Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Gwendolyn Royal-Smith

3 Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Brush in Cytopathology Diagnosis: A Fifteen-Month Study

Authors: Santosh Tummidi, Pragati Sathe, Kanchan Kothari, Prachi Gholap, Mona Agnihotri, Gwendolyn Fernandes, Leena Naik, Rachana Chaturvedi

Abstract:

Introduction: EUS-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Brush (EUS-FNA/Brush) has become increasingly popular for the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal and peri-gastrointestinal lesions. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and spectrum of lesions in gastrointestinal EUS-FNA. Material and Methods: A total of 124 EUS-FNA during the period from Aug 2015-Nov 2016 were studied. Results: Age ranged from 13-80 years with a slight female predominance. CBD was the most common site with 47 cases amongst which were 9 adenocarcinoma, and 7 cases were suspicious for malignancy. Pancreatic EUS-FNA showed 5 adenocarcinoma, 2 SPEN, 1 case each of neuroendocrine tumor, anaplastic carcinoma and NHL. Amongst oesophageal lesions, 3 cases were suspicious for malignancy, and 4 were inflammatory, 4 showed SCC, 1case each adenocarcinoma and leiomyoma. Stomach- 1 case each of adenocarcinoma, granulomatous inflammation, and GIST. Periportal lymph nodes were the commonest nodes, and there were 11 necrotising granulomatous inflammations, 3 metastatic adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of atypical cells and 1 case of NHL. 17 cases were unsatisfactory, 41 cases had histopathology follow up with 85% cases being concordant. Conclusion: EUS-FNA is reliable, sensitive and specific. It can be utilized for better management of intra-abdominal lesions.

Keywords: EUS-FNA, brush, cytology, histopathology

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2 From Being to Becoming: Emancipation and Empowerment in the African Diaspora

Authors: R. Vidhya

Abstract:

Diasporic writings present a comprehensive view of social, cultural and psychological dualities of immigrants. Isolation and the strong feelings of insecurity and inferiority due to constant marginalization coupled with a nostalgia for their motherland, its customs, culture, language, food and people which keep haunting the minds of immigrants are the major themes that are handled by diasporic writers. In the African diaspora, more than the men, it is the women who face the brunt and burden of the triple jeopardy – the racial, class and gender discrimination. Women writers from Africa have successfully sketched the plight of African women in the diaspora. Buchi Emecheta, a Nigerian woman writer deftly portrays the African Diaspora in her novels. She skillfully weaves her stories with her own experiences as an immigrant in the United Kingdom. She portrays the immigrant life and psychology through numerous themes like exile, geographical shift of locations, transactions of culture, political instability and the dilemma of moral and religious ideologies in her diasporic novels Second-class Citizen, Gwendolyn and Kehinde. The contemporary Nigerian woman writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie has also dexterously depicted the diasporic dilemma of her protagonist Ifemelu in Americannah, who initially has the experience of a despondent and a downcast in the United States of America. This paper aims to analyse the diasporic sentiments and sensibilities of the Nigerian Igbo women writers Buchi Emecheta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie whose women characters finally find emancipation and empowerment in the African Diaspora. This study is based on the Africana Womanist Literary theory propounded by Clenora Hudson-Weems.

Keywords: African Diaspora, Nigerian women writers, Buchi Emecheta, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, emancipation, empowerment

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1 Neurocognitive and Executive Function in Cocaine Addicted Females

Authors: Gwendolyn Royal-Smith

Abstract:

Cocaine ranks as one of the world’s most addictive and commonly abused stimulant drugs. Recent evidence indicates that the abuse of cocaine has risen so quickly among females that this group now accounts for about 40 percent of all users in the United States. Neuropsychological studies have demonstrated that specific neural activation patterns carry higher risks for neurocognitive and executive function in cocaine addicted females thereby increasing their vulnerability for poorer treatment outcomes and more frequent post-treatment relapse when compared to males. This study examined secondary data with a convenience sample of 164 cocaine addicted male and females to assess neurocognitive and executive function. The principal objective of this study was to assess whether individual performance on the Stroop Word Color Task is predictive of treatment success by gender. A second objective of the study evaluated whether individual performance employing neurocognitive measures including the Stroop Word-Color task, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RALVT), the Iowa Gambling Task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WISCT), the total score from the Barratte Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11) (BIS-11) and the total score from the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale (FrSBE) test demonstrated differences in neurocognitive and executive function performance by gender. Logistic regression models were employed utilizing a covariate adjusted model application. Initial analyses of the Stroop Word color tasks indicated significant differences in the performance of males and females, with females experiencing more challenges in derived interference reaction time and associate recall ability. In early testing including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RALVT), the number of advantageous vs disadvantageous cards from the Iowa Gambling Task, the number of perseverance errors from the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WISCT), the total score from the Barratte Impulsiveness Scale (Version 11) (BIS-11) and the total score from the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale, results were mixed with women scoring lower in multiple indicators in both neurocognitive and executive function.

Keywords: cocaine addiction, gender, neuropsychology, neurocognitive, executive function

Procedia PDF Downloads 329