nakorn Sri Thammarat province, which covers in a part of peat swamp forest areas. 55 fire points in peat swamp areas were reported from 2012 to 2016. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods were selected for this study. The risk fire area map was arranged on these factors; elevation, slope, aspect, precipitation, distance from the river, distance from town, and land use. The results showed that the predicted fire risk areas are found to be in appreciable reliability with past fire events. The fire risk map can be used for the planning and management of fire areas in the future.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fire risk assessment, geographic information system, peat swamp forest

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442 A Comparison between Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process for Rationality Evaluation of Land Use Planning Locations in Vietnam

Authors: X. L. Nguyen, T. Y. Chou, F. Y. Min, F. C. Lin, T. V. Hoang, Y. M. Huang

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In Vietnam, land use planning is utilized as an efficient tool for the local government to adjust land use. However, planned locations are facing disapproval from people who live near these planned sites because of environmental problems. The selection of these locations is normally based on the subjective opinion of decision-makers and is not supported by any scientific methods. Many researchers have applied Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) methods in which Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the most popular techniques in combination with Fuzzy set theory for the subject of rationality assessment of land use planning locations. In this research, the Fuzzy set theory and Analytic Network Process (ANP) multi-criteria-based technique were used for the assessment process. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process was also utilized, and the output results from two methods were compared to extract the differences. The 20 planned landfills in Hung Ha district, Thai Binh province, Vietnam was selected as a case study. The comparison results indicate that there are different between weights computed by AHP and ANP methods and the assessment outputs produced from these two methods also slight differences. After evaluation of existing planned sites, some potential locations were suggested to the local government for possibility of land use planning adjusts.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Analytic Network Process, Fuzzy set theory, land use planning

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441 Analytic Hierarchy Process Method for Supplier Selection Considering Green Logistics: Case Study of Aluminum Production Sector

Authors: H. Erbiyik, A. Bal, M. Sirakaya, Ö. Yesildal, E. Yolcu

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The emergence of many environmental issues began with the Industrial Revolution. The depletion of natural resources and emerging environmental challenges over time requires enterprises and managers to take into consideration environmental factors while managing business. If we take notice of these causes; the design and implementation of environmentally friendly green purchasing, production and waste management systems become very important at green logistics systems. Companies can adopt green supply chain with the awareness of these facts. The concept of green supply chain constitutes from green purchasing, green production, green logistics, waste management and reverse logistics. In this study, we wanted to identify the concept of green supply chain and why green supply chain should be applied. In the practice part of the study an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) study is conducted on an aluminum production company to evaluate suppliers.

Keywords: aluminum sector, analytic hierarchy process, decision making, green logistics

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440 Modelling the Choice of Global Systems of Mobile Networks in Nigeria Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process

Authors: Awal Liman Sale

Abstract:

The world is fast becoming a global village; and a necessary tool for this process is communication, of which telecommunication is a key player. The quantum development is very rapid as one innovation replaces another in a matter of weeks. Interconnected phone calls across the different Nigerian Telecom service providers are mostly difficult to connect and often diverted, incurring unnecessary charges on the customers. This compels the consumers to register and use multiple subscriber information modules (SIM) so that they can switch to another if one fails. This study aims to identify and prioritize the key factors in selecting telecom service providers by subscribers in Nigeria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) in order to match the factors with the GSM network providers and create a hierarchical structure. Opinions of 400 random subscribers of different service providers will be sought using the questionnaire. In general, four components and ten sub-components will be examined in this study. After determining the weight of these components, the importance of each in choosing the service will be prioritized in Nigeria.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, global village, Nigerian telecommunication, subscriber information modules

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
439 Psychological Contract Breach and Violation Relationships with Stress and Wellbeing

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

Abstract:

Negative emotions resulting from the breach of perceived obligations by an employer is called the psychological contract violation. Employees perceiving breach and feelings of negative emotions result in adverse outcomes for both the employee and employer. This paper aims to identify the relationships between contract breach, violation, stress and wellbeing and investigate whether fairness and self-efficacy mediate the relationships. A mixed method approach was used to analyze the online-surveys and semi-structured interviews with the police officers. It was identified that the psychological contract violation predicts stress and job-related well-being. Fairness and self-efficacy were identified as significant mediators to understand the underlying mechanisms of association. Whilst, in the interviews social support was identified as a popular mediator. Practical implications for employers are discussed.

Keywords: psychological contract violation and breach, stressors, depression, anxiety

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
438 The Ideal Memory Substitute for Computer Memory Hierarchy

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Olabanji F. Omotoye, Adeola A. Ogunleye

Abstract:

Computer system components such as the CPU, the Controllers, and the operating system, work together as a team, and storage or memory is the essential parts of this team apart from the processor. The memory and storage system including processor caches, main memory, and storage, form basic storage component of a computer system. The characteristics of the different types of storage are inherent in the design and the technology employed in the manufacturing. These memory characteristics define the speed, compatibility, cost, volatility, and density of the various storage types. Most computers rely on a hierarchy of storage devices for performance. The effective and efficient use of the memory hierarchy of the computer system therefore is the single most important aspect of computer system design and use. The memory hierarchy is becoming a fundamental performance and energy bottleneck, due to the widening gap between the increasing demands of modern computer applications and the limited performance and energy efficiency provided by traditional memory technologies. With the dramatic development in the computers systems, computer storage has had a difficult time keeping up with the processor speed. Computer architects are therefore facing constant challenges in developing high-speed computer storage with high-performance which is energy-efficient, cost-effective and reliable, to intercept processor requests. It is very clear that substantial advancements in redesigning the existing memory physical and logical structures to meet up with the latest processor potential is crucial. This research work investigates the importance of computer memory (storage) hierarchy in the design of computer systems. The constituent storage types of the hierarchy today were investigated looking at the design technologies and how the technologies affect memory characteristics: speed, density, stability and cost. The investigation considered how these characteristics could best be harnessed for overall efficiency of the computer system. The research revealed that the best single type of storage, which we refer to as ideal memory is that logical single physical memory which would combine the best attributes of each memory type that make up the memory hierarchy. It is a single memory with access speed as high as one found in CPU registers, combined with the highest storage capacity, offering excellent stability in the presence or absence of power as found in the magnetic and optical disks as against volatile DRAM, and yet offers a cost-effective attribute that is far away from the expensive SRAM. The research work suggests that to overcome these barriers it may then mean that memory manufacturing will take a total deviation from the present technologies and adopt one that overcomes the associated challenges with the traditional memory technologies.

Keywords: cache, memory-hierarchy, memory, registers, storage

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437 Selecting a Foreign Country to Build a Naval Base Using a Fuzzy Hybrid Decision Support System

Authors: Latif Yanar, Muammer Kaçan

Abstract:

Decision support systems are getting more important in many fields of science and technology and used effectively especially when the problems to be solved are complicated with many criteria. In this kind of problems one of the main challenges for the decision makers are that sometimes they cannot produce a countable data for evaluating the criteria but the knowledge and sense of experts. In recent years, fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic based decision models gaining more place in literature. In this study, a decision support model to determine a country to build naval base is proposed and the application of the model is performed, considering Turkish Navy by the evaluations of Turkish Navy officers and academicians of international relations departments of various Universities located in Istanbul. The results achieved from the evaluations made by the experts in our model are calculated by a decision support tool named DESTEC 1.0, which is developed by the authors using C Sharp programming language. The tool gives advices to the decision maker using Analytic Hierarchy Process, Analytic Network Process, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process all at once. The calculated results for five foreign countries are shown in the conclusion.

Keywords: decision support system, analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, analytic network process, fuzzy analytic network process, naval base, country selection, international relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 500