Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 145

Search results for: descending clock auctions

145 Competitivity in Procurement Multi-Unit Discrete Clock Auctions: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Despina Yiakoumi, Agathe Rouaix


Laboratory experiments were run to investigate the impact of different design characteristics of the auctions, which have been implemented to procure capacity in the UK’s reformed electricity markets. The experiment studies competition among bidders in procurement multi-unit discrete descending clock auctions under different feedback policies and pricing rules. Theory indicates that feedback policy in combination with the two common pricing rules; last-accepted bid (LAB) and first-rejected bid (FRB), could affect significantly the auction outcome. Two information feedback policies regarding the bidding prices of the participants are considered; with feedback and without feedback. With feedback, after each round participants are informed of the number of items still in the auction and without feedback, after each round participants have no information about the aggregate supply. Under LAB, winning bidders receive the amount of the highest successful bid and under the FRB the winning bidders receive the lowest unsuccessful bid. Based on the theoretical predictions of the alternative auction designs, it was decided to run three treatments. First treatment considers LAB with feedback; second treatment studies LAB without feedback; third treatment investigates FRB without feedback. Theoretical predictions of the game showed that under FRB, the alternative feedback policies are indifferent to the auction outcome. Preliminary results indicate that LAB with feedback and FRB without feedback achieve on average higher clearing prices in comparison to the LAB treatment without feedback. However, the clearing prices under LAB with feedback and FRB without feedback are on average lower compared to the theoretical predictions. Although under LAB without feedback theory predicts the clearing price will drop to the competitive equilibrium, experimental results indicate that participants could still engage in cooperative behavior and drive up the price of the auction. It is showed, both theoretically and experimentally, that the pricing rules and the feedback policy, affect the bidding competitiveness of the auction by providing opportunities to participants to engage in cooperative behavior and exercise market power. LAB without feedback seems to be less vulnerable to market power opportunities compared to the alternative auction designs. This could be an argument for the use of LAB pricing rule in combination with limited feedback in the UK capacity market in an attempt to improve affordability for consumers.

Keywords: descending clock auctions, experiments, feedback policy, market design, multi-unit auctions, pricing rules, procurement auctions

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
144 Value Co-Creation in Used-Car Auctions: A Service Scientific Perspective

Authors: Safdar Muhammad Usman, Youji Kohda, Katsuhiro Umemoto


Electronic market place plays an important intermediary role for connecting dealers and retail customers. The main aim of this paper is to design a value co-creation model in used-car auctions. More specifically, the study has been designed in order to describe the process of value co-creation in used-car auctions, to explore the co-created values in used-car auctions, and finally conclude the paper indicating the future research directions. Our analysis shows that economic values as well as non-economic values are co-created in used-car auctions. In addition, this paper contributes to the academic society broadening the view of value co-creation in service science.

Keywords: value co-creation, used-car auctions, non-financial values, service science

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
143 Congenital Positional Anomaly of Descending Colon and Sigmoid Colon: Its Embryological Basis and Clinical Implications

Authors: Dhivyalakshmi Gnanasekaran, Sonali Adole Prasante, Raveendranath Veeramamani, H. Y. Suma


A rare case of intestinal malrotation with midline descending colon and right sided sigmoid colon was observed in an adult male cadaver aged around 55 years during routine dissection. The descending colon began from the splenic flexure and gradually descended downwards to occupy the midline position and turned to the right side to be continued as sigmoid colon at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. In the right iliac fossa some part of loop of sigmoid colon displaced into the right lumbar region before entering into the true pelvis to continue as rectum. This anomalous descending and sigmoid colon was supplied by varying branching pattern of inferior mesenteric artery. It is extremely important to consider this embryological anomaly before any interventional diagnostic procedures like colonoscopy and to enhance the safety of colonic surgery.

Keywords: sigmoid colon, descending colon, hindgut, malrotation

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
142 FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Clock Recovery for TDMoIP Systems

Authors: Semih Demir, Anil Celebi


Circuit switched networks widely used until the end of the 20th century have been transformed into packages switched networks. Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol (TDMoIP) is a system that enables Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) traffic to be carried over packet switched networks (PSN). In TDMoIP systems, devices that send TDM data to the PSN and receive it from the network must operate with the same clock frequency. In this study, it was aimed to implement clock synchronization process in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips using time information attached to the packages received from PSN. The designed hardware is verified using the datasets obtained for the different carrier types and comparing the results with the software model. Field tests are also performed by using the real time TDMoIP system.

Keywords: clock recovery on TDMoIP, FPGA, MATLAB reference model, clock synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
141 Developing a Framework for Online Auction Effectiveness

Authors: Chechen Liao, Pui-Lai To, Chiao-Ying Chen


An introduction of internet auction has significantly widened the pool of consumers who participate in auctions and increased the number of companies attempting to sell their products in an auction format. Previous research on auctions has focused almost exclusively on the behavior of professional bidders. In this study, we focus on the characteristic of seller, auction parameter and the effect of supply and demand, and examine these impacts on auction effectiveness. In particular, a framework for online auction effectiveness was developed. The framework will help researchers and practitioner to find ways to improve online auction effectiveness.

Keywords: Auction Effectiveness, Framework Developing, Online Auction, Selling Strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
140 The Effect of Common Daily Schedule on the Human Circadian Rhythms during the Polar Day on Svalbard: Field Study

Authors: Kamila Weissova, Jitka Skrabalova, Katerina Skalova, Jana Koprivova, Zdenka Bendova


Any Arctic visitor has to deal with extreme conditions, including constant light during the summer season or constant darkness during winter time. Light/dark cycle is the most powerful synchronizing signal for biological clock and the absence of daily dark period during the polar day can significantly alter the functional state of the internal clock. However, the inner clock can be synchronized by other zeitgebers such as physical activity, food intake or social interactions. Here, we investigated the effect of polar day on circadian clock of 10 researchers attending the polar base station in the Svalbard region during July. The data obtained on Svalbard were compared with the data obtained before the researchers left for the expedition (in the Czech Republic). To determine the state of circadian clock we used wrist actigraphy followed by sleep diaries, saliva, and buccal mucosa samples, both collected every 4 hours during 24h-interval to detect melatonin by radioimmunoassay and clock gene (PER1, BMAL1, NR1D1, DBP) mRNA levels by RT-qPCR. The clock gene expression was analyzed using cosinor analysis. From our results, it is apparent that the constant sunlight delayed melatonin onset and postponed the physical activity in the same order. Nevertheless, the clock gene expression displayed higher amplitude on Svalbard compared to the amplitude detected in the Czech Republic. These results have suggested that the common daily schedule at the Svalbard expedition can strengthen circadian rhythm in the environment that is lacking light/dark cycle. In conclusion, the constant sunlight delays melatonin onset, but it still maintains its rhythmic secretion. The effect of constant sunlight on circadian clock can be minimalized by common daily scheduled activity.

Keywords: actighraph, clock genes, human, melatonin, polar day

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
139 Circadian Clock and Subjective Time Perception: A Simple Open Source Application for the Analysis of Induced Time Perception in Humans

Authors: Agata M. Kołodziejczyk, Mateusz Harasymczuk, Pierre-Yves Girardin, Lucie Davidová


Subjective time perception implies connection to cognitive functions, attention, memory and awareness, but a little is known about connections with homeostatic states of the body coordinated by circadian clock. In this paper, we present results from experimental study of subjective time perception in volunteers performing physical activity on treadmill in various phases of their circadian rhythms. Subjects were exposed to several time illusions simulated by programmed timing systems. This study brings better understanding for further improvement of of work quality in isolated areas. 

Keywords: biological clock, light, time illusions, treadmill

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
138 A Multi Cordic Architecture on FPGA Platform

Authors: Ahmed Madian, Muaz Aljarhi


Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) is a unique digital computing unit intended for the computation of mathematical operations and functions. This paper presents a multi-CORDIC processor that integrates different CORDIC architectures on a single FPGA chip and allows the user to select the CORDIC architecture to proceed with based on what he wants to calculate and his/her needs. Synthesis show that radix 2 CORDIC has the lowest clock delay, radix 8 CORDIC has the highest LUT usage and lowest register usage while Hybrid Radix 4 CORDIC had the highest clock delay.

Keywords: multi, CORDIC, FPGA, processor

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137 Two Kinds of Self-Oscillating Circuits Mechanically Demonstrated

Authors: Shiang-Hwua Yu, Po-Hsun Wu


This study introduces two types of self-oscillating circuits that are frequently found in power electronics applications. Special effort is made to relate the circuits to the analogous mechanical systems of some important scientific inventions: Galileo’s pendulum clock and Coulomb’s friction model. A little touch of related history and philosophy of science will hopefully encourage curiosity, advance the understanding of self-oscillating systems and satisfy the aspiration of some students for scientific literacy. Finally, the two self-oscillating circuits are applied to design a simple class-D audio amplifier.

Keywords: self-oscillation, sigma-delta modulator, pendulum clock, Coulomb friction, class-D amplifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
136 Covariance and Quantum Cosmology: A Comparison of Two Matter Clocks

Authors: Theodore Halnon, Martin Bojowald


In relativity, time is relative between reference frames. However, quantum mechanics requires a specific time coordinate in order to write an evolution equation for wave functions. This difference between the two theories leads to the problem of time in quantum gravity. One method to study quantum relativity is to interpret the dynamics of a matter field as a clock. In order to test the relationship between different reference frames, an isotropic cosmological model with two matter ingredients is introduced. One is given by a scalar field and one by vacuum energy or a cosmological constant. There are two matter fields, and thus two different Hamiltonians are derived from the respective clock rates. Semi-classical solutions are found for these equations and a comparison is made of the physical predictions that they imply.

Keywords: cosmology, deparameterization, general relativity, quantum mechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
135 The Technique of Mobilization of the Colon for Pull-Through Procedure in Hirschsprung's Disease

Authors: Medet K. Khamitov, Marat M. Ospanov, Vasiliy M. Lozovoy, Zhenis N. Sakuov, Dastan Z. Rustemov


With a high rectosigmoid transitional zone in children with Hirschsprung’s disease, the upper rectal, sigmoid, left colon arteries are ligated during the pull-through of the descending part of the colon. As a result, the inferior mesenteric artery ceases to participate in the blood supply to the descending part of the colon. As a result, the reduced colon is supplied with blood only by the middle colon artery, which originates from the superior mesenteric artery. Insufficiency of blood supply to the reduced colon is the cause of the development of chronic hypoxia of the intestinal wall or necrosis of the reduced descending colon. Some surgeons prefer to preserve the left colon artery. However, it is possible to stretch the mesentery, which can lead to bowel retraction to anastomotic leaks and stenosis. Chronic hypoxia of the reduced colon, in turn, is the cause of acquired (secondary) aganglionosis. The highest frequency of anastomotic leaks is observed in children older than five years. The purpose is to reduce the risk of complications in the pull-through procedure of the descending part of the colon in patients with Hirschsprung’s disease by ensuring its sufficient mobility and maintaining blood supply to the lower mesenteric artery. Methodology and events. Two children aged 5 and 7 years with Hirschsprung’s disease were operated under the conditions of the hospital in Nur-Sultan. The diagnosis was made using x-ray contrast enema and histological examination. Operational technique. After revision of the left part of the colon and assessment of the architectonics of its blood vessels, parietal mobilization of the affected sigmoid and rectum was performed on laparotomy access, while maintaining the arterial and venous terminal arcades of the sigmoid vessels. Then, the descending branch of the left colon artery was crossed (if there is an insufficient length of the reduced intestine, the left colonic artery itself may also be crossed). This manipulation provides additional mobility of the pull-through descending part of the colon. The resulting "windows" in the mesentery of the reduced intestine were sutured to prevent the development of an internal hernia. Formed a full-blooded, sufficiently long transplant from the transverse loops of the splenic angle and the descending parts of the colon with blood supply from the upper and lower mesenteric artery, freely, without tension, is reduced to the rectal zone with the coloanal anastomosis 1.5 cm above the dentate line. Results. The postoperative period was uneventful. Patients were discharged on the 7th day. The observation was carried out for six months. In no case, there was a bowel retraction, anastomotic leak, anastomotic stenosis, or other complications. Conclusion. The presented technique of mobilization of the colon for the pull-through procedure in a high transitional rectosigmoid zone of Hirschsprung’s disease allows to maintain normal blood supply to the distal part of the colon and to avoid the tension of the colon. The technique allows reducing the risk of anastomotic leak, bowel necrosis, chronic ischemia, to exclude colon retraction and anastomotic stenosis.

Keywords: blood supply, children, colon mobilization, Hirschsprung's disease, pull-through

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134 A Non-Destructive Estimation Method for Internal Time in Perilla Leaf Using Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Shogo Nagano, Yusuke Tanigaki, Hirokazu Fukuda


Vegetables harvested early in the morning or late in the afternoon are valued in plant production, and so the time of harvest is important. The biological functions known as circadian clocks have a significant effect on this harvest timing. The purpose of this study was to non-destructively estimate the circadian clock and so construct a method for determining a suitable harvest time. We took eight samples of green busil (Perilla frutescens var. crispa) every 4 hours, six times for 1 day and analyzed all samples at the same time. A hyperspectral camera was used to collect spectrum intensities at 141 different wavelengths (350–1050 nm). Calculation of correlations between spectrum intensity of each wavelength and harvest time suggested the suitability of the hyperspectral camera for non-destructive estimation. However, even the highest correlated wavelength had a weak correlation, so we used machine learning to raise the accuracy of estimation and constructed a machine learning model to estimate the internal time of the circadian clock. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for machine learning because this is an effective analysis method for large amounts of data. Using the estimation model resulted in an error between estimated and real times of 3 min. The estimations were made in less than 2 hours. Thus, we successfully demonstrated this method of non-destructively estimating internal time.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), circadian clock, green busil, hyperspectral camera, non-destructive evaluation

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133 The Descending Genicular Artery Perforator Free Flap as a Reliable Flap: Literature Review

Authors: Doran C. Kalmin


The descending genicular artery (DGA) perforator free flap provides an alternative to free flap reconstruction based on a review of the literature detailing both anatomical and clinical studies. The descending genicular artery (DGA) supplies skin, muscle, tendon, and bone located around the medial aspect of the knee that has been used in several pioneering reports in reconstructing defects located in various areas throughout the body. After the success of the medial femoral condyle flap in early studies, a small number of studies have been published detailing the use of the DGA in free flap reconstruction. Despite early success in the use of the DGA flap, acceptance within the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgical community has been limited due primarily to anatomical variations of the pedicle. This literature review is aimed at detailing the progression of the DGA perforator free flap and its variations as an alternative and reliable free flap for reconstruction of composite defects with an exploration into both anatomical and clinical studies. A literature review was undertaken, and the progression of the DGA flap is explored from the early review by Acland et al. pioneering the saphenous free flap to exploring modern changes and studies of the anatomy of the DGA. An extensive review of the literature was undertaken that details the anatomy and its variations, approaches to harvesting the flap, the advantages, and disadvantages of the DGA perforator free flap as well as flap outcomes. There are 15 published clinical series of DGA perforator free flaps that incorporate cutaneous, osteoperiosteal, cartilage, osteocutaneous, osteoperiosteal and muscle, osteoperiosteal and subcutaneous and tendocutatenous. The commonest indication for using a DGA free flap was for non-union of bone, particularly that of the scaphoid whereby the medial femoral condyle could be used. In the case series, a success rate of over 90% was established, showing that these early studies have had good success with a wide range of tissue transfers. The greatest limitation is the anatomical variation of the DGA and therefore, the challenges associated with raising the flap. Despite the variation in anatomy and around 10-15% absence of the DGA, the saphenous artery can be used as well as the superior medial genicular artery if the vascular bone is required as part of the flap. Despite only a handful of anatomical and clinical studies describing the DGA perforator free flap, it ultimately provides a reliable flap that can include a variety of composite structure used for reconstruction in almost any area throughout the body. Although it has limitations, it provides a reliable option for free flap reconstruction that can routinely be performed as a single-stage procedure.

Keywords: anatomical study, clinical study, descending genicular artery, literature review, perforator free flap reconstruction

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132 Study on Stability and Wear in a Total Hip Prostheses

Authors: Virgil Florescu, Lucian Capitanu


The studies performed by the author and presented here focus mainly on the FE simulation of some relevant phenomena related to stability of orthopedic implants, especially those components of Total Hip Prostheses. The objectives are to study the mechanisms of achieving stability of acetabular prosthetic components and the influence of some characteristic parameters, to evaluate the effect of femoral stem fixation modality on the stability of prosthetic component and to predict long-term behavior, to analyze a critical phenomena which influence the loading transfer mechanism through artificial joints and could lead to aseptic loosening – the wear of joint frictional surfaces. After a theoretical background an application is made considering only three activities: normal walking, stair ascending and stair descending. For each activity, this function is maximized in a different locations: if for normal walking the maxima is in the superior-posterior part of the acetabular cup, for stair descending this maxim value could be located rather in the superior-anterior part, for stair ascending being even closer to the central area of the cup.

Keywords: THA, acetabular stability, FEM simulation, stresses and displacements, wear tests, wear simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
131 Circadian Expression of MicroRNAs in Colon and Its Changes during Colorectal Tumorigenesis

Authors: Katerina Balounova, Jiri Pacha, Peter Ergang, Martin Vodicka, Pavlina Kvapilova


MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in a wide range of physiological processes. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs gives the organism a further level of control of the gene-expression program and the disruption of this microRNA regulatory mechanism seems to increase the risk of various pathophysiological conditions including tumorigenesis. To the present day, microRNAs were shown to participate in the mayor signalization pathways leading to tumorigenesis, including proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metastasis formation. In addition, microRNAs have been found to play important roles in the generation and maintenance of circadian clock. These clocks generate circadian rhythms, which participate in a number of regulatory pathways. Disruption of the circadian signals seems to be associated with the development and the progression of tumours including colorectal cancer. We investigated therefore whether the diurnal profiles of miRNAs linked to tumorigenesis and regulation of circadian clock are changed during tumorigenesis. Based on published data we chose 10 microRNAs linked to tumorigenesis or circadian clock (let-7b-5p, miR 1 3p, miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p, miR 29a 3p, miR 34a 5p and miR 93 5p) and compared their 24-hr expression profiles in healthy and in chemically induces primary colorectal tumours of 52week-old mice. Using RT-qPCR we proved circadian rhythmicity in let-7b-5p, miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p, miR 29a 3p and miR 93 5p in healthy colon but not in tumours. The acrophases of miR 106b 5p, miR 141 3p, miR 191 5p, miR 20a 5p, miR 25 3p and miR 93 5p were reached around CT 24, the acrophases of let-7b-5p and miR-29a-3p were slightly shifted and reached around CT 21. In summary, our results show that circadian regulation of some colonic microRNAs is greatly affected by neoplastic transformation.

Keywords: circadian rhythm, colon, colorectal cancer, microRNA, tumorigenesis

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130 Increasing a Computer Performance by Overclocking Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Authors: Witthaya Mekhum, Wutthikorn Malikong


The objective of this study is to investigate the increasing desktop computer performance after overclocking central processing unit or CPU by running a computer component at a higher clock rate (more clock cycles per second) than it was designed at the rate of 0.1 GHz for each level or 100 MHz starting at 4000 GHz-4500 GHz. The computer performance is tested for each level with 4 programs, i.e. Hyper PI ver. 0.99b, Cinebench R15, LinX ver.0.6.4 and WinRAR . After the CPU overclock, the computer performance increased. When overclocking CPU at 29% the computer performance tested by Hyper PI ver. 0.99b increased by 10.03% and when tested by Cinebench R15 the performance increased by 20.05% and when tested by LinX Program the performance increased by 16.61%. However, the performance increased only 8.14% when tested with Winrar program. The computer performance did not increase according to the overclock rate because the computer consists of many components such as Random Access Memory or RAM, Hard disk Drive, Motherboard and Display Card, etc.

Keywords: overclock, performance, central processing unit, computer

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
129 A User Centred Based Approach for Designing Everyday Product: A Case Study of an Alarm Clock

Authors: Obokhai Kess Asikhia


This work explores design concept generation by understanding user needs through observation and interview. The aim is to examine several principles and guidelines in obtaining evidence from observing how users interact with the targeted product and interviewing them to acquire deep insights of their needs. With the help of Quality Function Deployment (QFD), the identified needs of the users while interacting with the product were ranked using the normalised weighting approach. Furthermore, a low fidelity prototype of the alarm clock is developed with a view of addressing the identified needs of the users. Finally, the low fidelity prototype design was evaluated with two design prototypes already existing in the market through a study involving 30 participants. Preliminary results reveal higher performance ratings by the majority of the participants of the new prototype compared to the other existing alarm clocks in the market used in the study.

Keywords: design concept, low fidelity prototype, normalised weighting approach, quality function deployment, user needs

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128 Possible Mechanism of DM2 Development in OSA Patients Mediated via Rev-Erb-Alpha and NPAS2 Proteins

Authors: Filip Franciszek Karuga, Szymon Turkiewicz, Marta Ditmer, Marcin Sochal, Piotr Białasiewicz, Agata Gabryelska


Circadian rhythm, an internal coordinator of physiological processes is composed of a set of semi-autonomous clocks. Clocks are regulated through the expression of circadian clock genes which form feedback loops, creating an oscillator. The primary loop consists of activators: CLOCK, BMAL1 and repressors: CRY, PER. CLOCK can be substituted by the Neuronal PAS Domain Protein 2 (NPAS2). Orphan nuclear receptor (REV-ERB-α) is a component of the secondary major loop, modulating the expression of BMAL1. Circadian clocks might be disrupted by the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which has also been associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM2). Interestingly, studies suggest that dysregulation of NPAS2 and REV-ERB-α might contribute to the pathophysiology of DM2 as well. The goal of our study was to examine the role of NPAS2 and REV-ERB-α in DM2 in OSA patients. After examination of the clinical data, all participants underwent polysomnography (PSG) to assess their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on the acquired data participants were assigned to one of 3 groups: OSA (AHI>30, no DM2; n=17 for NPAS2 and 34 for REV-ERB-α), DM2 (AHI>30 + DM2; n=7 for NPAS2 and 15 for REV-ERB-α) and control group (AHI<5, no DM2; n=16 for NPAS2 and 31 for REV-ERB-α). ELISA immunoassay was performed to assess the serum protein level of REV-ERB-α and NPAS2. The only statistically significant difference between groups was observed in NPAS2 protein level (p=0.037). Post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between the OSA and the control group (p=0.017). AHI and NPAS2 level was significantly correlated (r=-0.478, p=0.002) in all groups. A significant correlation was observed between the REV-ERB-α level and sleep efficiency (r=0.617, p=0.005) as well as sleep maintenance efficiency (r=0.645, p=0.003) in the OSA group. We conclude, that NPAS2 is associated with OSA severity and might contribute to metabolic sequelae of this disease. REV-ERB-α on the other hand can influence sleep continuity and efficiency.

Keywords: OSA, diabetes mellitus, endocrinology, chronobiology

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127 Application of the Best Technique for Estimating the Rest-Activity Rhythm Period in Shift Workers

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Soni


Under free living conditions, human biological clocks show a periodicity of 24 hour for numerous physiological, behavioral and biochemical variables. However, this period is not the original period; rather it merely exhibits synchronization with the solar clock. It is, therefore, most important to investigate characteristics of human circadian clock, essentially in shift workers, who normally confront with contrasting social clocks. Aim of the present study was to investigate rest-activity rhythm and to vouch for the best technique for the computation of periods in this rhythm in subjects randomly selected from different groups of shift workers. The rest-activity rhythm was studied in forty-eight shift workers from three different organizations, namely Newspaper Printing Press (NPP), Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) and Raipur Alloys (RA). Shift workers of NPP (N = 20) were working on a permanent night shift schedule (NS; 20:00-04:00). However, in CSEB (N = 14) and RA (N = 14), shift workers were working in a 3-shift system comprising of rotations from night (NS; 22:00-06:00) to afternoon (AS; 14:00-22:00) and to morning shift (MS; 06:00-14:00). Each subject wore an Actiwatch (AW64, Mini Mitter Co. Inc., USA) for 7 and/or 21 consecutive days, only after furnishing a certificate of consent. One-minute epoch length was chosen for the collection of wrist activity data. Period was determined by using Actiware sleep software (Periodogram), Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) and Spectral analysis software (Spectre). Other statistical techniques, such as ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple-range test were also used whenever required. A statistically significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity, gauged by cosinor, was documented in all shift workers, irrespective of shift work. Results indicate that the efficiency of the technique to determine the period (τ) depended upon the clipping limits of the τs. It appears that the technique of spectre is more reliable.

Keywords: biological clock, rest activity rhythm, spectre, periodogram

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126 The Pro-Active Public Relations of Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Kanyakorn Sujarittnetikarn, Surangkana Pipatchokchaiyo


The objective of this research was to study the pro-active public relations of according to the characteristic of Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The sample group for this research report was students from 4 year curriculum and continued / extended curriculum, made a random distribution proportion as follows: a group of 400 students who are working while studying and a group of non – working students. The tools used in this research were questionnaires, asking about the acknowledgement of public relations information of Faculty of Management Science in the academic year 2007. The result found that friends were the most influential in choosing the education institute. The differences of method to receive information of non-working student and working student were the entertainment magazine which was interested mostly by working students and they preferred to search the information on the website after 24:00 O’clock. However, the non-working students preferred 21:00-24:00 O’clock the most.

Keywords: development guidelines systems, faculty of management science, public relation planning, proactive public relations

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125 Modular Probe for Basic Monitoring of Water and Air Quality

Authors: Andrés Calvillo Téllez, Marianne Martínez Zanzarric, José Cruz Núñez Pérez


A modular system that performs basic monitoring of both water and air quality is presented. Monitoring is essential for environmental, aquaculture, and agricultural disciplines, where this type of instrumentation is necessary for data collection. The system uses low-cost components, which allows readings close to those with high-cost probes. The probe collects readings such as the coordinates of the geographical position, as well as the time it records the target parameters of the monitored. The modules or subsystems that make up the probe are the global positioning (GPS), which shows the altitude, latitude, and longitude data of the point where the reading will be recorded, a real-time clock stage, the date marking the time, the module SD memory continuously stores data, data acquisition system, central processing unit, and energy. The system acquires parameters to measure water quality, conductivity, pressure, and temperature, and for air, three types of ammonia, dioxide, and carbon monoxide gases were censored. The information obtained allowed us to identify the schedule of modification of the parameters and the identification of the ideal conditions for the growth of microorganisms in the water.

Keywords: calibration, conductivity, datalogger, monitoring, real time clock, water quality

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124 A High Time Resolution Digital Pulse Width Modulator Based on Field Programmable Gate Array’s Phase Locked Loop Megafunction

Authors: Jun Wang, Tingcun Wei


The digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is the crucial building block for digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, which converts the digital duty ratio signal into its analog counterpart to control the power MOSFET transistors on or off. With the increase of switching frequency of digitally-controlled DC-DC converter, the DPWM with higher time resolution is required. In this paper, a 15-bits DPWM with three-level hybrid structure is presented; the first level is composed of a7-bits counter and a comparator, the second one is a 5-bits delay line, and the third one is a 3-bits digital dither. The presented DPWM is designed and implemented using the PLL megafunction of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), and the required frequency of clock signal is 128 times of switching frequency. The simulation results show that, for the switching frequency of 2 MHz, a DPWM which has the time resolution of 15 ps is achieved using a maximum clock frequency of 256MHz. The designed DPWM in this paper is especially useful for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters.

Keywords: DPWM, digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, FPGA, PLL megafunction, time resolution

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123 Environmental Impacts on the British Era Structures of Faisalabad-a Detailed Study of the Clock Tower of Faisalabad

Authors: Bazla Manzoor, Aqsa Yasin


Pakistan is the country which is progressing by leaps and bounds through agricultural and industrial growth. The main area, which presents the largest income rate through industrial activities, is Faisalabad from the Province of Punjab. Faisalabad’s main occupations include agriculture and industry. As these sectors i.e. agriculture and industry is developing day by day, they are earning much income for the country and generating thousands of job vacancies. On one hand the city, i.e. Faisalabad is on the way of development through industrial growth, while on the other hand this industrial growth is producing a bad impact on the environment. In return, that damaged environment is affecting badly on the people and built environment. This research is chiefly based on one of the above-mentioned factors i.e. adverse environmental impacts on the built structures. Faisalabad is an old city, therefore; it is having many old structures especially from British Era. Many of those structures are still surviving and are functioning as the government, private and public buildings. However, these structures are getting in a poor condition with the passage of time due to bad maintenance and adverse environmental impacts. Bad maintenance is a factor, which can be controlled by financial assistance and management. The factor needs to be seriously considered is the other one i.e. adverse environmental impacts on British Era structures of the city because this factor requires controlled and refined human activities and actions. For this reason, a research was required to conserve the British Era structures of Faisalabad so that these structures can function well. The other reason to conserve them is that these structures are historically important and are the heritage of the city. For doing this research, literature has been reviewed which was present in the libraries of the city. Department of Environment, Town Municipal Administration, Faisalabad Development Authority and Lyallpur Heritage Foundation were visited to collect the existing data available. Various British Era structures were also visited to note down the environmental impacts on them. From all the structures “Clock Tower,” was deeply studied as it is one of the oldest and most important heritage structures of the city because the earlier settlements of the city were planned based on its location by The British Government. The architectural and environmental analyses were done for The Clock Tower. This research study found the deterioration factors of the tower according to which suggestions have been made.

Keywords: lyallpur, heritage, architecture, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
122 A Case of Survival with Self-Draining Haemopericardium Secondary to Stabbing

Authors: Balakrishna Valluru, Ruth Suckling


A 16 year old male was found collapsed on the road following stab injuries to the chest and abdomen and was transported to the emergency department by ambulance. On arrival in the emergency department the patient was breathless and appeared pale. He was maintaining his airway with spontaneous breathing and had a heart rate of 122 beats per minute with a blood pressure of 83/63 mmHg. He was resuscitated initially with three units of packed red cells. Clinical examination identified three incisional wounds each measuring 2 cm. These were in the left para-sternal region, right infra-scapular region and left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The chest wound over the left parasternal area at the level of 4tth intercostal space was bleeding intermittently on leaning forwards and was relieving his breathlessness intermittently. CT imaging was performed to characterize his injuries and determine his management. CT scan of chest and abdomen showed moderate size haemopericardium with left sided haemopneumothorax. The patient underwent urgent surgical repair of the left ventricle and left anterior descending artery. He recovered without complications and was discharged from the hospital. This case highlights the fact that the potential to develop a life threatening cardiac tamponade was mitigated by the left parasternal stab wound. This injury fortuitously provided a pericardial window through which the bleeding from the injured left ventricle and left anterior descending artery could drain into the left hemithorax providing an opportunity for timely surgical intervention to repair the cardiac injuries.

Keywords: stab, incisional, haemo-pericardium, haemo-pneumothorax

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
121 Shared Heart with a Common Atrial Complex and Persistent Right Dorsal Aorta in Conjoined Twins

Authors: L. C. Prasanna, Antony Sylvan D’Souza, Kumar M. R. Bhat


Although life as a conjoined twin would seem intolerable, there has recently been an increased interest in this subject because of the increasing number of cases where attempts have been made to separate them surgically. We have reviewed articles on cardiovascular anomalies in conjoined twins and presenting rarest anomaly in dicephalus parapagus fetus having two heads attached to one body from the neck or upper chest downwards, with a pair of limbs and a set of reproductive organs. Both the twins shared a common thoracic cavity with a single sternum. When the thoracic cavity was opened, a common anterior mediastinum was found. On opening the pericardium, two separate, closely apposed hearts were exposed. The two cardia are placed side by side. The left heart was slightly larger than the right and were joined at the atrial levels. Four atrial appendages were present, two for each twin. The atrial complex was a common chamber posterior to the ventricles. A single large tributary which could be taken as inferior vena cava drains into the common atrial chamber. In this case, the heart could not be assigned to either twin and therefore, it is referred to as the shared heart within a common pericardial sac. The right and left descending thoracic aorta have joined with each other just above the diaphragm to form a common descending thoracic aorta which has an opening in the diaphragm to be continued as common abdominal aorta which has a normal branching pattern. Upon an interior dissection, it is observed that the two atria have a wide communication which could be a wide patent foramen ovale and this common atrial cavity has a communication with a remnant of a possible common sinus venosus.

Keywords: atrium, congenital anomaly, conjoined twin, sinus venosus

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
120 Geometrical Analysis of an Atheroma Plaque in Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

Authors: Sohrab Jafarpour, Hamed Farokhi, Mohammad Rahmati, Alireza Gholipour


In the current study, a nonlinear fluid-structure interaction (FSI) biomechanical model of atherosclerosis in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery is developed to perform a detailed sensitivity analysis of the geometrical features of an atheroma plaque. In the development of the numerical model, first, a 3D geometry of the diseased artery is developed based on patient-specific dimensions obtained from the experimental studies. The geometry includes four influential geometric characteristics: stenosis ratio, plaque shoulder-length, fibrous cap thickness, and eccentricity intensity. Then, a suitable strain energy density function (SEDF) is proposed based on the detailed material stability analysis to accurately model the hyperelasticity of the arterial walls. The time-varying inlet velocity and outlet pressure profiles are adopted from experimental measurements to incorporate the pulsatile nature of the blood flow. In addition, a computationally efficient type of structural boundary condition is imposed on the arterial walls. Finally, a non-Newtonian viscosity model is implemented to model the shear-thinning behaviour of the blood flow. According to the results, the structural responses in terms of the maximum principal stress (MPS) are affected more compared to the fluid responses in terms of wall shear stress (WSS) as the geometrical characteristics are varying. The extent of these changes is critical in the vulnerability assessment of an atheroma plaque.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, fluid-Structure interaction modeling, material stability analysis, and nonlinear biomechanics

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119 Research on Coordination Strategies for Coordinating Supply Chain Based on Auction Mechanisms

Authors: Changtong Wang, Lingyun Wei


The combination of auctions and supply chains is of great significance in improving the supply chain management system and enhancing the efficiency of economic and social operations. To address the gap in research on supply chain strategies under the auction mechanism, a model is developed for the 1-N auction model in a complete information environment, and it is concluded that the two-part contract auction model for retailers in this model can achieve supply chain coordination. The model is validated by substituting the model into the scenario of a fresh-cut flower industry flower auction in exchange for arithmetic examples to further prove the validity of the conclusions.

Keywords: auction mechanism, supply chain coordination strategy, fresh cut flowers industry, supply chain management

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118 The Effects of Circadian Rhythms Change in High Latitudes

Authors: Ekaterina Zvorykina


Nowadays, Arctic and Antarctic regions are distinguished to be one of the most important strategic resources for global development. Nonetheless, living conditions in Arctic regions still demand certain improvements. As soon as the region is rarely populated, one of the main points of interest is health accommodation of the people, who migrate to Arctic region for permanent and shift work. At Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, personnel face polar day and polar night conditions during the time of the year. It means that they are deprived of natural sunlight in winter season and have continuous daylight in summer. Firstly, the change in light intensity during 24-hours period due to migration affects circadian rhythms. Moreover, the controlled artificial light in winter is also an issue. The results of the recent studies on night shift medical professionals, who were exposed to permanent artificial light, have already demonstrated higher risks in cancer, depression, Alzheimer disease. Moreover, people exposed to frequent time zones change are also subjected to higher risks of heart attack and cancer. Thus, our main goals are to understand how high latitude work and living conditions can affect human health and how it can be prevented. In our study, we analyze molecular and cellular factors, which play important role in circadian rhythm change and distinguish main risk groups in people, migrating to high latitudes. The main well-studied index of circadian timing is melatonin or its metabolite 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. In low light intensity melatonin synthesis is disturbed and as a result human organism requires more time for sleep, which is still disregarded when it comes to working time organization. Lack of melatonin also causes shortage in serotonin production, which leads to higher depression risk. Melatonin is also known to inhibit oncogenes and increase apoptosis level in cells, the main factors for tumor growth, as well as circadian clock genes (for example Per2). Thus, people who work in high latitudes can be distinguished as a risk group for cancer diseases and demand more attention. Clock/Clock genes, known to be one of the main circadian clock regulators, decrease sensitivity of hypothalamus to estrogen and decrease glucose sensibility, which leads to premature aging and oestrous cycle disruption. Permanent light exposure also leads to accumulation superoxide dismutase and oxidative stress, which is one of the main factors for early dementia and Alzheimer disease. We propose a new screening system adjusted for people, migrating from middle to high latitudes and accommodation therapy. Screening is focused on melatonin and estrogen levels, sleep deprivation and neural disorders, depression level, cancer risks and heart and vascular disorders. Accommodation therapy includes different types artificial light exposure, additional melatonin and neuroprotectors. Preventive procedures can lead to increase of migration intensity to high latitudes and, as a result, the prosperity of Arctic region.

Keywords: circadian rhythm, high latitudes, melatonin, neuroprotectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
117 Atherosclerosis Prevalence Within Populations of the Southeastern United States

Authors: Samuel P. Prahlow, Anthony Sciuva, Katherine Bombly, Emily Wilson, Shiv Dhiman, Savita Arya


A prevalence cohort study of atherosclerotic lesions within cadavers was performed to better understand and characterize the prevalence of atherosclerosis among Georgia residents within body donors in the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM) - Georgia body donor program. We procured specimens from cadavers used for medical students, physical therapy students, and biomedical science students cadaveric anatomical dissection at PCOM - South Georgia and PCOM - Georgia. Tissues were prepared using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stainas histological slides by Colquitt Regional Medical Center Laboratory Services. One section from each of the following arteries was taken after cadaveric dissection at the site of most calcification palpated grossly (if present): left anterior descending coronary artery, left internal carotid artery, abdominal aorta, splenic artery, and hepatic artery. All specimens were graded and categorized according to the American Heart Association’s Modified and Conventional Standards for Atherosclerotic Lesions using x4, x10, x40 microscopic magnification. Our study cohort included 22 cadavers, with 16 females and 6 males. The average age was 72.54, and the median age was 72, with a range of 52 to 90 years old. The cause of death determination listing vascular and/or cardiovascular causes was present on 6 of the 22 death certificates. 19 of 22 (86%) cadavers had at least a single artery grading > 5. Of the cadavers with at least a single artery graded at greater than 5, only 5 of 19 (26%) cadavers had a vascular or cardiovascular cause of death reported. Malignancy was listed as a cause of death on 7 (32%) death certificates. The average atherosclerosis grading of the common hepatic, splenic and left internal carotid arteries (2.15, 3.05, and 3.36 respectively) were lower than the left anterior descending artery and the abdominal aorta (5.16 and 5.86 respectively). This prevalence study characterizes atherosclerosis found in five medium and large systemic arteries within cadavers from the state of Georgia.

Keywords: pathology, atherosclerosis, histology, cardiovascular

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
116 Addressing Scheme for IOT Network Using IPV6

Authors: H. Zormati, J. Chebil, J. Bel Hadj Taher


The goal of this paper is to present an addressing scheme that allows for assigning a unique IPv6 address to each node in the Internet of Things (IoT) network. This scheme guarantees uniqueness by extracting the clock skew of each communication device and converting it into an IPv6 address. Simulation analysis confirms that the presented scheme provides reductions in terms of energy consumption, communication overhead and response time as compared to four studied addressing schemes Strong DAD, LEADS, SIPA and CLOSA.

Keywords: addressing, IoT, IPv6, network, nodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 191