Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3110

Search results for: Selling Strategy

3110 Defining the Term of Strategy within Military Point of View

Authors: Ismail Menderes Sema, Murat Sözen, M. K. Barış

Abstract:

The strategy is about winning or preventing your enemy from winning. The origin of the term comes from the military. After utilizing the strategy for limited military purposes in early ages, soldiers and statesmen used the term together to achieve the goals of states. In ancient times, those people who made strategy and implemented it was the same. With the industrial revolution, the strategy changed like everything and the term “grand strategy” came forward. Today, from business to economy, management to philosophy there is a broad using of the term strategy. Economic strategy, business strategy, trade strategy, irrigation strategy, and even recruitment strategy are used by professionals. The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of the strategy and clarify actually what is about.

Keywords: strategy, military, art, grand strategy, strategist

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3109 Optimal Pricing Mechanism for Non-Storable Goods: The Power of Opaque Products

Authors: Juana M. Alonso, M. Pilar Socorro

Abstract:

In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to analyze firms’ optimal pricing mechanism for non-storable goods. With non-storable goods, firms may be interested in introducing opaque products in order to have two different markets: the transparent market and the opaque market. This may allow firms to sell all their non-storable goods, discriminate prices between markets, and maximize revenues. We prove that in a situation of low demand in the transparent market, if all consumers are risk neutral or risk loving, introducing opaque products is always the most profitable strategy for the firm. However, if consumers are risk averse, the firm needs to offer opaque products with an additional discount. We analyze under which circumstances selling opaque products with such a discount is the optimal pricing strategy. Throughout the paper, we use airlines’ pricing strategy as an application for non-storable goods (flights), opaque products (blind tickets), and continuously changing demand (as it is nowadays the case in the air transport industry due to the Covid-19 pandemic).

Keywords: opaque products, risk attitude, expected utility, pricing strategy

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3108 Effectiveness of Language Learning Strategy Instruction Based on CALLA on Iranian EFL Language Strategy Use

Authors: Reza Khani, Ziba Hosseini

Abstract:

Ever since the importance of language learning strategy instruction (LLS) has been distinguished, there has been growing interest on how to teach LLS in language learning classrooms. So thus this study attempted to implement language strategy instruction based on CALLA approach for Iranian EFL learners in a real classroom setting. The study was testing the hypothesis that strategy instruction result in improved linguistic strategy of students. The participant of the study were 240 EFL learners who received language learning instruction for four months. The data collected using Oxford strategy inventory for language learning. The results indicated the instruction had statistically significant effect on language strategy use of intervention group who received instruction.

Keywords: CALLA, language learning strategy, language learning strategy instruction, Iranian EFL language strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
3107 The Morphing Avatar of Startup Sales - Destination Virtual Reality

Authors: Sruthi Kannan

Abstract:

The ongoing covid pandemic has accelerated digital transformation like never before. The physical barriers brought in as a result of the pandemic are being bridged by digital alternatives. While basic collaborative activities like voice, video calling, screen sharing have been replicated in these alternatives, there are several others that require a more intimate setup. Pitching, showcasing, and providing demonstrations are an integral part of selling strategies for startups. Traditionally these have been in-person engagements, enabling a depth of understanding of the startups’ offerings. In the new normal scenario of virtual-only connects, startups are feeling the brunt of the lack of in-person connections with potential customers and investors. This poster demonstrates how a virtual reality platform has been conceptualized and custom-built for startups to engage with their stakeholders and redefine their selling strategies. This virtual reality platform is intended to provide an immersive experience for startup showcases and offers the nearest possible alternative to physical meetings for the startup ecosystem, thereby opening newer frontiers for entrepreneurial collaborations.

Keywords: collaboration, sales, startups, strategy, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
3106 The Effects of Distribution Channels on the Selling Prices of Hotels in Time of Crisis

Authors: Y. Yılmaz, C. Ünal, A. Dursun

Abstract:

Distribution channels play significant role for hotels. Direct and indirect selling options of hotel rooms have been increased especially with the help of new technologies, i.e. hotel’s own web sites and online booking sites. Although these options emerged as tools for diversifying the distribution channels, vast number of hotels -mostly resort hotels- is still heavily dependent upon international tour operators when selling their products. On the other hand, hotel sector is so vulnerable against crises. Economic, political or any other crisis can affect hotels very badly and so it is critical to have the right balance of distribution channel to avoid the adverse impacts of a crisis. In this study, it is aimed to search the impacts of a general crisis on the selling prices of hotels which have different weights of distribution channels. The study was done in Turkey where various crises occurred in 2015 and 2016 which had great negative impacts on Turkish tourism and led enormous occupancy rate and selling price reductions. 112 upscale resort hotel in Antalya, which is the most popular tourism destination of Turkey, joined to the research. According to the results, hotels with high dependency to international tour operators are more forced to reduce their room prices in crisis time compared to the ones which use their own web sites more. It was also found that the decline in room prices is limited for hotels which are working with national tour operators and travel agencies in crisis time.

Keywords: marketing channels, crisis, hotel, international tour operators, online travel agencies

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3105 Challenges and Opportunities for Online Consumer Selling Process Development in Coming Years in World

Authors: Prakash Prajapati

Abstract:

E commerce is certainly one of the business alternatives that individual will have to analyze in the forthcoming years. E-commerce is said to bring about arched type conversion in the world for exchange market. Prognosis E-commerce is presenting dreadful business advancement in our country. Endorsed by ascending online user base & mobile phone presentation, Indian e-commerce has been splendid development in the last few years. Conceding India’s analytical dividend and spiraling internet admittance, the sector is contracted to scale higher heights. Although, India’s overall peddle opportunity is consequential, the sector is beset with some deliberate challenges. The current study has been proceeded to explore the present scenario, status & future advancement of e-commerce in India and review the challenges and opportunities of e-commerce in India.

Keywords: online selling, retail selling online, product process, business opportunity

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3104 An Open Source Advertisement System

Authors: Pushkar Umaranikar, Chris Pollett

Abstract:

An online advertisement system and its implementation for the Yioop open source search engine are presented. This system supports both selling advertisements and displaying them within search results. The selling of advertisements is done using a system to auction off daily impressions for keyword searches. This is an open, ascending price auction system in which all accepted bids will receive a fraction of the auctioned day’s impressions. New bids in our system are required to be at least one half of the sum of all previous bids ensuring the number of accepted bids is logarithmic in the total ad spend on a keyword for a day. The mechanics of creating an advertisement, attaching keywords to it, and adding it to an advertisement inventory are described. The algorithm used to go from accepted bids for a keyword to which ads are displayed at search time is also presented. We discuss properties of our system and compare it to existing auction systems and systems for selling online advertisements.

Keywords: online markets, online ad system, online auctions, search engines

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3103 Simulating the Interaction of Strategy Development and Project Delivery

Authors: Nipun Agarwal, David Paul, Fareed Un Din

Abstract:

Every organization develops a strategy that needs to be implemented and is undertaken through project delivery. In essence, project requirements should exactly replicate an organization’s strategy. In reality this does not happen, and behavioral factors deviate the project delivery from the strategic objectives. This occurs as project stakeholders can have competing objectives. Resultantly, requirements that are implemented through projects are less aligned to the strategy. This paper develops a game theoretic model to simulate why such deviations occur. That explains the difference between strategy development and implementation.

Keywords: strategy, simulation, project management, game theory

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3102 Marosok Tradition in the Process of Buying and Selling Cattle in Payakumbuh: A Comparative Study between Adat Law and Positive Law of Indonesia

Authors: Mhd. Zakiul Fikri, M. Agus Maulidi

Abstract:

Indonesia is a constitutional state. As the constitutional state, Indonesia is not only using a single legal system, but also adopting three legal systems consist of: The European continental legal system or positive law of Indonesia, adat law system, and legal system of religion. This study will discuss Marosok tradition in the process of buying and selling cattle in Payakumbuh: a comparative study between adat law and positive law of Indonesia. The objectives of this research are: First, to find the meaning of the philosophical of Marosok tradition in Payakumbuh. Second, to find the legal implications of the Marosok tradition reviewed aspects of adat law and positive law of Indonesia. Third, to find legal procedure in arbitrating the dispute wich is potentially appear in the post-process of buying and selling cattle based on positive law and adat law adopted in Indonesia. This research is empirical legal research that using two model approaches which are statute approach and conceptual approach. Data was obtained through interviews, observations, and documents or books. Then a method of data analysis used is inductive analysis. Finally, this study found that: First, tradition of Marosok contains the meaning of harmonization of social life that keep people from negative debate, envy, and arrogant. Second, Marosok tradition is one of the adat law in Indonesia; it is one of contract law in the process of buying and selling. If the comparison between the practice Marosok tradition as adat law with the provisions of Article 1320 book of civil code about the terms of the validity of a contract, the elements contained in the provisions of these regulations are met in practice Marosok. Thus, the practice of Marosok in buying and selling cattle process in Payakumbuh justified in view of the positive law of Indonesia. Last of all, all kinds of disputes arising due to contracts made by Marosok tradition can be resolved by positive law and adat law of Indonesia.

Keywords: Adat law, contract, Indonesia, Marosok

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
3101 A Multivariate Analysis of Patent Price Variations in the Emerging United States Patent Auction Market: Role of Patent, Seller, and Bundling Related Characteristics

Authors: Pratheeba Subramanian, Anjula Gurtoo, Mary Mathew

Abstract:

Transaction of patents in emerging patent markets is gaining momentum. Pricing patents for a transaction say patent sale remains a challenge. Patents vary in their pricing with some patents fetching higher prices than others. Sale of patents in portfolios further complicates pricing with multiple patents playing a role in pricing a bundle. In this paper, a set of 138 US patents sold individually as single invention lots and 462 US patents sold in bundles of 120 portfolios are investigated to understand the dynamics of selling prices of singletons and portfolios and their determinants. Firstly, price variations when patents are sold individually as singletons and portfolios are studied. Multivariate statistical techniques are used for analysis both at the lot level as well as at the individual patent level. The results show portfolios fetching higher prices than singletons at the lot level. However, at the individual patent level singletons show higher prices than per patent price of individual patent members within the portfolio. Secondly, to understand the price determinants, the effect of patent, seller, and bundling related characteristics on selling prices is studied separately for singletons and portfolios. The results show differences in the set of characteristics determining prices of singletons and portfolios. Selling prices of singletons are found to be dependent on the patent related characteristics, unlike portfolios whose prices are found to be dependent on all three aspects – patent, seller, and bundling. The specific patent, seller and bundling characteristics influencing selling price are discussed along with the implications.

Keywords: auction, patents, portfolio bundling, seller type, selling price, singleton

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
3100 Alignment of Information System Strategy and Green Information System Strategy: Comprehension and A Review of the Literature

Authors: Wartika Memed Purawinata, Kridanto Surendro, Husni Sastramiharja, Iping Supriana S.

Abstract:

The information system is one of the contributors to environmental degradation and pollution are known to be released, such as the increasing of use of IT equipment and energy consumption , life cycles of IT equipment are getting shorter, IT equipment waste disposal and so on, therefore the information system should have a role in related environmental issues. Organization need to develop the ability of green to minimize negative impacts on the environment. Although the green information system is an important topic, many organizations fail to manage the environment in a way that is adequate because they ignore aspect of strategy. Alignment strategy is very important to ensure that all people do the activities of the organization headed in the same direction. Alignment strategy helps organization, determine which is more important for organization, and then make road mad to achieve the organization goal. Therefore, this paper discusses the review of the alignment, information systems strategy, and IS green strategy. With this discussion is expected there is an understanding about the alignment of information systems strategy and strategy of green IS, and its relationship with the achievement of business goals that have commitment to reduce the negative impact of information systems on the environment.

Keywords: alignment, strategy, information system, green

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3099 India’s Strategy toward Afghanistan since 9\11

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

overall, India had friendly relation with different governments in Afghanistan except for the Taliban regime amongst the years 1996 to 2001. The terrorist attack in the United States provided India a chance to follow its strategy in Afghanistan. India support Afghanistan since 9\11. The objectives of this study to study India’s strategy towards Afghanistan and its implication to neighbor countries. The research method conducted based on qualitative research method with descriptive. The research findings propose that; India has chosen a soft power policy to implement its strategy in Afghanistan.

Keywords: strategy, policy, soft power, Afghanistan

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3098 Developing a Framework for Online Auction Effectiveness

Authors: Chechen Liao, Pui-Lai To, Chiao-Ying Chen

Abstract:

An introduction of internet auction has significantly widened the pool of consumers who participate in auctions and increased the number of companies attempting to sell their products in an auction format. Previous research on auctions has focused almost exclusively on the behavior of professional bidders. In this study, we focus on the characteristic of seller, auction parameter and the effect of supply and demand, and examine these impacts on auction effectiveness. In particular, a framework for online auction effectiveness was developed. The framework will help researchers and practitioner to find ways to improve online auction effectiveness.

Keywords: Auction Effectiveness, Framework Developing, Online Auction, Selling Strategy

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3097 Homogeneity among Diversity

Authors: Yu Guang

Abstract:

“Case studies are the preferred strategy when ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions are being posed.” Therefore, the study is based on two cases: strategy performed in JingNan War and by NIKE. The two samples are chosen as they are of comparability. Data are gathered and PEST and SWOT are used as analysis models to examine their strategic employment in order that the answer to brilliant strategies in variety is found. The niche strategy has been used in the past and present, in the battle fields and business. The homogeneity among diversity is the skill of performing strategies.

Keywords: challenger, homogeneity, managing diversity, niche strategy

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3096 Pure and Mixed Nash Equilibria Domain of a Discrete Game Model with Dichotomous Strategy Space

Authors: A. S. Mousa, F. Shoman

Abstract:

We present a discrete game theoretical model with homogeneous individuals who make simultaneous decisions. In this model the strategy space of all individuals is a discrete and dichotomous set which consists of two strategies. We fully characterize the coherent, split and mixed strategies that form Nash equilibria and we determine the corresponding Nash domains for all individuals. We find all strategic thresholds in which individuals can change their mind if small perturbations in the parameters of the model occurs.

Keywords: coherent strategy, split strategy, pure strategy, mixed strategy, Nash equilibrium, game theory

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3095 Factors Influencing Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With men (MSM) Aged 18-24 years in Mtwapa Town, Kilifi County, Kenya

Authors: Oscar Maina Irungu

Abstract:

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mtwapa Town, Kilifi County are at high risk of HIV infection. Probability sample surveys to determine HIV prevalence among MSM in Mtwapa are needed to inform prevention and care services. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among MSM aged 18-24 years old, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Mtwapa. Consenting MSM were tested for HIV (fingerstick rapid test). Population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS Analysis Tool (RDSAT). Results: Among 274 MSM, the median age was 20 years (IQR: 19-23 years). Fifty percent of MSM reported not selling sex, while 13.2 % reported sex work as their “main occupation”, and another 28.4 % reported selling sex in the past two months (but not as their main occupation).Overall HIV prevalence was 19.2 % (CI: 12.2-23.6%). HIV prevalence was higher among MSM who reported sex work as their main occupation (28.3%,CI: 12.1-42.3%) or selling sex in the past two months (26.6 %, CI: 17.2-35.7 %),than among MSM who did not sell sex (11.6%,CI: 7.0-18.1%). Conclusion: HIV prevalence among MSM were high than among Kilifi’s general population aged 15-64 years (8.8%; 2010 KAIS) and highest in male sex workers. Health programs need to address concerns and modify services to meet needs of diverse subgroups of MSM. We recommend continued, periodic surveillance to monitor HIV prevalence among MSM in Mtwapa, and expansion to other areas in Kenya.

Keywords: power point, Kenya, homosexuality, sex

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3094 Representing a Methodology for Refinement of Strategic Objectives in Strategy Map Establishment: Combining Quality Function Deployment and Fuzzy Screening

Authors: Bijan Nahavandi, Navid Jafarinejad, Somayeh Mehrafzad

Abstract:

Strategy maps represent the way of value creation in in each organization. Nowadays, implementation of strategy is the main concern for all organizations. Strategy map establishment is the start-up point of strategy implementation and this shows the critical importance of this concept. After some years past since emergence of strategy map, there are some shortcomings in its methodology that frequently quoted by many of researchers. One of these shortcomings is the shortage of a mechanism for refinement of objectives candidate for entrance to map. Organizations in practice have obsession and avidity to determine more number of objectives in strategy map. This study wants to represent a step by step approach to help obviate this problem using quality function deployment (QFD) as a helpful tool and fuzzy screening method. Finally, represented approach applies in a practical case and conclusions have been explained.

Keywords: balanced scorecard, fuzzy screening, house of strategic objectives (HoSO), quality function deployment, strategy map

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3093 Reading Strategy Awareness of English Major Students

Authors: Hsin-Yi Lien

Abstract:

The study explored the role of metacognition in foreign language anxiety on a sample of 411 Taiwanese students of English as a Foreign Language. The reading strategy inventory was employed to evaluate the tertiary learners’ level of metacognitive awareness and a semi-structured background questionnaire was also used to examine the learners’ perceptions of their English proficiency and satisfaction of their current English learning. In addition, gender and academic level differences in employment of reading strategies were investigated. The results showed the frequency of reading strategy use increase slightly along with academic years and males and females actually employ different reading strategies. The EFL tertiary learners in the present study utilized cognitive strategies more frequently than metacognitive strategies or support strategies. Male students use metacognitive strategy more often while female students use cognitive and support strategy more frequently.

Keywords: cognitive strategy, gender differences, metacognitive strategy, support strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
3092 Modelling Strategy Planning in Multi Business Companies

Authors: Gelareh Changizi, Mahsa Khajavi, Ladan Shahhosseini

Abstract:

Corporate-level strategy, or simply ‘parent strategy’, is a topic that has received much attention since the very early days of the strategic planning field. Since the multi level enterprises have different sub enterprises which deal with different business environments, we cannot define the same strategic perspective for all of them. Therefore, the determination of a perspective to manage and deal with affiliates of such enterprises is the main challenge. The parent strategy in mother enterprises' level has been analyzed in this research. A case study has been carried to comprehensively describe the proposed model.

Keywords: parent strategy, multi-business companies, performance evaluation, lifecycle

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3091 Defense Strategy: Perang Semesta Strategy as a Reliable National Security System of Indonesia

Authors: Erdianta S, Chastiti M. Wulolo, IDK Kerta Widana

Abstract:

Perang Semesta strategy is a national security system used by Republic of Indonesia. It comes from local wisdom, cultural, and hereditary of Indonesia itself. This system involves all people and all nation resources, and it is early prepared by government and conducted totality, integratedly, directly, and continously to enforce a sovereignty of country, teritorial integrity and the safety of the whole nation from threats. This study uses a qualitative content analysis method by studying, recording, and analyzing government policy. The Perang Semesta strategy divided into main, backup, and supporting components. Every component has its function and responsibility in security perspective. So when an attack comes, all people of Indonesia will voluntary to defend the country. Perang Semesta strategy is a national security system which becomes the most reliable strategy toward geography and demography of Indonesia.

Keywords: Indonesia, Perang Semesta strategy, national security, local wisdom

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
3090 Bed Scenes Allurement as Entertainment and Selling Point in Nigeria's Nollywood Movie Industry

Authors: Ojinime E. Ojiakor, Allen N. Adum

Abstract:

We report on bed scenes allurement as entertainment and selling point in Nigeria’s Nollywood movie industry. In recent times, there has been an increase in the portrayal of bed scenes in Nollywood movies. Before now, Nigerian film producers have been very conservative when it comes to showing sex and nudity. This appears to have changed in line with global trends. Movie industries all over the world appear a haven for delectable women who glamorize our screens, not only with their beauty but also their acting skills. At Hollywood, Bollywood, Ghollywood and the like, pretty actresses with sensuous endowments engage in bed scenes which allure the minds of viewers. The idea that, a ravishing beauty on cast is as good as a box office hit apparently drives Nigerian film producers to incorporate bed scenes in their movies. In this era of sex crusade where what sells is sex and maybe a little bit of violence, there is the suggestion that producers believe that if the talent of an actress doesn’t do the trick, the sexiness she exudes is bound to get attention. Against this backdrop, our study examined bed scenes depiction by Nollywood films, in an attempt to establish if their allurement influences the choice of movie and purchase decisions of target markets. We assessed Nollywood films and viewer preference using the mixed method approach. Our findings reveal that bed scenes, as portrayed in Nigerian movies are a significant determinant of which films to watch and which films to purchase among the respondents studied.

Keywords: allurement, bed scenes, nollywood, selling point

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3089 A3 Strategy Deployment: A Case Study Applied to a City Government Department for Healthcare in Brazil

Authors: Samuel Bonato, Cineia Santos, Roberta Leite, Carla Ten Caten

Abstract:

This paper aims to apply the A3 strategy deployment in a local department for healthcare. As a literature review, it was evaluated articles related to the period 2009 - 2018, considering the key-words A3, healthcare, public services and strategy deployment. The methodology used was action research, involving all the actors inside the secretary, beginning with the top management and deploying it through meetings and evaluation conferences with the participation of all secretary coordination. As main results, it is possible to highlight the development of 8 A3, one as the "mother A3" and 7 as "son A3", each one related to each coordination. In each A3, past results, new goals, new projects to achieve these goals and control deadlines were defined and implemented to a management strategy. In addition to this result, this paper is planning to present the use of this A3 during 6 months in 2019.

Keywords: A3 Strategy, strategy deployment, healthcare, Public services

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3088 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: Hevriani Sevrika Mayuasti

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension.

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking, questioning, strategy

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3087 Business Buyers’ Expectations in Buyer-Seller Encounters

Authors: Pia I. Hautamäki

Abstract:

Sales has changed. Selling has taken on aspects of relationship marketing and sales force play a critical role in developing long-term relationships between buyers and sellers which is seen to serve the company’s targets and create success for a long run. The purpose of this study was to examine what really matters in buyer-seller encounters and determine what expectations business buyers have. We studied 17 business buyers by a qualitative interview. We found that buyers appreciate encounters where the salesperson face the buyer as a way he or she is as a person, identificate the real needs to improve buyers’ business and build up cooperation for long-term relationship. This study show that personality matters are a key elements when satisfying business buyers’ expectations.

Keywords: business buyer-seller encounters, customer expectations, perceived similarity, personal selling, personality types

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
3086 Characteristics of Successful Sales Interaction in B2B Sales Meetings

Authors: Ari Alamäki, Timo Kaski

Abstract:

The value of co-creation has gained much attention in sales research, but less is known about how salespeople and customers interact in the authentic business to business (B2B) sales meetings. The study presented in this paper empirically contributes to existing research by presenting authentic B2B sales meetings that were video recorded and analyzed using observation and qualitative content analysis methods. This paper aims to study key elements of successful sales interactions between salespeople and customers/buyers. This study points out that salespeople are selling value rather than the products or services themselves, which are only enablers in realizing business benefits. Therefore, our findings suggest that promoting and easing open discourse is an essential part of a successful sales encounter. A better understanding of how salespeople and customers successfully interact would help salespeople to develop their interpersonal sales skills.

Keywords: personal selling, relationship, sales management, value co-creation

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
3085 Horizontal Cooperative Game Theory in Hotel Revenue Management

Authors: Ririh Rahma Ratinghayu, Jayu Pramudya, Nur Aini Masruroh, Shi-Woei Lin

Abstract:

This research studies pricing strategy in cooperative setting of hotel duopoly selling perishable product under fixed capacity constraint by using the perspective of managers. In hotel revenue management, competitor’s average room rate and occupancy rate should be taken into manager’s consideration in determining pricing strategy to generate optimum revenue. This information is not provided by business intelligence or available in competitor’s website. Thus, Information Sharing (IS) among players might result in improved performance of pricing strategy. IS is widely adopted in the logistics industry, but IS within hospitality industry has not been well-studied. This research put IS as one of cooperative game schemes, besides Mutual Price Setting (MPS) scheme. In off-peak season, hotel manager arranges pricing strategy to offer promotion package and various kinds of discounts up to 60% of full-price to attract customers. Competitor selling homogenous product will react the same, then triggers a price war. Price war which generates lower revenue may be avoided by creating collaboration in pricing strategy to optimize payoff for both players. In MPS cooperative game, players collaborate to set a room rate applied for both players. Cooperative game may avoid unfavorable players’ payoff caused by price war. Researches on horizontal cooperative game in logistics show better performance and payoff for the players, however, horizontal cooperative game in hotel revenue management has not been demonstrated. This paper aims to develop hotel revenue management models under duopoly cooperative schemes (IS & MPS), which are compared to models under non-cooperative scheme too. Each scheme has five models, Capacity Allocation Model; Demand Model; Revenue Model; Optimal Price Model; and Equilibrium Price Model. Capacity Allocation Model and Demand Model employs self-hotel and competitor’s full and discount price as predictors under non-linear relation. Optimal price is obtained by assuming revenue maximization motive. Equilibrium price is observed by interacting self-hotel’s and competitor’s optimal price under reaction equation. Equilibrium is analyzed using game theory approach. The sequence applies for three schemes. MPS Scheme differently aims to optimize total players’ payoff. The case study in which theoretical models are applied observes two hotels offering homogenous product in Indonesia during a year. The Capacity Allocation, Demand, and Revenue Models are built using multiple regression and statistically tested for validation. Case study data confirms that price behaves within demand model in a non-linear manner. IS Models can represent the actual demand and revenue data better than Non-IS Models. Furthermore, IS enables hotels to earn significantly higher revenue. Thus, duopoly hotel players in general, might have reasonable incentives to share information horizontally. During off-peak season, MPS Models are able to predict the optimal equal price for both hotels. However, Nash equilibrium may not always exist depending on actual payoff of adhering or betraying mutual agreement. To optimize performance, horizontal cooperative game may be chosen over non-cooperative game. Mathematical models can be used to detect collusion among business players. Empirical testing can be used as policy input for market regulator in preventing unethical business practices potentially harming society welfare.

Keywords: horizontal cooperative game theory, hotel revenue management, information sharing, mutual price setting

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3084 Language Learning Strategies of Chinese Students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand

Authors: Gunniga Anugkakul, Suwaree Yordchim

Abstract:

The objectives were to study language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by Chinese students, and the frequency of LLSs they used, and examine the relationship between the use of LLSs and gender. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford was administered to thirty-six Chinese students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Three useful findings were found on the use of LLSs reported by Chinese students. First, Chinese students used overall LLSs at a high level. Second, among the six strategy groups, Chinese students employed compensation strategy most frequently and memory strategy least frequently. Third, the research results also revealed that gender had significant effect on Chinese Student’s use of overall LLSs.

Keywords: English language, language learning strategy, Chinese students, compensation strategy

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3083 Bioactive Chemical Markers Based Strategy for Quality Control of Herbal Medicines

Authors: Zhenzhong Yang

Abstract:

Herbal medicines are important supplements to chemical drugs and usually consist of a complex mixture of constituents. The current quality control strategy of herbal medicines is mainly based on chemical markers, which largely failed to owe to the markers, not reflecting the herbal medicines’ multiple mechanisms of action. Herein, a bioactive chemical markers based strategy was proposed and applied to the quality assessment and control of herbal medicines. This strategy mainly includes the comprehensive chemical characterization of herbal medicines, bioactive chemical markers identification, and related quantitative analysis methods development. As a proof-of-concept, this strategy was applied to a Panax notoginseng derived herbal medicine. The bioactive chemical markers based strategy offers a rational approach for quality assessment and control of herbal medicines.

Keywords: bioactive chemical markers, herbal medicines, quality assessment, quality control

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
3082 Personalized Email Marketing Strategy: A Reinforcement Learning Approach

Authors: Lei Zhang, Tingting Xu, Jun He, Zhenyu Yan

Abstract:

Email marketing is one of the most important segments of online marketing. It has been proved to be the most effective way to acquire and retain customers. The email content is vital to customers. Different customers may have different familiarity with a product, so a successful marketing strategy must personalize email content based on individual customers’ product affinity. In this study, we build our personalized email marketing strategy with three types of emails: nurture, promotion, and conversion. Each type of email has a different influence on customers. We investigate this difference by analyzing customers’ open rates, click rates and opt-out rates. Feature importance from response models is also analyzed. The goal of the marketing strategy is to improve the click rate on conversion-type emails. To build the personalized strategy, we formulate the problem as a reinforcement learning problem and adopt a Q-learning algorithm with variations. The simulation results show that our model-based strategy outperforms the current marketer’s strategy.

Keywords: email marketing, email content, reinforcement learning, machine learning, Q-learning

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3081 The Role of Language Strategy on International Survival of Firm: A Conceptual Framework from Resource Dependence Perspective

Authors: Sazzad Hossain Talukder

Abstract:

Survival in the competitive international market with unforeseen environmental contingencies has always been a concern of the firms that led to adopting different strategies to deal with different situations. Language strategy is considered to enhance the international performance of a firm by organizing language diversity and fostering communications within and outside the firm. Yet there is a lack of theoretical attention or model development on the role of language strategy on firm international survival. From resource dependence perspective, the adoption of language strategy and its relationship with firm survival are determined by the firm´s capability to prevent dependency concentration and/or increase relative power on the external environment. However, the impact of language strategy on firm survival is complex and multifaceted as the strategy influence firm performance indirectly through communication, coordination, learning and value creation. The evidence of various types of language strategies and different forms of firm survival also bring in complexities to understand the effects of a language strategy on the international survival of a firm. Based on language literatures and resource dependence logic, certain propositions are developed to conceptualize the relationship between language strategy and firm international survival in this conceptual paper. For the purpose of this paper, a conceptual model is proposed to examine how different kinds of language strategy foster reduction of resource dependency that lead to firm international survival in respond to local responsiveness and global integration. In this proposed model, it is theorized that language strategy has a positive relationship with the international survival of the firm, as the strategy is likely to reduce external resource dependency and increase the ability to continue independent operations both in short and long term.

Keywords: language strategy, language diversity, firm international survival, resource dependence logic

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