Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 435

Search results for: buffer occupancy

435 An Efficient Subcarrier Scheduling Algorithm for Downlink OFDMA-Based Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Hassen Hamouda, Mohamed Ouwais Kabaou, Med Salim Bouhlel


The growth of wireless technology made opportunistic scheduling a widespread theme in recent research. Providing high system throughput without reducing fairness allocation is becoming a very challenging task. A suitable policy for resource allocation among users is of crucial importance. This study focuses on scheduling multiple streaming flows on the downlink of a WiMAX system based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). In this paper, we take the first step in formulating and analyzing this problem scrupulously. As a result, we proposed a new scheduling scheme based on Round Robin (RR) Algorithm. Because of its non-opportunistic process, RR does not take in account radio conditions and consequently it affect both system throughput and multi-users diversity. Our contribution called MORRA (Modified Round Robin Opportunistic Algorithm) consists to propose a solution to this issue. MORRA not only exploits the concept of opportunistic scheduler but also takes into account other parameters in the allocation process. The first parameter is called courtesy coefficient (CC) and the second is called Buffer Occupancy (BO). Performance evaluation shows that this well-balanced scheme outperforms both RR and MaxSNR schedulers and demonstrate that choosing between system throughput and fairness is not required.

Keywords: OFDMA, opportunistic scheduling, fairness hierarchy, courtesy coefficient, buffer occupancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
434 A New Verification Based Congestion Control Scheme in Mobile Networks

Authors: P. K. Guha Thakurta, Shouvik Roy, Bhawana Raj


A congestion control scheme in mobile networks is proposed in this paper through a verification based model. The model proposed in this work is represented through performance metric like buffer Occupancy, latency and packet loss rate. Based on pre-defined values, each of the metric is introduced in terms of three different states. A Markov chain based model for the proposed work is introduced to monitor the occurrence of the corresponding state transitions. Thus, the estimation of the network status is obtained in terms of performance metric. In addition, the improved performance of our proposed model over existing works is shown with experimental results.

Keywords: congestion, mobile networks, buffer, delay, call drop, markov chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
433 Efficient DCT Architectures

Authors: Mr. P. Suryaprasad, R. Lalitha


This paper presents an efficient area and delay architectures for the implementation of one dimensional and two dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT). These are supported to different lengths (4, 8, 16, and 32). DCT blocks are used in the different video coding standards for the image compression. The 2D- DCT calculation is made using the 2D-DCT separability property, such that the whole architecture is divided into two 1D-DCT calculations by using a transpose buffer. Based on the existing 1D-DCT architecture two different types of 2D-DCT architectures, folded and parallel types are implemented. Both of these two structures use the same transpose buffer. Proposed transpose buffer occupies less area and high speed than existing transpose buffer. Hence the area, low power and delay of both the 2D-DCT architectures are reduced.

Keywords: transposition buffer, video compression, discrete cosine transform, high efficiency video coding, two dimensional picture

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
432 Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma


Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This paper focuses on the energy absorption characteristics of the rubber buffers particularly. Firstly, the quasi-static compression tests were carried out for 1 and 3 pairs of rubber sheets and some energy absorption responses relationship, i.e. Eabn = n×Eab1, Edissn = n×Ediss1, and Ean = Ea1, were obtained. Next, a series of quasi-static tests were performed for 1 pair of rubber sheet to investigate the energy absorption performance with different compression ratio of the rubber buffers. Then the impact tests with five impact velocities were conducted and the coupler knuckle was destroyed when the impact velocity was 10.807 km/h. The impact tests results showed that with the increase of impact velocity, the Eab, Ediss and Ea of rear buffer increased a lot, but the three responses of front buffer had not much increase. Finally, the results of impact tests and quasi-static tests were contrastively analysed and the results showed that with the increase of the stroke, the values of Eab, Ediss, and Ea were all increase. However, the increasing rates of impact tests were all larger than that of quasi-static tests. The maximum value of Ea was 68.76% in impact tests, it was a relatively high value for vehicle coupler buffer. The energy capacity of the rear buffer was determined for dynamic loading, it was 22.98 kJ.

Keywords: rubber buffer, coupler, energy absorption, impact tests

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431 Studying the Influence of Systematic Pre-Occupancy Data Collection through Post-Occupancy Evaluation: A Shift in the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Noor Abdelhamid, Donovan Nelson, Cara Prosser


The architectural design process could be mapped out as a dialogue between designer and user that is constructed across multiple phases with the overarching goal of aligning design outcomes with user needs. Traditionally, this dialogue is bounded within a preliminary phase of determining factors that will direct the design intent, and a completion phase, of handing off the project to the client. Pre- and post-occupancy evaluations (P/POE’s) could provide an alternative process by extending this dialogue on both ends of the design process. The purpose of this research is to study the influence of systematic pre-occupancy data collection in achieving design goals by conducting post-occupancy evaluations of two case studies. In the context of this study, systematic pre-occupancy data collection is defined as the preliminary documentation of the existing conditions that helps portray stakeholders’ needs. When implemented, pre-occupancy occurs during the early phases of the architectural design process, utilizing the information to shape the design intent. Investigative POE’s are performed on two case studies with distinct early design approaches to understand how the current space is impacting user needs, establish design outcomes, and inform future strategies. The first case study underwent systematic pre-occupancy data collection and synthesis, while the other represents the traditional, uncoordinated practice of informally collecting data during an early design phase. POE’s target the dynamics between the building and its occupants by studying how spaces are serving the needs of the users. Data collection for this study consists of user surveys, audiovisual materials, and observations during regular site visits. Mixed methods of qualitative and quantitative analyses are synthesized to identify patterns in the data. The paper concludes by positioning value on both sides of the architectural design process: the integration of systematic pre-occupancy methods in the early phases and the reinforcement of a continued dialogue between building and design team after building completion.

Keywords: architecture, design process, pre-occupancy data, post-occupancy evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
430 Effects of Bacteria on Levels of AFM1 in Phosphate Buffer at Different Level of Energy Source

Authors: Ali M. Elgerbi, Obied A. Alwan, Al-Taher O. Alzwei, Abdurrahim A. Elouzi


The binding of AFM1 to bacteria in phosphate buffer solution depended on many factors such as: availability of energy, incubation period, species and strain of bacteria. Increase in concentration of sugar showed higher removal of AFM1 and faster than in phosphate buffer alone. With 1.0% glucose lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria showed toxin removal ranging from 7.7 to 39.7% whereas with 10.0% glucose the percentage removal was 21.8 to 45.4% at 96 hours of incubation.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria , binding, phosphate buffer

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
429 Unbalanced Mean-Time and Buffer Effects in Lines Suffering Breakdown

Authors: Sabry Shaaban, Tom McNamara, Sarah Hudson


This article studies the performance of unpaced serial production lines that are subject to breakdown and are imbalanced in terms of both of their processing time means (MTs) and buffer storage capacities (BCs). Simulation results show that the best pattern in terms of throughput is a balanced line with respect to average buffer level; the best configuration is a monotone decreasing MT order, together with an ascending BC arrangement. Statistical analysis shows that BC, patterns of MT and BC imbalance, line length and degree of imbalance all contribute significantly to performance. Results show that unbalanced lines cope well with unreliability.

Keywords: unreliable unpaced serial lines, simulation, unequal mean operation times, uneven buffer capacities, patterns of imbalance, throughput, average buffer level

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
428 Riparian Buffer Strips’ Capability of E. coli Removal in New York Streams

Authors: Helen Sanders, Joshua Cousins


The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether riparian buffer strips could be used to reduce Escherichia Coli (E. coli) runoff into streams in Central New York. Mainstream methods currently utilized to reduce E. coli runoff include fencing and staggered fertilizing plans for agriculture. These methods still do not significantly limit E. coli and thus, pose a serious health risk to individuals who swim in contaminated waters or consume contaminated produce. One additional method still in research development involves the planting of vegetated riparian buffers along waterways. Currently, riparian buffer strips are primarily used for filtration of nitrate and phosphate runoff to slow erosion, regulate pH and, improve biodiversity within waterways. For my research, four different stream sites were selected for the study, in which rainwater runoff was collected at both the riparian buffer and the E. coli sourced runoff upstream. Preliminary results indicate that there is an average 70% decrease in E. coli content in streams at the riparian buffer strips compared to upstream runoff. This research could be utilized to include vegetated buffer planting as a method to decrease manure runoff into essential waterways.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, riparian buffer strips, vegetated riparian buffers, runoff, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
427 Sundarban as a Buffer against Storm Surge Flooding

Authors: Mohiuddin Sakib, Fatin Nihal, Anisul Haque, Munsur Rahman, Mansur Ali


Sundarban, the largest mangrove forest in the world, is known to act as a buffer against the cyclone and storm surge. Theoretically, Sundarban absorbs the initial thrust of the wind and acts to ‘resist’ the storm surge flooding. The role of Sundarban was evident during the cyclone Sidr when the Sundarban solely defended the initial thrust of the cyclonic wind and the resulting storm surge inundation. In doing this, Sundarban sacrificed 30% of its plant habitats. Although no scientific study has yet been conducted, it is generally believed that Sundarban will continuously play its role as a buffer against the cyclone when landfall of the cyclone is at or close to the Sundarban. Considering these facts, the present study mainly focused on a scientific insight into the role of Sundarban as a buffer against the present-day cyclone and storm surge and also its probable role on the impacts of future storms of similar nature but with different landfall locations. The Delft 3D dashboard and flow model are applied to compute the resulting inundation due to cyclone induced storm surge. The results show that Sundarban indeed acts as a buffer against the storm surge inundation when cyclone landfall is at or close to Sundarban.

Keywords: buffer, Mangrove forest, Sidr, landfall, roughness

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426 Assessment of the Occupancy’s Effect on Speech Intelligibility in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque

Authors: Wasim Orfali, Hesham Tolba


This research investigates the acoustical characteristics of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque. Extensive field measurements were conducted in different locations of Al-Madinah Holy Mosque to characterize its acoustic characteristics. The acoustical characteristics are usually evaluated by the use of objective parameters in unoccupied rooms due to practical considerations. However, under normal conditions, the room occupancy can vary such characteristics due to the effect of the additional sound absorption present in the room or by the change in signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the acoustic measurements carried out in Al-Madinah Holy Mosque with and without occupancy, and the analysis of such measurements, the existence of acoustical deficiencies has been confirmed.

Keywords: Al-Madinah Holy Mosque, mosque acoustics, speech intelligibility, worship sound

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
425 The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson


This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: average buffer level, merging lines, simulation, throughput, unbalanced

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
424 Path Planning for Orchard Robot Using Occupancy Grid Map in 2D Environment

Authors: Satyam Raikwar, Thomas Herlitzius, Jens Fehrmann


In recent years, the autonomous navigation of orchard and field robots is an emerging technology of the mobile robotics in agriculture. One of the core aspects of autonomous navigation builds upon path planning, which is still a crucial issue. Generally, for simple representation, the path planning for a mobile robot is performed in a two-dimensional space, which creates a path between the start and goal point. This paper presents the automatic path planning approach for robots used in orchards and vineyards using occupancy grid maps with field consideration. The orchards and vineyards are usually structured environment and their topology is assumed to be constant over time; therefore, in this approach, an RGB image of a field is used as a working environment. These images undergone different image processing operations and then discretized into two-dimensional grid matrices. The individual grid or cell of these grid matrices represents the occupancy of the space, whether it is free or occupied. The grid matrix represents the robot workspace for motion and path planning. After the grid matrix is described, a probabilistic roadmap (PRM) path algorithm is used to create the obstacle-free path over these occupancy grids. The path created by this method was successfully verified in the test area. Furthermore, this approach is used in the navigation of the orchard robot.

Keywords: orchard robots, automatic path planning, occupancy grid, probabilistic roadmap

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423 Different Cathode Buffer Layers in Organic Solar Cells

Authors: Radia Kamel


Considerable progress has been made in the development of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on a blend of p-type and n-type organic semiconductors. To optimize the interfacial properties between the active layer and the electrode, a cathode buffer layer (CBL) is introduced. This layer can reduce the leakage current, increasing the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor while improving the OSC stability. In this work, the performance of PM6:Y6 OSC with 1-Chloronaphthalene as an additive is examined. To accomplish this, three CBLs PNDIT-F3N-Br, ZrAcac, and PDINO, are compared using the conventional configuration. The device with PNDIT-F3N-Br as CBL exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency of 16.04%. The results demonstrate that modifying the cathode buffer layer is crucial for achieving high-performance OSCs.

Keywords: bulk heterojunction, cathode buffer layer, efficiency, organic solar cells

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422 Experimental and Numerical Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles

Authors: Zhixiang Li, Shuguang Yao, Wen Ma


Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This work focuses on the energy absorption capacity of each group of buffers particularly. The quasi-static compression tests were carried out to obtain the pre-compression force and the load-defection response of the buffers. Then a finite element (FE) model was constructed using Ls_dyna program. The rubber material was modeled with a tabulated method easily, in which no more material constants need to be fitted. The simulation results agreed with the experimental results well. Numerical study of the buffers was performed using the validated FE model and the influence of the initial pressure on the buffers was obtained. In addition, the interaction between the two groups of buffers was also investigated and the optimum distribution of the two was found.

Keywords: initial pressure, rubber buffer, simulation, tabulated method

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421 Estimating Occupancy in Residential Context Using Bayesian Networks for Energy Management

Authors: Manar Amayri, Hussain Kazimi, Quoc-Dung Ngo, Stephane Ploix


A general approach is proposed to determine occupant behavior (occupancy and activity) in residential buildings and to use these estimates for improved energy management. Occupant behaviour is modelled with a Bayesian Network in an unsupervised manner. This algorithm makes use of domain knowledge gathered via questionnaires and recorded sensor data for motion detection, power, and hot water consumption as well as indoor CO₂ concentration. Two case studies are presented which show the real world applicability of estimating occupant behaviour in this way. Furthermore, experiments integrating occupancy estimation and hot water production control show that energy efficiency can be increased by roughly 5% over known optimal control techniques and more than 25% over rule-based control while maintaining the same occupant comfort standards. The efficiency gains are strongly correlated with occupant behaviour and accuracy of the occupancy estimates.

Keywords: energy, management, control, optimization, Bayesian methods, learning theory, sensor networks, knowledge modelling and knowledge based systems, artificial intelligence, buildings

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420 Research on Renovation of Existing Interior Space Based on Post Occupancy Evaluation: A Case Study of the Atrium Space of Zhejiang University Library in Hangzhou

Authors: Qin Dai


The renovation of existing interior space is big issue for architects in today’s China. However the traditional way of space renovation in China mostly focuses on the object itself, and the method also focuses on subjective level without the support of specific data. This research focuses the application of renovation of existing interior space based on post occupancy evaluation by a case study of a typical interior space. The research hopes to give a more scientific method of interior space renovation for architects and help promoting and guiding renovation practice. This research studies the post occupancy evaluation of the atrium space of Zhejiang University Library including subjective satisfaction and physical environmental satisfaction. The result provides necessary data support to conclude the design principles and strategies of renovation. Then the research uses simulation software to verify the availability of the strategy given based on the study. In conclusion, the research summarizes the application process of design methods of renovation of existing interior space based on the post-occupancy evaluation, and testifies to the practical significance of the renovation of existing interior space.

Keywords: existing interior space, physical environmental satisfaction, post occupancy evaluation, renovation of space, subjective satisfaction of space

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419 A Petri Net Model to Obtain the Throughput of Unreliable Production Lines in the Buffer Allocation Problem

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Alexandr Karelin, Ana Tarasenko, Juan Carlos Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Eva Selene Hernandez-Gress


A production line designer faces with several challenges in manufacturing system design. One of them is the assignment of buffer slots in between every machine of the production line in order to maximize the throughput of the whole line, which is known as the Buffer Allocation Problem (BAP). The BAP is a combinatorial problem that depends on the number of machines and the total number of slots to be distributed on the production line. In this paper, we are proposing a Petri Net (PN) Model to obtain the throughput in unreliable production lines, based on PN mathematical tools and the decomposition method. The results obtained by this methodology are similar to those presented in previous works, and the number of machines is not a hard restriction.

Keywords: buffer allocation problem, Petri Nets, throughput, production lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
418 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy


Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: encoding and decoding, buffer, network coding, degree distribution, broadband wireless networks, multicast

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417 Design of a Phemt Buffer Amplifier in Mm-Wave Band around 60 GHz

Authors: Maryam Abata, Moulhime El Bekkali, Said Mazer, Catherine Algani, Mahmoud Mehdi


One major problem of most electronic systems operating in the millimeter wave band is the signal generation with a high purity and a stable carrier frequency. This problem is overcome by using the combination of a signal with a low frequency local oscillator (LO) and several stages of frequency multipliers. The use of these frequency multipliers to create millimeter-wave signals is an attractive alternative to direct generation signal. Therefore, the isolation problem of the local oscillator from the other stages is always present, which leads to have various mechanisms that can disturb the oscillator performance, thus a buffer amplifier is often included in oscillator outputs. In this paper, we present the study and design of a buffer amplifier in the mm-wave band using a 0.15μm pHEMT from UMS foundry. This amplifier will be used as a part of a frequency quadrupler at 60 GHz.

Keywords: Mm-wave band, local oscillator, frequency quadrupler, buffer amplifier

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416 Multi Objective Simultaneous Assembly Line Balancing and Buffer Sizing

Authors: Saif Ullah, Guan Zailin, Xu Xianhao, He Zongdong, Wang Baoxi


Assembly line balancing problem is aimed to divide the tasks among the stations in assembly lines and optimize some objectives. In assembly lines the workload on stations is different from each other due to different tasks times and the difference in workloads between stations can cause blockage or starvation in some stations in assembly lines. Buffers are used to store the semi-finished parts between the stations and can help to smooth the assembly production. The assembly line balancing and buffer sizing problem can affect the throughput of the assembly lines. Assembly line balancing and buffer sizing problems have been studied separately in literature and due to their collective contribution in throughput rate of assembly lines, balancing and buffer sizing problem are desired to study simultaneously and therefore they are considered concurrently in current research. Current research is aimed to maximize throughput, minimize total size of buffers in assembly line and minimize workload variations in assembly line simultaneously. A multi objective optimization objective is designed which can give better Pareto solutions from the Pareto front and a simple example problem is solved for assembly line balancing and buffer sizing simultaneously. Current research is significant for assembly line balancing research and it can be significant to introduce optimization approaches which can optimize current multi objective problem in future.

Keywords: assembly line balancing, buffer sizing, Pareto solutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
415 Best Option for Countercyclical Capital Buffer Implementation: Scenarios for Baltic States

Authors: Ģirts Brasliņš, Ilja Arefjevs, Nadežda Tarakanova


The objective of countercyclical capital buffer is to encourage banks to build up buffers in good times that can be drawn down in bad times. The aim of the report is to assess such decisions by banks derived from three approaches. The approaches are the aggregate credit-to-GDP ratio, credit growth as well as banking sector profits. The approaches are implemented for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania for the time period 2000-2012. The report compares three approaches and analyses their relevance to the Baltic states by testing the correlation between a growth in studied variables and a growth of corresponding gaps. Methods used in the empirical part of the report are econometric analysis as well as economic analysis, development indicators, relative and absolute indicators and other methods. The research outcome is a cross-Baltic comparison of two alternative approaches to establish or release a countercyclical capital buffer by banks and their implications for each Baltic country.

Keywords: basel III, countercyclical capital buffer, banks, credit growth, baltic states

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
414 Buffer Allocation and Traffic Shaping Policies Implemented in Routers Based on a New Adaptive Intelligent Multi Agent Approach

Authors: M. Taheri Tehrani, H. Ajorloo


In this paper, an intelligent multi-agent framework is developed for each router in which agents have two vital functionalities, traffic shaping and buffer allocation and are positioned in the ports of the routers. With traffic shaping functionality agents shape the traffic forward by dynamic and real time allocation of the rate of generation of tokens in a Token Bucket algorithm and with buffer allocation functionality agents share their buffer capacity between each other based on their need and the conditions of the network. This dynamic and intelligent framework gives this opportunity to some ports to work better under burst and more busy conditions. These agents work intelligently based on Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm and will consider effective parameters in their decision process. As RL have limitation considering much parameter in its decision process due to the volume of calculations, we utilize our novel method which invokes Principle Component Analysis (PCA) on the RL and gives a high dimensional ability to this algorithm to consider as much as needed parameters in its decision process. This implementation when is compared to our previous work where traffic shaping was done without any sharing and dynamic allocation of buffer size for each port, the lower packet drop in the whole network specifically in the source routers can be seen. These methods are implemented in our previous proposed intelligent simulation environment to be able to compare better the performance metrics. The results obtained from this simulation environment show an efficient and dynamic utilization of resources in terms of bandwidth and buffer capacities pre allocated to each port.

Keywords: principal component analysis, reinforcement learning, buffer allocation, multi- agent systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
413 Influence of Thermal History on the Undrained Shear Strength of the Bentonite-Sand Mixture

Authors: K. Ravi, Sabu Subhash


Densely compacted bentonite or bentonite–sand mixture has been identified as a suitable buffer in the deep geological repository (DGR) for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) due to its favourable physicochemical and hydro-mechanical properties. The addition of sand to the bentonite enhances the thermal conductivity and compaction properties and reduces the drying shrinkage of the buffer material. The buffer material may undergo cyclic wetting and drying upon ingress of groundwater from the surrounding rock mass and from evaporation due to high temperature (50–210 °C) derived from the waste canister. The cycles of changes in temperature may result in thermal history, and the hydro-mechanical properties of the buffer material may be affected. This paper examines the influence of thermal history on the undrained shear strength of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture. Bentonite from Rajasthan state and sand from the Assam state of India are used in this study. The undrained shear strength values are obtained by conducting unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests on cylindrical specimens (dry densities 1.30 and 1.5 Mg/m3) of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture consisting of 30 % bentonite+ 70 % sand. The specimens are preheated at temperatures varying from 50-150 °C for one, two and four hours in hot air oven. The results indicate that the undrained shear strength is increased by the thermal history of the buffer material. The specimens of bentonite-sand mixture exhibited more increase in strength compared to the pure bentonite specimens. This indicates that the sand content of the mixture plays a vital role in taking the thermal stresses of the bentonite buffer in DGR conditions.

Keywords: bentonite, deep geological repository, thermal history, undrained shear strength

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412 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh


In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

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411 The Effect of Porous Alkali Activated Material Composition on Buffer Capacity in Bioreactors

Authors: Girts Bumanis, Diana Bajare


With demand for primary energy continuously growing, search for renewable and efficient energy sources has been high on agenda of our society. One of the most promising energy sources is biogas technology. Residues coming from dairy industry and milk processing could be used in biogas production; however, low efficiency and high cost impede wide application of such technology. One of the main problems is management and conversion of organic residues through the anaerobic digestion process which is characterized by acidic environment due to the low whey pH (<6) whereas additional pH control system is required. Low buffering capacity of whey is responsible for the rapid acidification in biological treatments; therefore alkali activated material is a promising solution of this problem. Alkali activated material is formed using SiO2 and Al2O3 rich materials under highly alkaline solution. After material structure forming process is completed, free alkalis remain in the structure of materials which are available for leaching and could provide buffer capacity potential. In this research porous alkali activated material was investigated. Highly porous material structure ensures gradual leaching of alkalis during time which is important in biogas digestion process. Research of mixture composition and SiO2/Na2O and SiO2/Al2O ratio was studied to test the buffer capacity potential of alkali activated material. This research has proved that by changing molar ratio of components it is possible to obtain a material with different buffer capacity, and this novel material was seen to have considerable potential for using it in processes where buffer capacity and pH control is vitally important.

Keywords: alkaline material, buffer capacity, biogas production, bioreactors

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
410 A Virtual Grid Based Energy Efficient Data Gathering Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Authors: Siddhartha Chauhan, Nitin Kumar Kotania


Traditional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) generally use static sinks to collect data from the sensor nodes via multiple forwarding. Therefore, network suffers with some problems like long message relay time, bottle neck problem which reduces the performance of the network. Many approaches have been proposed to prevent this problem with the help of mobile sink to collect the data from the sensor nodes, but these approaches still suffer from the buffer overflow problem due to limited memory size of sensor nodes. This paper proposes an energy efficient scheme for data gathering which overcomes the buffer overflow problem. The proposed scheme creates virtual grid structure of heterogeneous nodes. Scheme has been designed for sensor nodes having variable sensing rate. Every node finds out its buffer overflow time and on the basis of this cluster heads are elected. A controlled traversing approach is used by the proposed scheme in order to transmit data to sink. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulation.

Keywords: buffer overflow problem, mobile sink, virtual grid, wireless sensor networks

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409 Countercyclical Capital Buffer in the Polish Banking System

Authors: Mateusz Mokrogulski, Piotr Śliwka


The aim of this paper is the identification of periods of excessive credit growth in the Polish banking sector in years 2007-2014 using different methodologies. Due to the lack of precise guidance in CRD IV regarding methods of calculating the credit gap and related deviations from the long-term trends, a few filtering methods are applied, e.g. Hodrick-Prescott and Baxter-King. The solutions based on the switching model are also proposed. The next step represent computations of both the credit gap, and the counter cyclical capital buffer (CCB) rates on a quarterly basis. The calculations are carried out for the entire banking sector in Poland, as well as for its components (commercial and co-operative banks), and different types of loans. The calculations show vividly that in the analysed period there were the times of excessive credit growth. However, the results are different for the above mentioned sub-sectors. Of paramount importance here are mortgage loans, where the outcomes are distorted by high exchange rate fluctuations. The research on the CCB is now going to gain popularity as the buffer will soon become one of the tools of the macro prudential policy under CRD IV. Although the presented method is focused on the Polish banking sector, it can also be applied to other member states. Especially to the Central and Eastern European countries, that are usually characterized by smaller banking sectors compared to EU-15.

Keywords: countercyclical capital buffer, CRD IV, filtering methods, mortgage loans

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408 Optimization of Cu (In, Ga)Se₂ Based Thin Film Solar Cells: Simulation

Authors: Razieh Teimouri


Electrical modelling of Cu (In,Ga)Se₂ thin film solar cells is carried out with compositionally graded absorber and CdS buffer layer. Simulation results are compared with experimental data. Surface defect layers (SDL) are located in CdS/CIGS interface for improving open circuit voltage simulated structure through the analysis of the interface is investigated with or without this layer. When SDL removed, by optimizing the conduction band offset (CBO) position of the buffer/absorber layers with its recombination mechanisms and also shallow donor density in the CdS, the open circuit voltage increased significantly. As a result of simulation, excellent performance can be obtained when the conduction band of window layer positions higher by 0.2 eV than that of CIGS and shallow donor density in the CdS was found about 1×10¹⁸ (cm⁻³).

Keywords: CIGS solar cells, thin film, SCAPS, buffer layer, conduction band offset

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407 Post Occupancy Evaluation in Higher Education

Authors: Balogun Azeez Olawale, Azeez S. A.


Post occupancy evaluation (POE) is a process of assessing building performance for its users and intended function during the occupation. User satisfaction impacts the performance of educational environments and their users: students, faculty, and staff. In addition, buildings are maintained and managed by teams that spend a large amount of time and capital on their long-term sustenance. By evaluating the feedback from users of higher education facilities, university planning departments are more prepared to understand the inputs for programming and future project planning. In addition, university buildings will be closer to meeting user and maintenance needs. This paper reports on a research team made up of academics, facility personnel, and users that have developed a plan to improve the quality of campus facilities through a POE exercise on a recently built project. This study utilized a process of focus group interviews representing the different users and subsequent surveys. The paper demonstrates both the theory and practice of POE in higher education and learning environment through the case example of four universities in Nigeria's POE exercise.

Keywords: post occupancy evaluation, building performance, building analysis, building evaluation, quality control, building assessment, facility management, design quality

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406 Modelling Patient Condition-Based Demand for Managing Hospital Inventory

Authors: Esha Saha, Pradip Kumar Ray


A hospital inventory comprises of a large number and great variety of items for the proper treatment and care of patients, such as pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, surgical items, etc. Improper management of these items, i.e. stockouts, may lead to delay in treatment or other fatal consequences, even death of the patient. So, generally the hospitals tend to overstock items to avoid the risk of stockout which leads to unnecessary investment of money, difficulty in storing, more expiration and wastage, etc. Thus, in such challenging environment, it is necessary for hospitals to follow an inventory policy considering the stochasticity of demand in a hospital. Statistical analysis captures the correlation of patient condition based on bed occupancy with the patient demand which changes stochastically. Due to the dependency on bed occupancy, the markov model is developed that helps to map the changes in demand of hospital inventory based on the changes in the patient condition represented by the movements of bed occupancy states (acute care state, rehabilitative state and long-care state) during the length-of-stay of patient in a hospital. An inventory policy is developed for a hospital based on the fulfillment of patient demand with the objective of minimizing the frequency and quantity of placement of orders of inventoried items. The analytical structure of the model based on probability calculation is provided to show the optimal inventory-related decisions. A case-study is illustrated in this paper for the development of hospital inventory model based on patient demand for multiple inpatient pharmaceutical items. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the impact of inventory-related parameters on the developed optimal inventory policy. Therefore, the developed model and solution approach may help the hospital managers and pharmacists in managing the hospital inventory in case of stochastic demand of inpatient pharmaceutical items.

Keywords: bed occupancy, hospital inventory, markov model, patient condition, pharmaceutical items

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