Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Taj Mahal

17 Highlighting Adverse Effects of Privatization of Heritage on Taj Mahal and Providing Solutions to Improve the Condition without Privatizing

Authors: Avani Saraswat

Abstract:

The paper studies the present condition of Taj Mahal (the UNESCO world heritage site) and the reasons behind deterioration. Analysis is done to explore the reasons behind this building to be included in the list of adopt heritage scheme, by the Government of India. The aim is to find out the future effects on Taj Mahal after being adopted by a private body. Finally, it suggests solutions which can lead to improvement of the present condition of the building. In order to establish a research, a further analysis is done through a case study of Red Fort, New Delhi (another UNESCO world heritage site). This monument was given to Dalmia Group of India Pvt. Ltd. for the tenure of 5 years. Paper discusses the consequences of privatization on Red Fort and then analyze it for Taj Mahal. It terms monument as riches of a heritage chest, not as a commercial tourist place. The study is concluded with the ideas and suggestions proposed for saving Taj Mahal and advantages on improving the health of the building.

Keywords: privatisation of heritage, heritage, Taj Mahal, adopt heritage scheme

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16 Impact of Chronic Pollution on the Taj Mahal, India

Authors: Kiran P. Chadayamuri, Saransh Bagdi, Sai Vinod Boddu

Abstract:

Pollution has been a major problem that has haunted India for years. Large amounts of industrial, automobile and domestic waste have resulted in heavy contamination of air, land and water. The Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, has been and continues to be India’s symbol of a rich history around the globe. Over the years, the beauty of Taj Mahal has also suffered from increasing pollution. Its shiny white exterior has started to turn yellow because of air pollution and acid rain. Illegal factories and uncontrolled construction have played a major role in worsening its condition. Rapid population growth in the city (Agra) meant more water requirement which has led to ground water deterioration under the historical monument making its wooden foundations dry and weak. Despite various measures by the state and central government, there hasn’t been any satisfactory result. This paper aims at studying the various causes and their impacts affecting the Taj Mahal and method that could slow down its deterioration.

Keywords: pollution, Taj Mahal, India, management

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15 Geotechnical Distress Evaluation of a Damaged Structure

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Umar Saleem, Muhammad Junaid, Rizwan Tahir

Abstract:

Gulzar Mahal is a heritage site located in the city of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The site is under a process of degradation, as cracks are appearing on the walls, roofs, and floor around the building due to differential settlement. To preserve the integrity of the structure, a geotechnical distress evaluation was carried out to evaluate the causal factors and recommend remediation measures. The research involved the characterization of the problematic soil and analysis of the observed distress with respect to the geotechnical properties. Both conventional lab and field tests were used in conjunction with the unconventional techniques like; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and FEA. The temporal, geophysical and geotechnical evaluations have concluded that the foundation soil over the past was subjected to variations in the land use, poor drainage patterns, overloading and fluctuations in groundwater table all contributing to the differential settlements manifesting in the form of the visible shear crack across the length and breadth of the building.

Keywords: differential settlement, distress evaluation, finite element analysis, Gulzar Mahal

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14 Diversity of Dermatophytes and Keratinophilic Fungi from Inernational Tourist Spots, City of Taj Mahal

Authors: Harison Masih, Jyotsna Kiran Peter, Sundara Singh, Geetha Singh

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with diversity of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi from different tourist spots such as Agra Fort, Akbar tomb, It-Mat-Ud-Daulah, Mariam tomb, Radha Swami Bagh, and Taj Mahal of Agra City. These fungi are medically important which causes various infections and diseases in humans and animals. The main reservoir of these pathogens are the keratinous substances that increases due to birds and animal activities in the vicinity of monuments, where thousands (5413266) annual visitors from all over the world are visiting. The soil samples were subjected to isolate the pathogenic fungi through bait technique (buffalo skin, chicken feathers, human hair and goat tail hair). Baits were spread over the soil samples and incubated at room temperature for 30-35 days and pure culture isolates were maintained in SDA medium, stored at 4°C. Highest number of visitors were (3906453) from Taj Mahal, minimum 10785 at Mariam tomb annually, the total 271 isolates were encountered from soil samples out of these 18 genera and 38 species were found in different season. Highest incidence was 4.79% frequency shown by Chrysosporium keratinophilum while least 738% frequency occurrence by Trichophyton simii in soil samples. From the present study it was concluded that the incidence of pathogenic fungal isolates were the common in tourists soil that are etiological agents of superficial mycosis. Thus, both human and animal activity seemed to play an important role in occurrence and distribution of keratinophilic and related dermatophytes at various tourist places of Agra city.

Keywords: dermatophytic fungal diversity, bait technique, visitors at tourist spots, human and animal activities, soil samples

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13 Construction of Pile Foundation Using Slow and Old Equipments at Srinagar, India

Authors: Azmat Hussain

Abstract:

Great Taj Mahal is built on well foundation. Well foundation can be constructed on the dry bed or after making sand Island. Cassions are relatively easy to construct provide sinking operations are smooth without much hindrance. Well foundation have many constructional difficulties, viz prolonged sinking period, tilting etc. These problems become worse and take more time when working season is winter. Especially in Indian Areas like Jammu & Kashmir (Srinagar) where technology lacks. The only thing Engineers can do is to wait till working conditions become suitable. A case study is presented in the paper exploring the feasibility of pile foundation.

Keywords: well foundation, pile foundation, equipments used, pile construction

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12 Strategic Analysis of Loss of Urban Heritage in Bhopal City Due to Infrastructure Development

Authors: Aishwarya K. V., Shreya Sudesh

Abstract:

Built along the edges of a 11th century CE man-made lake, the city of Bhopal has stood witness to historic layers dating back to Palaeolithic times; early and medieval kingdoms ranging from the Parmaras, Pratiharas to tribal Gonds; the Begum-Nawabs and finally became the Capital of Madhya Pradesh, post-Independence. The lake more popularly called the Upper Lake was created by the King Raja Bhoj from the Parmara dynasty in 1010 AD when he constructed a bund wall across the Kolans river. Atop this bund wall lies the Kamlapati Mahal - which was part of the royal enclosure built in 1702 belonging to the Gond Kingdom. The Mahal is the epicentre of development in the city because it lies in the centre of the axis joining the Old core and New City. Rapid urbanisation descended upon the city once it became the administrative capital of Madhya Pradesh, a newly-formed state of an Independent India. Industrial pockets began being set up and refugees from the Indo-Pakistan separation settled in various regions of the city. To cater to these sudden growth, there was a boom in infrastructure development in the late twentieth century which included precarious decisions made in terms of handling heritage sites causing the destruction of significant parts of the historic fabric. And this practice continues to this day as buffer/ protected zones are breached through exemptions and the absence of robust regulations allow further deterioration of urban heritage. The aim of the research is to systematically study in detail the effect of the urban infrastructure development of the city and its adverse effect on the existing heritage fabric. Through the paper, an attempt to study the parameters involved in preparing the Masterplan of the city and other development projects is done. The research would follow a values-led approach to study the heritage fabric where the significance of the place is assessed based on the values attributed by stakeholders. This approach will involve collection and analysis of site data, assessment of the significance of the site and listing of potential. The study would also attempt to arrive at a solution to deal with urban development along with the protection of the heritage fabric.

Keywords: heritage management, infrastructure development, urban conservation, urban heritage

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11 Vectorial Capacity and Age Determination of Anopheles Maculipinnis S. L. (Diptera: Culicidae), in Esfahan and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Provinces, Central Iran

Authors: Fariba Sepahvand, Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi

Abstract:

The objective was to determine the population dynamics of Anopheles maculipinnis s.l. in relation to probable malaria transmission. The study was carried out in three villages in Isfahan and charmahal bakhteari provinces of Iran, from April to March 2014. Mosquitoes were collected by Total catch, Human and Animal bait collection. An. maculipinnis play as a dominant vector with exophagic and endophilic behavior. Ovary dissection revealed four dilatations indicate at least 9% of the population can reach to the dangerous age to potentially malaria transmission. Two peaks of blood feeding were observed, 9.00-10.00 P.M, and the 12.00-00.01 A.M. The gonotrophic cycle, survival rate, life expectancy of the species was 4, 0.82 and five days, respectively. Vectorial capacity was measured as 0.028. In conclusion, moderate climatic conditions support the persistence, density and longevity of An maculipinnis s.l. could result in more significant malaria transmission.

Keywords: age determination, Anopheles maculipinnis, center of Iran, Malaria

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10 Configuration of Water-Based Features in Islamic Heritage Complexes and Vernacular Architecture: An Analysis into Interactions of Morphology, Form, and Climatic Performance

Authors: Mustaffa Kamal Bashar Mohd Fauzi, Puteri Shireen Jahn Kassim, Nurul Syala Abdul Latip

Abstract:

It is increasingly realized that sustainability includes both a response to the climatic and cultural context of a place. To assess the cultural context, a morphological analysis of urban patterns from heritage legacies is necessary. While the climatic form is derived from an analysis of meteorological data, cultural patterns and forms must be abstracted from a typological and morphological study. This current study aims to analyzes morphological and formal elements of water-based architectural and urban design of past Islamic vernacular complexes in the hot arid regions and how a vast utilization of water was shaped and sited to act as cooling devices for an entire complex. Apart from its pleasant coolness, water can be used in an aesthetically way such as emphasizing visual axes, vividly enhancing the visual of the surrounding environment and symbolically portraying the act of purity in the design. By comparing 2 case studies based on the analysis of interactions of water features into the form, planning and morphology of 2 Islamic heritage complexes, Fatehpur Sikri (India) and Lahore Fort (Pakistan) with a focus on Shish Mahal of Lahore Fort in terms of their mass, architecture and urban planning, it is agreeable that water plays an integral role in their climatic amelioration via different methods of water conveyance system. Both sites are known for their substantial historical values and prominent for their sustainable vernacular buildings for example; the courtyard of Shish Mahal in Lahore fort are designed to provide continuous coolness by constructing various miniatures water channels that run underneath the paved courtyard. One of the most remarkable features of this system that all water is made dregs-free before it was inducted into these underneath channels. In Fatehpur Sikri, the method of conveyance seems differed from Lahore Fort as the need to supply water to the ridge where Fatehpur Sikri situated is become the major challenges. Thus, the achievement of supplying water to the palatial complexes is solved by placing inhabitable water buildings within the two supply system for raising water. The process of raising the water can be either mechanical or laborious inside the enclosed well and water rising houses. The studies analyzes and abstract the water supply forms, patterns and flows in 3-dimensional shapes through the actions of evaporative cooling and wind-induced ventilation under arid climates. Through the abstraction analytical and descriptive relational morphology of the spatial configurations, the studies can suggest the idealized spatial system that can be used in urban design and complexes which later became a methodological and abstraction tool of sustainability to suit the modern contemporary world.

Keywords: heritage site, Islamic vernacular architecture, water features, morphology, urban design

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9 Using Design Thinking Principles to Improve Patients Experiences in Two Outpatient Pharmacies in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Dalia Almaghaslah

Abstract:

Design thinking approach; empathize, define, ideate prototype, test, implement, was used to assess outpatient experiences in two hospital pharmacies in the Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 patients. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings suggested that patients were generally satisfied with pharmaceutical services provided in both pharmacies. Pharmacists were found to have enough knowledge, good attitude, and efficient communication and counselling skills. Non-pharmacy-related factors such as cultural factors (gender segregation), long waiting times, uncomfortable waiting areas, lack of electronic prescribing, number waiting system were found to have a negative impact on patients' experiences and satisfaction. Prototypes will be used to test the effects of implementing the electronic system in Al -mahal hospital and to test changing the physical layout of the waiting area in Asir hospital.

Keywords: design thinking, hospital pharmacy, patient satisfaction, Saudi Arabia

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8 Affordable and Sustainable Housing Construction - Case Studies

Authors: Tony Rizk, Mohan Mahal, John Shaw

Abstract:

Recent material advances and cost efficiencies are transforming the housing industry away from traditional lumber and gypsum material to alternate fiberboard material that is workable, resistant to fire, mold and pest infestation. The use of these materials may add to the initial cost of construction. However, the life cycle (cradle to grave) cost of houses using these construction materials and methods are lower than the life cycle costs using traditional housing construction materials and methods. This paper will present four (4) case studies of sustainable house projects. Each project was designed and constructed using earthen based, sustainable fiber board material that is resistant to fire, mold and infestation, and fabricated at very low material calorific value. These house projects have living space range from 625 sq. ft. for an accessory dwelling unit and up to 3,200 sq. ft., 1-story and 2-story homes. For each case study, we will present the house engineering design and construction method, the initial construction costs, a summary of the life cycle costs, and a comparison to the life cycle cost of traditional housing available in the literature.

Keywords: residential housing, sustainable housing, life cycle cost, fire resistance, mold and infestation resistance

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7 Significance of Architectural Conservation Today, For a Better Tomorrow

Authors: Sneha Manjunath

Abstract:

Architecture is a continuous process of evolution that keeps changing and evolving through time and gives rise to various design solutions based on the purpose of change and the present function of the space. This evolution in design has been happening for a long time and hence a variety of climate-responsive, context-responsive and human-responsive developments in habitats are witnessed. India has been one of the hot spots for the conservation of heritage and architecture. Buildings ranging from Indus-valley civilization to modern contemporary dwellings have all evolved in one or the other way. Various historical sites such as Hampi in Karnataka, Taj Mahal in Agra and various temples in Southern India are identified and preserved under the Archeological Survey of India. The main objective of such preservation is to help in protecting, preserving and keeping it intact for the future. Study of such heritage-rich buildings and building techniques helps us in understanding the psychology, lifestyle and socio-cultural impacts it had on the complete urban fabric that developed in a region. It also gives an insight into the occupation, economic status and religious beliefs that gave rise to a pattern in an urban form that was more inclusive and appropriate as per the need of the users. Today’s generation draws various inspirations from history with respect to space planning, building services such as lighting, ventilation and sanitation systems and elevation treatments. It is important to know and understand the importance of certain urban planning techniques used to develop ancient towns or cities in a radial pattern, square pattern, or checkered pattern depending on the need of the administrative set-up of the respective town or city. It is believed that every element of design undergoes evolution and it is important for a designer to know, respect and develop the same for the future so as to acknowledge and conserve every aspect of heritage that has been a backbone in urban form generation even today. Hampi in the Karnataka state of India is a very good example of how the monuments and dwellings from 14th Century still stand strong. Temples from North India, such as Kedarnath Temple, survived heavy floods because of their building techniques. Such building materials and construction techniques are to be revived and reused for a better perspective towards space planning in urbanized cities.

Keywords: architecture, urban form, heritage, town planning

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6 Out of the Closet: Transgressive Representations of Queer Intimacy in Filipino Mainstream Media

Authors: Darel Magramo

Abstract:

This study argues that media representations of queer intimacies can be transgressive. Representations of queerness in local and international media can be a reflection of the culture where the media product belongs to and these representations can be peculiar and intolerable to different communities. Since these representations of queerness in any media product are rare and unacceptable it can be seen as transgressive in a way that it goes beyond the norms of a particular community and violates the common perceptions about gender and sexuality. Examining media representations of the queer community in a predominantly Catholic country means breaking the religious belief, principles, and stereotypes about homosexuality and same-sex relationship. Using a mainstream media and gender theory this study examined whether and how one particular Filipino mainstream media representation of queer intimacies can enact such transgression. Over the past years Original Pinoy Music (Original Filipino Music) or OPM has produced chart-topping and controversial hit songs which includes: This guy is in love with you pare (pare refers to a guy or men) released in 2002: Nagmahal ako ng bakla (I fell in love with a gay) released in 2009: and lastly Pare mahal mo raw ako (Man, you love me?) released in 2014. By examining these songs, this study outlines tropes on how OPM songs present transgression in queer intimacy including the image of love for money only to gaiety and satisfaction which presents how an openly gay man makes a cisgender man falls in love for him by satisfying him through his humorous antics, this is one way of showing transgression in queer relationship in Philippine context by going beyond the common stereotype of a cisgender man falling in love to a gay man for his wealth to falling in love genuinely because of gaiety and satisfaction in the relationship. This study also identifies how media created a new way of presenting gay and homosexual relationship - from the stereotypes of gays having illnesses and mental health problems, mainstream media continues to present that queer relationship is not all about love and sexual desire but also it promotes acceptance and love towards people in the community. A queer relationship does not only revolve in the idea of having a same-sex relationship but the idea that queer relationship is also between friends and other people of the community by manifesting acceptance and love. Amidst the conservative culture of the Philippines, mainstream media continues to progress and develop ways on how to present gender and sexuality in different media products. These representations create a transgressive way of showing acceptance and understanding towards identities particularly homosexuality and queer relationships.

Keywords: gender studies, homosexuality, media representations, queer intimacy

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5 Compromising Quality of Life in Low Income Settlemnt’s: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa Prakalpa, Khulna

Authors: Salma Akter, Md. Kamal Uddin

Abstract:

Ashrayan (shelter) Prakalpa – a fully subsidized ‘integrated poverty eradication program’ through the provisioning of shelter of Bangladesh Government (GoB) targeting the internally displaced and homeless. In spite of the inclusiveness (poverty alleviation, employment opportunity, Tenure ship and training) of the shelter policy, dwellers are not merely questioned by the issue of 'the quality of life' .This study demonstrates how top-down policies, ambiguous ownership status of land and dwelling environments lead to ‘everyday compromise’ by the grassroots in both subjective (satisfaction, comfort and safety) and objective (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) issues in three respective scale macro (neighborhood) meso (shelter /built environment) and micro(family). It shows that by becoming subject to Government’s resettlements policies and after becoming user of its shelter units (although locally known as ‘barracks’ rather shelter or housing), the once displaced settlers assume a curious form of spatial practice where both social and spatial often bear slippery meanings. Thus, Policy-based shelter force the dwellers frequently compromise with their provided built environments and spaces within the settlements both in overtly and covertly. Compromises are made during the production of space and forms, whereas interesting new spaces and space-making practices emerge. The settlements under study are Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa located at the Eastern fringe area of Khulna, Bangladesh. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and assumes a qualitative approach. Key tools used to obtain information are policy analysis, literature review, key informant interview, focus group discussion and participant observation at the level of dwelling and settlements. Necessary drawings and photographs have been taken to promote the study objective. Findings revealed that various shortages, inadequacies and negligence of policymakers make a compromising character of displaced by the means of 'quality of life' both in objective and subjective ground. Thus the study ends up with a recommendation to the policymakers to take an initiative to ensure the quality of life of the dwellers.

Keywords: Ashrayan, compromise, displaced people, quality of life

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4 Compromising Quality of Life in Low-Income Settlements: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna

Authors: Salma Akter, Md. Kamal Uddin

Abstract:

Quality of life is a vast and comprehensive concept refers overall well-being of society. Current research and efforts of policymakers and planners are concerned to increase the urban quality of life through the sustainable development of city and country. While such efforts effectively improve the quality of life of urban dwellers through improved social, economic and housing infrastructures, very little has been paid to improve low-income settlement users more specifically government provided shelter projects. The top-down shelter policies and its objective indicators (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators on low-income groups merely can ensure grassroots needs, aspiration and well-being refer as subjective qualities obliged to compromise with the quality of life. This research, therefore, aims to measure the quality of life of such government-provided low-income settlements. To do so, a conceptual framework has been developed to measure quality of life with arguing that quality of life depends on both objective and subjective indicators and needs to measure across three scales of living environment refers to macro (community), meso (neighborhood or shelter/built environment), and micro (family). The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement/housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people has been taken as case study. The study area is located at Dighalia Upazila, Khulna Bangladesh. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method and deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Data have been obtained from relevant literature review, key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings, photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level. Findings have revealed that Shelter users mostly compromise the quality of life at community level due to insufficient physical design elements and facilities while neighborhood and dwelling level have been manifested similar result like former ones. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.

Keywords: Ashrayan Prakalpa, compromise, displaced people, quality of life

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3 The Role of Social Media in the Rise of Islamic State in India: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Yasmeen Cheema, Parvinder Singh

Abstract:

The evolution of Islamic State (acronym IS) has an ultimate goal of restoring the caliphate. IS threat to the global security is main concern of international community but has also raised a factual concern for India about the regular radicalization of IS ideology among Indian youth. The incident of joining Arif Ejaz Majeed, an Indian as ‘jihadist’ in IS has set strident alarm in law & enforcement agencies. On 07.03.2017, many people were injured in an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast on-board of Bhopal Ujjain Express. One perpetrator of this incident was killed in encounter with police. But, the biggest shock is that the conspiracy was pre-planned and the assailants who carried out the blast were influenced by the ideology perpetrated by the Islamic State. This is the first time name of IS has cropped up in a terror attack in India. It is a red indicator of violent presence of IS in India, which is spreading through social media. The IS have the capacity to influence the younger Muslim generation in India through its brutal and aggressive propaganda videos, social media apps and hatred speeches. It is a well known fact that India is on the radar of IS, as well on its ‘Caliphate Map’. IS uses Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms constantly. Islamic State has used enticing videos, graphics, and articles on social media and try to influence persons from India & globally that their jihad is worthy. According to arrested perpetrator of IS in different cases in India, the most of Indian youths are victims to the daydreams which are fondly shown by IS. The dreams that the Muslim empire as it was before 1920 can come back with all its power and also that the Caliph and its caliphate can be re-established are shown by the IS. Indian Muslim Youth gets attracted towards these euphemistic ideologies. Islamic State has used social media for disseminating its poisonous ideology, recruitment, operational activities and for future direction of attacks. IS through social media inspired its recruits & lone wolfs to continue to rely on local networks to identify targets and access weaponry and explosives. Recently, a pro-IS media group on its Telegram platform shows Taj Mahal as the target and suggested mode of attack as a Vehicle Born Improvised Explosive Attack (VBIED). Islamic State definitely has the potential to destroy the Indian national security & peace, if timely steps are not taken. No doubt, IS has used social media as a critical mechanism for recruitment, planning and executing of terror attacks. This paper will therefore examine the specific characteristics of social media that have made it such a successful weapon for Islamic State. The rise of IS in India should be viewed as a national crisis and handled at the central level with efficient use of modern technology.

Keywords: ideology, India, Islamic State, national security, recruitment, social media, terror attack

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2 Evaluation of Bagh Printing Motifs and Processes of Madhya Pradesh: From Past to Contemporary

Authors: Kaveri Dutta, Ratna Sharma

Abstract:

Indian traditional textile is a synthesis of various cultures. Art and crafts of a country showcases the rich cultural and artistic history of that nation. Prehistorically Indian handicrafts were basically made for day to day use; the yearning for aesthetic application soon saw the development of flooding designs and motifs. Similarly, Bagh print a traditional hand block Print with natural colours an Indian handicraft practiced in Bagh, Madhya Pradesh(India). Bagh print has its roots in Sindh, which is now a part of Pakistan. The present form of Bagh printing actually started in 1962 when the craftsmen migrated from Manavar to the neighboring town of Bagh situated in Madhya Pradesh and hence Bagh has always been associated with this printing style. Bagh printing basically involved blocks that are carved onto motifs that represent flora such as Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya and so on. There are some prints that were inspired by the jaali work that embellished the Taj Mahal and various other forts. Inspiration is also drawn from the landscapes and geometrical figures. The motifs evoke various moods in the serenity of the prints and that is the catchy element of Bagh prints. The development in this traditional textile is as essential as in another field. Nowadays fashion trends are fragile and innovative changes over existing fashion field in the short span is the demand of times. We must make efforts to preserve this cultural heritage of arts and crafts and this is done either by documenting the various ancient traditions or by making a blend of it. Since this craft is well known over the world, but the need is to document the original motif, fabric, technology and colors used in contemporary fashion. Hence keeping above points in mind this study on bagh print textiles of Madhya Pradesh work has been formulated. The information incorporated in the paper was based on secondary data taken from relevant books, journals, museum visit and articles. Besides for the demographic details and working profile of the artisans dealt with printing, an interview schedule was carried out in three regions of Madhya Pradesh. This work of art was expressed in Cotton fabric. For this study selected traditional motifs for Bang printing was used. Some of the popular traditional Bagh motifs are Jasmine, Mushroom leheriya, geometrical figures and jaali work. The Bagh printed cotton fabrics were developed into a range of men’s ethic wear in combination with embroideries from Rajasthan. Products developed were bandhgala jackets, kurtas, serwani and dupattas. From the present study, it can be observed that the embellished traditional Bang printed range of ethnic men’s wear resulted in the fresh and colourful pattern. The embroidered Bagh printed cotton fabric also created a huge change in a positive way among artisans of the three regions.

Keywords: art and craft of Madhya Pradesh, evolution of printing in India, history of Bagh printing, sources of inspiration

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1 Compromising Quality of Life in Low Income Settlement's: The Case of Ashrayan Prakalpa, Khulna

Authors: Salma Akter, Md. Kamal Uddin

Abstract:

This study aims to demonstrate how top-down shelter policy and its resultant dwelling environment leads to ‘everyday compromise’ by the grassroots according to subjective (satisfaction) and objective (physical design elements and physical environmental elements) indicators, which are measured across three levels of the settlement; macro (Community), meso (Neighborhood or shelter/built environment) and micro (family). Ashrayan Prakalpa is a resettlement /housing project of Government of Bangladesh for providing shelters and human resources development activities like education, microcredit, and training programme to landless, homeless and rootless people. Despite the integrated nature of the shelter policies (comprises poverty alleviation, employment opportunity, secured tenure, and livelihood training), the ‘quality of life’ issue at the different levels of settlements becomes questionable. As dwellers of shelter units (although formally termed as ‘barracks’ rather shelter or housing) remain on the receiving end of government’s resettlement policies, they often involve with spatial-physical and socio-economic negotiation and assume curious forms of spatial practice, which often upholds contradiction with policy planning. Thus, policy based shelter force dwellers to persistently compromise with their provided built environments both in overtly and covertly. Compromising with prescribed designed space and facilities across living places articulated their negotiation with the quality of allocated space, built form and infrastructures, which in turn exert as less quality of life. The top-down shelter project, Dakshin Chandani Mahal Ashrayan Prakalpa at Dighalia Upazila, the study area located at the Eastern fringe area of Khulna, Bangladesh, is still in progress to resettle internally displaced and homeless people. In terms of methodology, this research is primarily exploratory and adopts a case study method, and an analytical framework is developed through the deductive approach for evaluating the quality of life. Secondary data have been obtained from housing policy analysis and relevant literature review, while key informant interview, focus group discussion, necessary drawings and photographs and participant observation across dwelling, neighborhood, and community level have also been administered as primary data collection methodology. Findings have revealed that various shortages, inadequacies, and negligence of policymakers force to compromise with allocated designed space, physical infrastructure and economic opportunities across dwelling, neighborhood and mostly community level. Thus, the outcome of this study can be beneficial for a global-level understating of the compromising the ‘quality of life’ under top-down shelter policy. Locally, for instance, in the context of Bangladesh, it can help policymakers and concerned authorities to formulate the shelter policies and take initiatives to improve the well-being of marginalized.

Keywords: Ashrayan Prakalpa, compromise, displaced people, quality of life

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