Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 534

Search results for: dynamical heterogeneity

534 Dynamical Heterogeneity and Aging in Turbulence with a Nambu-Goldstone Mode

Authors: Fahrudin Nugroho, Halim Hamadi, Yusril Yusuf, Pekik Nurwantoro, Ari Setiawan, Yoshiki Hidaka


We investigate the Nikolaevskiy equation numerically using exponential time differencing method and pseudo-spectral method. This equation develops a long-wavelength modulation that behaves as a Nambu–Goldstone mode, and short-wavelength instability and exhibit turbulence. Using the autocorrelation analysis, the statistical properties of the turbulence governed by the equation are investigated. The autocorrelation then has been fitted with The Kohlrausch– Williams–Watts (KWW) expression. By varying the control parameter, we show a transition from compressed to stretched exponential for the auto-correlation function of Nikolaevskiy turbulence. The compressed exponential is an indicator of the existence of dynamical heterogeneity while the stretched indicates aging process. Thereby, we revealed the existence of dynamical heterogeneity and aging in the turbulence governed by Nikolaevskiy equation.

Keywords: compressed exponential, dynamical heterogeneity, Nikolaevskiy equation, stretched exponential, turbulence

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533 Dynamical Systems and Fibonacci Numbers

Authors: Vandana N. Purav


The Dynamical systems concept is a mathematical formalization for any fixed rule that describes the time dependence of a points position in its ambient space. e.g. pendulum of a clock, the number of fish each spring in a lake, the number of rabbits spring in an enclosure, etc. The Dynamical system theory used to describe the complex nature that is dynamical systems with differential equations called continuous dynamical system or dynamical system with difference equations called discrete dynamical system. The concept of dynamical system has its origin in Newtonian mechanics.

Keywords: dynamical systems, Fibonacci numbers, Newtonian mechanics, discrete dynamical system

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532 Automated 3D Segmentation System for Detecting Tumor and Its Heterogeneity in Patients with High Grade Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

Authors: Dimitrios Binas, Marianna Konidari, Charis Bourgioti, Lia Angela Moulopoulou, Theodore Economopoulos, George Matsopoulos


High grade ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) is fatal gynecological cancer and the poor prognosis of this entity is closely related to considerable intratumoral genetic heterogeneity. By examining imaging data, it is possible to assess the heterogeneity of tumorous tissue. This study proposes a methodology for aligning, segmenting and finally visualizing information from various magnetic resonance imaging series in order to construct 3D models of heterogeneity maps from the same tumor in OEC patients. The proposed system may be used as an adjunct digital tool by health professionals for personalized medicine, as it allows for an easy visual assessment of the heterogeneity of the examined tumor.

Keywords: image segmentation, ovarian epithelial cancer, quantitative characteristics, image registration, tumor visualization

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531 Inherent Relation Between Atomic-Level Stresses and Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in a Rejuvenated Bulk Metallic Glass

Authors: Majid Samavatian, Reza Gholamipour, Vahid Samavatian


This study addresses the role of rejuvenation on the fluctuation of atomic-level stresses and nanoscale topological heterogeneity in ZrCuNiAl bulk metallic glass (BMG). Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the rejuvenation process leads to an increase in nanoscale spatial heterogeneity manifested by the intensification of the local viscoelastic response of the BMG nanostructure. It means that the rejuvenation process induces more loose-packing structures which behave towards an external load in a viscoelastic way. Hence, it is suggested that the alteration of such heterogeneity may be attributed to the variation of positional atomic rearrangement during the evolution of structural rejuvenation. On the other side, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the rejuvenation intensifies the variation of internal stresses at the atomic level. This conclusion unfolds that the increase of atomic-level stresses during rejuvenation induces structural disordering and nanoscale heterogeneity in the amorphous material.

Keywords: bulk metallic glass, heterogeneity, rejuvenation, nanostructure

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530 Population Dynamics in Aquatic Environments: Spatial Heterogeneity and Optimal Harvesting

Authors: Sarita Kumari, Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay


This paper deals with plankton-fish dynamics where the fish population is growing logistically and nonlinearly harvested. The interaction between phytoplankton and zooplankton population is considered to be Crowley-Martin type functional response. It has been assumed that phytoplankton grows logistically and is affected by a space-dependent growth rate. Conditions for the existence of a positive equilibrium point and their stability analysis (both local and global) have been discussed for the non-spatial system. We have discussed maximum sustainable yields as well as optimal harvesting policy for maximizing the economic gain. The stability and existence of Hopf –bifurcation analysis have been discussed for the spatial system. Different conditions for turning pattern formation have been established through diffusion-driven instability analysis. Numerical simulations have been carried out for both non-spatial and spatial models. Phase plane analysis, the largest Lyapunov exponent, and bifurcation theory are used to numerically analyzed the non-spatial system. Our study shows that spatial heterogeneity, the mortality rate of phytoplankton, and constant harvesting of the fish population each play an important role in the dynamical behavior of the marine system.

Keywords: optimal harvesting, pattern formation, spatial heterogeneity, Crowley-Martin functional response

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529 Modeling and Controlling Nonlinear Dynamical Effects in Non-Contact Superconducting and Diamagnetic Suspensions

Authors: Sergey Kuznetsov, Yuri Urman


We present an approach to investigate non-linear dynamical effects occurring in the noncontact superconducting and diamagnetic suspensions, when levitated body has finite size. This approach is based on the calculation of interaction energy between spherical finite size superconducting or diamagnetic body with external magnetic field. Effects of small deviations from spherical shape may be also taken into account by introducing small corrections to the energy. This model allows investigating dynamical effects important for practical applications, such as nonlinear resonances, change of vibration plane, coupling of rotational and translational motions etc. We also show how the geometry of suspension affects various dynamical effects and how an inverse problem may be formulated to enforce or diminish various dynamical effects.

Keywords: levitation, non-linear dynamics, superconducting, diamagnetic stability

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528 Model-Free Distributed Control of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Javad Khazaei, Rick Blum


Distributed control is an efficient and flexible approach for coordination of multi-agent systems. One of the main challenges in designing a distributed controller is identifying the governing dynamics of the dynamical systems. Data-driven system identification is currently undergoing a revolution. With the availability of high-fidelity measurements and historical data, model-free identification of dynamical systems can facilitate the control design without tedious modeling of high-dimensional and/or nonlinear systems. This paper develops a distributed control design using consensus theory for linear and nonlinear dynamical systems using sparse identification of system dynamics. Compared with existing consensus designs that heavily rely on knowing the detailed system dynamics, the proposed model-free design can accurately capture the dynamics of the system with available measurements and input data and provide guaranteed performance in consensus and tracking problems. Heterogeneous damped oscillators are chosen as examples of dynamical system for validation purposes.

Keywords: consensus tracking, distributed control, model-free control, sparse identification of dynamical systems

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527 Heterogeneity of Soil Moisture and Its Impacts on the Mountainous Watershed Hydrology in Northwest China

Authors: Chansheng He, Zhongfu Wang, Xiao Bai, Jie Tian, Xin Jin


Heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties directly affects hydrological processes at different scales. Understanding heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties such as soil moisture is therefore essential for modeling watershed ecohydrological processes, particularly in hard to access, topographically complex mountainous watersheds. This study maps spatial variations of soil moisture by in situ observation network that consists of sampling points, zones, and tributaries, and monitors corresponding hydrological variables of air and soil temperatures, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and runoff in the Upper Reach of the Heihe River Watershed, a second largest inland river (terminal lake) with a drainage area of over 128,000 km² in Northwest China. Subsequently, the study uses a hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate the effects of heterogeneity of soil moisture on watershed hydrological processes. The spatial clustering method, Full-Order-CLK was employed to derive five soil heterogeneous zones (Configuration 97, 80, 65, 40, and 20) for soil input to SWAT. Results show the simulations by the SWAT model with the spatially clustered soil hydraulic information from the field sampling data had much better representation of the soil heterogeneity and more accurate performance than the model using the average soil property values for each soil type derived from the coarse soil datasets. Thus, incorporating detailed field sampling soil heterogeneity data greatly improves performance in hydrologic modeling.

Keywords: heterogeneity, soil moisture, SWAT, up-scaling

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526 Firm Level Productivity Heterogeneity and Export Behavior: Evidence from UK

Authors: Umut Erksan Senalp


The aim of this study is to examine the link between firm level productivity heterogeneity and firm’s decision to export. Thus, we test the self selection hypothesis which suggests only more productive firms self select themselves to export markets. We analyze UK manufacturing sector by using firm-level data for the period 2003-2011. Although our preliminary results suggest that exporters outperform non-exporters when we pool all manufacturing industries, when we examine each industry individually, we find that self-selection hypothesis does not hold for each industries.

Keywords: total factor productivity, firm heterogeneity, international trade, decision to export

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525 Multiscale Analysis of Shale Heterogeneity in Silurian Longmaxi Formation from South China

Authors: Xianglu Tang, Zhenxue Jiang, Zhuo Li


Characterization of shale multi scale heterogeneity is an important part to evaluate size and space distribution of shale gas reservoirs in sedimentary basins. The origin of shale heterogeneity has always been a hot research topic for it determines shale micro characteristics description and macro quality reservoir prediction. Shale multi scale heterogeneity was discussed based on thin section observation, FIB-SEM, QEMSCAN, TOC, XRD, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and nitrogen adsorption analysis from 30 core samples in Silurian Longmaxi formation. Results show that shale heterogeneity can be characterized by pore structure and mineral composition. The heterogeneity of shale pore is showed by different size pores at nm-μm scale. Macropores (pore diameter > 50 nm) have a large percentage of pore volume than mesopores (pore diameter between 2~ 50 nm) and micropores (pore diameter < 2nm). However, they have a low specific surface area than mesopores and micropores. Fractal dimensions of the pores from nitrogen adsorption data are higher than 2.7, what are higher than 2.8 from MIP data, showing extremely complex pore structure. This complexity in pore structure is mainly due to the organic matter and clay minerals with complex pore network structures, and diagenesis makes it more complicated. The heterogeneity of shale minerals is showed by mineral grains, lamina, and different lithology at nm-km scale under the continuous changing horizon. Through analyzing the change of mineral composition at each scale, random arrangement of mineral equal proportion, seasonal climate changes, large changes of sedimentary environment, and provenance supply are considered to be the main reasons that cause shale minerals heterogeneity from microcosmic to macroscopic. Due to scale effect, the change of shale multi scale heterogeneity is a discontinuous process, and there is a transformation boundary between homogeneous and in homogeneous. Therefore, a shale multi scale heterogeneity changing model is established by defining four types of homogeneous unit at different scales, which can be used to guide the prediction of shale gas distribution from micro scale to macro scale.

Keywords: heterogeneity, homogeneous unit, multiscale, shale

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524 Projective Lag Synchronization in Drive-Response Dynamical Networks via Hybrid Feedback Control

Authors: Mohd Salmi Md Noorani, Ghada Al-Mahbashi, Sakhinah Abu Bakar


This paper investigates projective lag synchronization (PLS) behavior in drive response dynamical networks (DRDNs) model with identical nodes. A hybrid feedback control method is designed to achieve the PLS with mismatch and without mismatch terms. The stability of the error dynamics is proven theoretically using the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, analytical results show that the states of the dynamical network with non-delayed coupling can be asymptotically synchronized onto a desired scaling factor under the designed controller. Moreover, the numerical simulations results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords: drive-response dynamical network, projective lag synchronization, hybrid feedback control, stability theory

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523 On the Topological Entropy of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Authors: Graziano Chesi


The topological entropy plays a key role in linear dynamical systems, allowing one to establish the existence of stabilizing feedback controllers for linear systems in the presence of communications constraints. This paper addresses the determination of a robust value of the topological entropy in nonlinear dynamical systems, specifically the largest value of the topological entropy over all linearized models in a region of interest of the state space. It is shown that a sufficient condition for establishing upper bounds of the sought robust value of the topological entropy can be given in terms of a semidefinite program (SDP), which belongs to the class of convex optimization problems.

Keywords: non-linear system, communication constraint, topological entropy

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522 The Impact of Team Heterogeneity and Team Reflexivity on Entrepreneurial Decision -Making - Empirical Study in China

Authors: Chang Liu, Rui Xing, Liyan Tang, Guohong Wang


Entrepreneurial actions are based on entrepreneurial decisions. The quality of decisions influences entrepreneurial activities and subsequent new venture performance. Uncertainty of surroundings put heightened demands on the team as a whole, and each team member. Diverse team composition provides rich information, which a team can draw when making complex decisions. However, team heterogeneity may cause emotional conflicts, which is adverse to team outcomes. Thus, the effects of team heterogeneity on team outcomes are complex. Although team heterogeneity is an essential factor influencing entrepreneurial decision-making, there is a lack of empirical analysis on under what conditions team heterogeneity plays a positive role in promoting decision-making quality. Entrepreneurial teams always struggle with complex tasks. How a team shapes its teamwork is key in resolving constant issues. As a collective regulatory process, team reflexivity is characterized by continuous joint evaluation and discussion of team goals, strategies, and processes, and adapt them to current or anticipated circumstances. It enables diversified information to be shared and overtly discussed. Instead of hostile interpretation of opposite opinions team members take them as useful insights from different perspectives. Team reflexivity leads to better integration of expertise to avoid the interference of negative emotions and conflict. Therefore, we propose that team reflexivity is a conditional factor that influences the impact of team heterogeneity on high-quality entrepreneurial decisions. In this study, we identify team heterogeneity as a crucial determinant of entrepreneurial decision quality. Integrating the literature on decision-making and team heterogeneity, we investigate the relationship between team heterogeneity and entrepreneurial decision-making quality, treating team reflexivity as a moderator. We tested our hypotheses using the hierarchical regression method and the data gathered from 63 teams and 205 individual members from 45 new firms in China's first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. This research found that both teams' education heterogeneity and teams' functional background heterogeneity were significantly positively related to entrepreneurial decision-making quality, and the positive relation was stronger in teams with a high level of team reflexivity. While teams' specialization of education heterogeneity was negatively related to decision-making quality, and the negative relationship was weaker in teams with a high level of team reflexivity. We offer two contributions to decision-making and entrepreneurial team literatures. Firstly, our study enriches the understanding of the role of entrepreneurial team heterogeneity in entrepreneurial decision-making quality. Different from previous entrepreneurial decision-making literatures, which focus more on decision-making modes of entrepreneurs and the top management team, this study is a significant attempt to highlight that entrepreneurial team heterogeneity makes a unique contribution to generating high-quality entrepreneurial decisions. Secondly, this study introduced team reflexivity as the moderating variable, to explore the boundary conditions under which the entrepreneurial team heterogeneity play their roles.

Keywords: decision-making quality, entrepreneurial teams, education heterogeneity, functional background heterogeneity, specialization of education heterogeneity

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521 Investigation on Performance of Change Point Algorithm in Time Series Dynamical Regimes and Effect of Data Characteristics

Authors: Farhad Asadi, Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi


In this paper, Bayesian online inference in models of data series are constructed by change-points algorithm, which separated the observed time series into independent series and study the change and variation of the regime of the data with related statistical characteristics. variation of statistical characteristics of time series data often represent separated phenomena in the some dynamical system, like a change in state of brain dynamical reflected in EEG signal data measurement or a change in important regime of data in many dynamical system. In this paper, prediction algorithm for studying change point location in some time series data is simulated. It is verified that pattern of proposed distribution of data has important factor on simpler and smother fluctuation of hazard rate parameter and also for better identification of change point locations. Finally, the conditions of how the time series distribution effect on factors in this approach are explained and validated with different time series databases for some dynamical system.

Keywords: time series, fluctuation in statistical characteristics, optimal learning, change-point algorithm

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520 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction 'Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect'

Authors: Minas Balyan


Nowadays X-ray nonlinear diffraction and nonlinear effects are investigated due to the presence of the third generation synchrotron sources and XFELs. X-ray third order nonlinear dynamical diffraction is considered as well. Using the nonlinear model of the usual visible light optics the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses are obtained by the author in previous papers. The obtained equations show, that even if the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero (forbidden reflection), the dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus, in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well-known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the 'third order nonlinear Renninger effect' is considered theoretically.

Keywords: Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Takagi’s equations, nonlinear Renninger effect, third order nonlinearity

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519 Time-Evolving Wave Packet in Phase Space

Authors: Mitsuyoshi Tomiya, Kentaro Kawamura, Shoichi Sakamoto


In chaotic billiard systems, scar-like localization has been found on time-evolving wave packet. We may call it the “dynamical scar” to separate it to the original scar in stationary states. It also comes out along the vicinity of classical unstable periodic orbits, when the wave packets are launched along the orbits, against the hypothesis that the waves become homogenous all around the billiard. Then time-evolving wave packets are investigated numerically in phase space. The Wigner function is adopted to detect the wave packets in phase space. The 2-dimensional Poincaré sections of the 4-dimensional phase space are introduced to clarify the dynamical behavior of the wave packets. The Poincaré sections of the coordinate (x or y) and the momentum (Px or Py) can visualize the dynamical behavior of the wave packets, including the behavior in the momentum degree also. For example, in “dynamical scar” states, a bit larger momentum component comes first, and then the a bit smaller and smaller components follow next. The sections made in the momentum space (Px or Py) elucidates specific trajectories that have larger contribution to the “dynamical scar” states. It is the fixed point observation of the momentum degrees at a specific fixed point(x0, y0) in the phase space. The accumulation are also calculated to search the “dynamical scar” in the Poincare sections. It is found the scars as bright spots in momentum degrees of the phase space.

Keywords: chaotic billiard, Poincaré section, scar, wave packet

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518 Inconsistent Effects of Landscape Heterogeneity on Animal Diversity in an Agricultural Mosaic: A Multi-Scale and Multi-Taxon Investigation

Authors: Chevonne Reynolds, Robert J. Fletcher, Jr, Celine M. Carneiro, Nicole Jennings, Alison Ke, Michael C. LaScaleia, Mbhekeni B. Lukhele, Mnqobi L. Mamba, Muzi D. Sibiya, James D. Austin, Cebisile N. Magagula, Themba’alilahlwa Mahlaba, Ara Monadjem, Samantha M. Wisely, Robert A. McCleery


A key challenge for the developing world is reconciling biodiversity conservation with the growing demand for food. In these regions, agriculture is typically interspersed among other land-uses creating heterogeneous landscapes. A primary hypothesis for promoting biodiversity in agricultural landscapes is the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. While there is evidence that landscape heterogeneity positively influences biodiversity, the application of this hypothesis is hindered by a need to determine which components of landscape heterogeneity drive these effects and at what spatial scale(s). Additionally, whether diverse taxonomic groups are similarly affected is central for determining the applicability of this hypothesis as a general conservation strategy in agricultural mosaics. Two major components of landscape heterogeneity are compositional and configurational heterogeneity. Disentangling the roles of each component is important for biodiversity conservation because each represents different mechanisms underpinning variation in biodiversity. We identified a priori independent gradients of compositional and configurational landscape heterogeneity within an extensive agricultural mosaic in north-eastern Swaziland. We then tested how bird, dung beetle, ant and meso-carnivore diversity responded to compositional and configurational heterogeneity across six different spatial scales. To determine if a general trend could be observed across multiple taxa, we also tested which component and spatial scale was most influential across all taxonomic groups combined, Compositional, not configurational, heterogeneity explained diversity in each taxonomic group, with the exception of meso-carnivores. Bird and ant diversity was positively correlated with compositional heterogeneity at fine spatial scales < 1000 m, whilst dung beetle diversity was negatively correlated to compositional heterogeneity at broader spatial scales > 1500 m. Importantly, because of these contrasting effects across taxa, there was no effect of either component of heterogeneity on the combined taxonomic diversity at any spatial scale. The contrasting responses across taxonomic groups exemplify the difficulty in implementing effective conservation strategies that meet the requirements of diverse taxa. To promote diverse communities across a range of taxa, conservation strategies must be multi-scaled and may involve different strategies at varying scales to offset the contrasting influences of compositional heterogeneity. A diversity of strategies are likely key to conserving biodiversity in agricultural mosaics, and we have demonstrated that a landscape management strategy that only manages for heterogeneity at one particular scale will likely fall short of management objectives.

Keywords: agriculture, biodiversity, composition, configuration, heterogeneity

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517 Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics

Authors: Madiha Tariq, Hena Rabbani


Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.

Keywords: dynamical localization, cavity optomechanics, Hamiltonian chaos, probe field

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516 Neural Adaptive Controller for a Class of Nonlinear Pendulum Dynamical System

Authors: Mohammad Reza Rahimi Khoygani, Reza Ghasemi


In this paper, designing direct adaptive neural controller is applied for a class of a nonlinear pendulum dynamic system. The radial basis function (RBF) is used for the Neural network (NN). The adaptive neural controller is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. Both the effectiveness of the controller and robustness against disturbances are the merits of this paper. The promising performance of the proposed controllers investigates in simulation results.

Keywords: adaptive control, pendulum dynamical system, nonlinear control, adaptive neural controller, nonlinear dynamical, neural network, RBF, driven pendulum, position control

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515 Calculating Non-Unique Sliding Modes for Switched Dynamical Systems

Authors: Eugene Stepanov, Arkadi Ponossov


Ordinary differential equations with switching nonlinearities constitute a very useful tool in many applications. The solutions of such equations can usually be calculated analytically if they cross the discontinuities transversally. Otherwise, one has trajectories that slides along the discontinuity, and the calculations become less straightforward in this case. For instance, one of the problems one faces is non-uniqueness of the sliding modes. In the presentation, it is proposed to apply the theory of hybrid dynamical systems to calculate the solutions that are ‘hidden’ in the discontinuities. Roughly, one equips the underlying switched system with an explicitly designed discrete dynamical system (‘automaton’), which governs the dynamics of the switched system. This construction ‘splits’ the dynamics, which, as it is shown in the presentation, gives uniqueness of the resulting hybrid trajectories and at the same time provides explicit formulae for them. Projecting the hybrid trajectories back onto the original continuous system explains non-uniqueness of its trajectories. The automaton is designed with the help of the attractors of the specially constructed adjoint dynamical system. Several examples are provided in the presentation, which supports the efficiency of the suggested scheme. The method can be of interest in control theory, gene regulatory networks, neural field models and other fields, where switched dynamics is a part of the analysis.

Keywords: hybrid dynamical systems, singular perturbation analysis, sliding modes, switched dynamics

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514 An Approach to Correlate the Statistical-Based Lorenz Method, as a Way of Measuring Heterogeneity, with Kozeny-Carman Equation

Authors: H. Khanfari, M. Johari Fard


Dealing with carbonate reservoirs can be mind-boggling for the reservoir engineers due to various digenetic processes that cause a variety of properties through the reservoir. A good estimation of the reservoir heterogeneity which is defined as the quality of variation in rock properties with location in a reservoir or formation, can better help modeling the reservoir and thus can offer better understanding of the behavior of that reservoir. Most of reservoirs are heterogeneous formations whose mineralogy, organic content, natural fractures, and other properties vary from place to place. Over years, reservoir engineers have tried to establish methods to describe the heterogeneity, because heterogeneity is important in modeling the reservoir flow and in well testing. Geological methods are used to describe the variations in the rock properties because of the similarities of environments in which different beds have deposited in. To illustrate the heterogeneity of a reservoir vertically, two methods are generally used in petroleum work: Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V) and Lorenz coefficient (L) that are reviewed briefly in this paper. The concept of Lorenz is based on statistics and has been used in petroleum from that point of view. In this paper, we correlated the statistical-based Lorenz method to a petroleum concept, i.e. Kozeny-Carman equation and derived the straight line plot of Lorenz graph for a homogeneous system. Finally, we applied the two methods on a heterogeneous field in South Iran and discussed each, separately, with numbers and figures. As expected, these methods show great departure from homogeneity. Therefore, for future investment, the reservoir needs to be treated carefully.

Keywords: carbonate reservoirs, heterogeneity, homogeneous system, Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V), Lorenz coefficient (L)

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513 Klippel Feil Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Rim Frikha, Nouha Bouayed Abdelmoula, Afifa Sellami, Salima Daoud, Tarek Rebai


Klippel-Feil Syndrome (KFS) is characterized by congenital vertebral fusion of the cervical spine resulting from faulty segmentation along the embryo's developing axis. A wide spectrum of associated anomalies may be present. This heterogeneity has complicated elucidation of the genetic etiology and management of the syndrome. We report a case of an isolated Klippel-Feil Syndrome with C5-C6 fusion on the cervical spine. It‘s the rarest form of congenital fused cervical vertebrae which is predisposed to the risk of spinal cord injury and neurologic problems. The aim of this paper was to review clinical heterogeneity; radiographic abnormalities and genetic etiology in Klippel-Feil Syndrome. We insist in comprehensive evaluation and delineation of diagnostic and prognostic classes.

Keywords: Klippel–Feil anomaly, genetic, clinical heterogeneity, radiographic abnormalities

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512 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction Rocking Curves in Case of Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect

Authors: Minas Balyan


In the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and in the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses for forbidden reflections the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero. The dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the ‘third order nonlinear Renninger effect’ is considered theoretically and numerically. If the reflection exactly is forbidden the diffracted wave’s amplitude is zero both in Laue and Bragg cases since the boundary conditions and dynamical diffraction equations are compatible with zero solution. But in real crystals due to some percent of dislocations and other localized defects, the atoms are displaced with respect to their equilibrium positions. Thus in real crystals susceptibilities of forbidden reflection are by some order small than for usual not forbidden reflections but are not exactly equal to zero. The numerical calculations for susceptibilities two order less than for not forbidden reflection show that in Bragg geometry case the nonlinear reflection curve’s behavior is the same as for not forbidden reflection, but for forbidden reflection the rocking curves’ width, center and boundaries are two order sensitive on the input intensity value. This gives an opportunity to investigate third order nonlinear X-ray dynamical diffraction for not intense beams – 0.001 in the units of critical intensity.

Keywords: third order nonlinearity, Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Renninger effect, rocking curves

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511 Finite Time Blow-Up and Global Solutions for a Semilinear Parabolic Equation with Linear Dynamical Boundary Conditions

Authors: Xu Runzhang, Yang Yanbing, Niu Yi, Zhang Mingyou, Liu Yu


For a class of semilinear parabolic equations with linear dynamical boundary conditions in a bounded domain, we obtain both global solutions and finite time blow-up solutions when the initial data varies in the phase space H1(Ω). Our main tools are the comparison principle, the potential well method and the concavity method. In particular, we discuss the behavior of the solutions with the initial data at critical and high energy level.

Keywords: high energy level, critical energy level, linear dynamical boundary condition, semilinear parabolic equation

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510 Periodically Forced Oscillator with Noisy Chaotic Dynamics

Authors: Adedayo Oke Adelakun


The chaotic dynamics of periodically forced oscillators with smooth potential has been extensively investigated via theoretical, numerical and experimental simulations. With the advent of the study of chaotic dynamics by means of method of multiple time scale analysis, Melnikov theory, bifurcation diagram, Poincare's map, bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents, it has become necessary to seek for a better understanding of nonlinear oscillator with noisy term. In this paper, we examine the influence of noise on complex dynamical behaviour of periodically forced F6 - Duffing oscillator for specific choice of noisy parameters. The inclusion of noisy term improves the dynamical behaviour of the oscillator which may have wider application in secure communication than smooth potential.

Keywords: hierarchical structure, periodically forced oscillator, noisy parameters, dynamical behaviour, F6 - duffing oscillator

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509 Application of the Quantile Regression Approach to the Heterogeneity of the Fine Wine Prices

Authors: Charles-Olivier Amédée-Manesme, Benoit Faye, Eric Le Fur


In this paper, the heterogeneity of the Bordeaux Legends 50 wine market price segment is addressed. For this purpose, quantile regression is applied – with market segmentation based on wine bottle price quantile – and the hedonic price of wine attributes is computed for various price segments of the market. The approach is applied to a major privately held data set which consists of approximately 30,000 transactions over the 2003–2014 period. The findings suggest that the relative hedonic prices of several wine attributes differ significantly among deciles. In particular, the elasticity coefficient of the expert ratings shows strong variation among prices. If - as suggested in the literature - expert ratings have a positive influence on wine price on average, they have a clearly decreasing impact over the quantiles. Finally, the lower the wine price, the higher the potential for price appreciation over time. Other variables such as chateaux or vintage are also shown to vary across the distribution of wine prices. While enhancing our understanding of the complex market dynamics that underlie Bordeaux wines’ price, this research provides empirical evidence that the QR approach adequately captures heterogeneity among wine price ranges, which simultaneously applies to wine stock, vintage and auctions’ house.

Keywords: hedonics, market segmentation, quantile regression, heterogeneity, wine economics

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508 Reconstruction and Rejection of External Disturbances in a Dynamical System

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, A. Benallegue, A. El Hadri


In this paper, we have proposed an observer for the reconstruction and a control law for the rejection application of unknown bounded external disturbance in a dynamical system. The strategy of both the observer and the controller is designed like a second order sliding mode with a proportional-integral (PI) term. Lyapunov theory is used to prove the exponential convergence and stability. Simulations results are given to show the performance of this method.

Keywords: non-linear systems, sliding mode observer, disturbance rejection, nonlinear control

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507 Tobacco Taxation and the Heterogeneity of Smokers' Responses to Price Increases

Authors: Simone Tedeschi, Francesco Crespi, Paolo Liberati, Massimo Paradiso, Antonio Sciala


This paper aims at contributing to the understanding of smokers’ responses to cigarette prices increases with a focus on heterogeneity, both across individuals and price levels. To do this, a stated preference quasi-experimental design grounded in a random utility framework is proposed to evaluate the effect on smokers’ utility of the price level and variation, along with social conditioning and health impact perception. The analysis is based on individual-level data drawn from a unique survey gathering very detailed information on Italian smokers’ habits. In particular, qualitative information on the individual reactions triggered by changes in prices of different magnitude and composition are exploited. The main findings stemming from the analysis are the following; the average price elasticity of cigarette consumption is comparable with previous estimates for advanced economies (-.32). However, the decomposition of this result across five latent-classes of smokers, reveals extreme heterogeneity in terms of price responsiveness, implying a potential price elasticity that ranges between 0.05 to almost 1. Such heterogeneity is in part explained by observable characteristics such as age, income, gender, education as well as (current and lagged) smoking intensity. Moreover, price responsiveness is far from being independent from the size of the prospected price increase. Finally, by comparing even and uneven price variations, it is shown that uniform across-brand price increases are able to limit the scope of product substitutions and downgrade. Estimated price-response heterogeneity has significant implications for tax policy. Among them, first, it provides evidence and a rationale for why the aggregate price elasticity is likely to follow a strictly increasing pattern as a function of the experienced price variation. This information is crucial for forecasting the effect of a given tax-driven price change on tax revenue. Second, it provides some guidance on how to design excise tax reforms to balance public health and revenue goals.

Keywords: smoking behaviour, preference heterogeneity, price responsiveness, cigarette taxation, random utility models

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506 Reproduction of New Media Art Village around NTUT: Heterotopia of Visual Culture Art Education

Authors: Yu Cheng-Yu


‘Heterotopia’, ‘Visual Cultural Art Education’ and ‘New Media’ of these three subjects seemingly are irrelevant. In fact, there are synchronicity and intertextuality inside. In addition to visual culture, art education inspires students the ability to reflect on popular culture image through visual culture teaching strategies in school. We should get involved in the community to construct the learning environment that conveys visual culture art. This thesis attempts to probe the heterogeneity of space and value from Michel Foucault and to research sustainable development strategy in ‘New Media Art Village’ heterogeneity from Jean Baudrillard, Marshall McLuhan's media culture theory and social construction ideology. It is possible to find a new media group that can convey ‘Visual Culture Art Education’ around the National Taipei University of Technology in this commercial district that combines intelligent technology, fashion, media, entertainment, art education, and marketing network. Let the imagination and innovation of ‘New Media Art Village’ become ‘implementable’ and new media Heterotopia of inter-subjectivity with the engagement of big data and digital media. Visual culture art education will also bring aesthetics into the community by New Media Art Village.

Keywords: social construction, heterogeneity, new media, big data, visual culture art education

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505 Effect of Anisotropy and Heterogeneity on Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Mahigir


Naturally occurring cohesive soil deposits are inherently anisotropic with respect to different properties amongst which is the shear strength. The anisotropy is primary due to the process of sedimentation followed by predominantly one-dimensional consolidation. However, most soils in their natural states exhibit some anisotropy with respect to shear strength and some non-homogeneity with respect to depth. In this paper the standard Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was modified to consider the anisotropic shear strength properties. The term non-homogeneity used in this paper refers to only the cohesion intercept which is assumed to vary linearly with depth. The effect of both anisotropy and deterministic non-homogeneity on bearing capacity of shallow foundation was investigated using finite difference method. Result of numerical analysis indicates that the cohesion anisotropy has a significant effect on bearing capacity of shallow foundation. Furthermore, the linear and bilinear heterogeneity affects the bearing capacity in a similar way although the anisotropy issue emerges to be more important as far as shallow foundations are considered.

Keywords: anisotropic ratio, finite difference analysis, bearing capacity, heterogeneity

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