Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2376

Search results for: auction mechanism

2376 Developing a Framework for Online Auction Effectiveness

Authors: Chechen Liao, Pui-Lai To, Chiao-Ying Chen

Abstract:

An introduction of internet auction has significantly widened the pool of consumers who participate in auctions and increased the number of companies attempting to sell their products in an auction format. Previous research on auctions has focused almost exclusively on the behavior of professional bidders. In this study, we focus on the characteristic of seller, auction parameter and the effect of supply and demand, and examine these impacts on auction effectiveness. In particular, a framework for online auction effectiveness was developed. The framework will help researchers and practitioner to find ways to improve online auction effectiveness.

Keywords: Auction Effectiveness, Framework Developing, Online Auction, Selling Strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2375 Scheduling of Cross-Docking Center: An Auction-Based Algorithm

Authors: Eldho Paul, Brijesh Paul

Abstract:

This work proposes an auction mechanism based solution methodology for the optimum scheduling of trucks in a cross-docking centre. The cross-docking centre is an important element of lean supply chain. It reduces the amount of storage and transportation costs in the distribution system compared to an ordinary warehouse. Better scheduling of trucks in a cross-docking center is the best way to reduce storage and transportation costs. Auction mechanism is commonly used for allocation of limited resources in different real-life applications. Here, we try to schedule inbound trucks by integrating auction mechanism with the functioning of a cross-docking centre. A mathematical model is developed for the optimal scheduling of inbound trucks based on the auction methodology. The determination of exact solution for problems involving large number of trucks was found to be computationally difficult, and hence a genetic algorithm based heuristic methodology is proposed in this work. A comparative study of exact and heuristic solutions is done using five classes of data sets. It is observed from the study that the auction-based mechanism is capable of providing good solutions to scheduling problem in cross-docking centres.

Keywords: auction mechanism, cross-docking centre, genetic algorithm, scheduling of trucks

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2374 The Impact of Trading Switch on Price and Liquidity

Authors: Bel Abed Ines Mariem

Abstract:

Different stock markets keep changing their exchange structure for the only purpose of improving the functioning of their markets. This paper investigates the effects of the transfer from one trading category to another in the Tunisian Stock Exchange on market price and liquidity. The sample consists of 40 securities transferred from call auction to continuous auction and conversely during the period between 2004 and 2013. The methodology used is the event study. Empirical results show an interesting phenomenon observed; stocks transferred to the call system have experienced an improvement on their price and liquidity especially for less liquid ones. However, price and liquidity for stocks transferred from call system to continuous system have decreased.

Keywords: microstructure, call auction, continuous auction, price, liquidity and event study

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
2373 A New Method to Winner Determination for Economic Resource Allocation in Cloud Computing Systems

Authors: Ebrahim Behrouzian Nejad, Rezvan Alipoor Sabzevari

Abstract:

Cloud computing systems are large-scale distributed systems, so that they focus more on large scale resource sharing, cooperation of several organizations and their use in new applications. One of the main challenges in this realm is resource allocation. There are many different ways to resource allocation in cloud computing. One of the common methods to resource allocation are economic methods. Among these methods, the auction-based method has greater prominence compared with Fixed-Price method. The double combinatorial auction is one of the proper ways of resource allocation in cloud computing. This method includes two phases: winner determination and resource allocation. In this paper a new method has been presented to determine winner in double combinatorial auction-based resource allocation using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The experimental results show that in our new proposed the number of winner users is higher than genetic algorithm. On other hand, in proposed algorithm, the number of winner providers is higher in genetic algorithm.

Keywords: cloud computing, resource allocation, double auction, winner determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2372 Auction Theory In Competitive Takeovers: Ideas For Regulators

Authors: Emanuele Peggi

Abstract:

The regulation of competitive takeover bids is one of the most problematic issues of any legislation on takeovers since it concerns a particular type of market, that of corporate control, whose peculiar characteristic is that companies represent "assets" unique of their kind, for each of which there will be a relevant market characterized by the presence of different subjects interested in acquiring control. Firstly, this work aims to analyze, from a comparative point of view, the regulation of takeover bids in competitive scenarios, characterized by the presence of multiple takeover bids for the same target company, and contribute to the debate on the impact that various solutions adopted in some legal systems examined (Italy, UK, and USA) have had on the efficiency of the market for corporate control. Secondly, the different auction models identified by the economic literature and their possible applications to corporate acquisitions in competitive scenarios will be examined, as well as the consequences that the application of each of them causes on the efficiency of the market for corporate control and the interests of the target shareholders. The scope is to study the possibility of attributing to the management of the target company the power to design the auction in order to better protect the interests of shareholders through the adoption of ad hoc models according to the specific context. and in particular on the ground of their assessment of the buyer's risk profile.

Keywords: takeovers, auction theory, shareholders, target company

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2371 An Open Source Advertisement System

Authors: Pushkar Umaranikar, Chris Pollett

Abstract:

An online advertisement system and its implementation for the Yioop open source search engine are presented. This system supports both selling advertisements and displaying them within search results. The selling of advertisements is done using a system to auction off daily impressions for keyword searches. This is an open, ascending price auction system in which all accepted bids will receive a fraction of the auctioned day’s impressions. New bids in our system are required to be at least one half of the sum of all previous bids ensuring the number of accepted bids is logarithmic in the total ad spend on a keyword for a day. The mechanics of creating an advertisement, attaching keywords to it, and adding it to an advertisement inventory are described. The algorithm used to go from accepted bids for a keyword to which ads are displayed at search time is also presented. We discuss properties of our system and compare it to existing auction systems and systems for selling online advertisements.

Keywords: online markets, online ad system, online auctions, search engines

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2370 Competitivity in Procurement Multi-Unit Discrete Clock Auctions: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Despina Yiakoumi, Agathe Rouaix

Abstract:

Laboratory experiments were run to investigate the impact of different design characteristics of the auctions, which have been implemented to procure capacity in the UK’s reformed electricity markets. The experiment studies competition among bidders in procurement multi-unit discrete descending clock auctions under different feedback policies and pricing rules. Theory indicates that feedback policy in combination with the two common pricing rules; last-accepted bid (LAB) and first-rejected bid (FRB), could affect significantly the auction outcome. Two information feedback policies regarding the bidding prices of the participants are considered; with feedback and without feedback. With feedback, after each round participants are informed of the number of items still in the auction and without feedback, after each round participants have no information about the aggregate supply. Under LAB, winning bidders receive the amount of the highest successful bid and under the FRB the winning bidders receive the lowest unsuccessful bid. Based on the theoretical predictions of the alternative auction designs, it was decided to run three treatments. First treatment considers LAB with feedback; second treatment studies LAB without feedback; third treatment investigates FRB without feedback. Theoretical predictions of the game showed that under FRB, the alternative feedback policies are indifferent to the auction outcome. Preliminary results indicate that LAB with feedback and FRB without feedback achieve on average higher clearing prices in comparison to the LAB treatment without feedback. However, the clearing prices under LAB with feedback and FRB without feedback are on average lower compared to the theoretical predictions. Although under LAB without feedback theory predicts the clearing price will drop to the competitive equilibrium, experimental results indicate that participants could still engage in cooperative behavior and drive up the price of the auction. It is showed, both theoretically and experimentally, that the pricing rules and the feedback policy, affect the bidding competitiveness of the auction by providing opportunities to participants to engage in cooperative behavior and exercise market power. LAB without feedback seems to be less vulnerable to market power opportunities compared to the alternative auction designs. This could be an argument for the use of LAB pricing rule in combination with limited feedback in the UK capacity market in an attempt to improve affordability for consumers.

Keywords: descending clock auctions, experiments, feedback policy, market design, multi-unit auctions, pricing rules, procurement auctions

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2369 Reflections on Mechanism of Foreign Teachers’ Administration in Colleges and Universities in China

Authors: YangHui

Abstract:

Foreign teachers play an important role in the process of internationalization of higher education in China. Based on the method of literature analysis, firstly study the contents about the mechanism of the foreign teachers’ administration in our country, then secondly analyze the main barriers of the foreign teacher’s administration mechanism. Finally, it is suggested that the international exchange department in universities should constantly improve the employment mechanism, training mechanism, appraisal mechanism and incentive mechanism to promote the internationalization of higher education.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, mechanism, administration of foreign teachers, colleges and universities, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
2368 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui

Abstract:

This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2367 Analysis of a Single Motor Finger Mechanism for a Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Shaukat Ali, Kanber Sedef, Mustafa Yilmaz

Abstract:

This work analyzes a finger mechanism for a prosthetic hand that will help in improving the living standards of people who have lost their hands for a variety of reasons. The finger mechanism is single degree of freedom and hence has advantages such as compact size, reduced mass and less energy consumption. The proposed finger mechanism is a six bar linkage actuated by a single motor. The kinematic, static and dynamic analyses have been done by using the conventional methods of mechanism analysis. The kinematic results present the motion of the proposed finger mechanism and location of the fingertip. The static and dynamic analyses provide the useful information about the gripping force at the fingertip for various configurations and the selection of motor that will move the finger over its range of configuration. This single motor finger mechanism is simple and resembles the human finger’s motion suitable for grasping operation. This study can be used in the optimization of geometrical parameters of the proposed mechanism to obtain the desired configurations with minimum torque and enhanced griping.

Keywords: dynamics, finger mechanism, grasping, kinematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2366 Network Traffic Classification Scheme for Internet Network Based on Application Categorization for Ipv6

Authors: Yaser Miaji, Mohammed Aloryani

Abstract:

The rise of recent applications in everyday implementation like videoconferencing, online recreation and voice speech communication leads to pressing the need for novel mechanism and policy to serve this steep improvement within the application itself and users‟ wants. This diversity in web traffics needs some classification and prioritization of the traffics since some traffics merit abundant attention with less delay and loss, than others. This research is intended to reinforce the mechanism by analysing the performance in application according to the proposed mechanism implemented. The mechanism used is quite direct and analytical. The mechanism is implemented by modifying the queue limit in the algorithm.

Keywords: traffic classification, IPv6, internet, application categorization

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2365 Fast Authentication Using User Path Prediction in Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Sathya Pavithra, Swaminathan Venkatraman

Abstract:

Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) utilizes the IEEE 802.1X mechanism for authentication. However, this mechanism incurs considerable delay during handoffs. This delay during handoffs results in service disruption which becomes a severe bottleneck. To overcome this delay, our article proposes a key caching mechanism based on user path prediction. If the user mobility follows that path, the user bypasses the normal IEEE 802.1X mechanism and establishes the necessary authentication keys directly. Through analytical and simulation modeling, we have proved that our mechanism effectively decreases the handoff delay thereby achieving fast authentication.

Keywords: authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA), handoff, mobile, user path prediction (UPP) and user pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2364 Lotus Mechanism: Validation of Deployment Mechanism Using Structural and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Parth Prajapati, A. R. Srinivas

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to validate the concept of the Lotus Mechanism using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools considering the statics and dynamics through actual time dependence involving inertial forces acting on the mechanism joints. For a 1.2 m mirror made of hexagonal segments, with simple harnesses and three-point supports, the maximum diameter is 400 mm, minimum segment base thickness is 1.5 mm, and maximum rib height is considered as 12 mm. Manufacturing challenges are explored for the segments using manufacturing research and development approaches to enable use of large lightweight mirrors required for the future space system.

Keywords: dynamics, manufacturing, reflectors, segmentation, statics

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2363 Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker

Authors: Haider Aamir, Muhammad Ali Khalid

Abstract:

Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator.

Keywords: electricity harvesting, generator, rack and pinion, stainless steel shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
2362 Two Degree of Freedom Spherical Mechanism Design for Exact Sun Tracking

Authors: Osman Acar

Abstract:

Sun tracking systems are the systems following the sun ray by a right angle or by predetermined certain angle. In this study, we used theoretical trajectory of sun for latitude of central Anatolia in Turkey. A two degree of freedom spherical mechanism was designed to have a large workspace able to follow the sun's theoretical motion by the right angle during the whole year. An inverse kinematic analysis was generated to find the positions of mechanism links for the predicted trajectory. Force and torque analysis were shown for the first day of the year.

Keywords: sun tracking, theoretical sun trajectory, spherical mechanism, inverse kinematic analysis

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2361 A Summary of the Research on the Driving Mechanism of Space Expansion in China's National New District

Authors: Qin Xia

Abstract:

’National New District’ as a regional overall promotion of strategic thinking has become increasingly mature, but its spatial expansion is still chaotic and disorderly, so it is urgent to summarize the complex and unique driving mechanism contained in its spatial expansion to formulate sustainable urban expansion plan. Under the understanding of the general laws of the driving mechanism of China's space expansion, it is found that the existing research on the driving mechanism of the space expansion of national new districts is insufficient. The research area focuses on the research of the driving mechanism of the space expansion of a single new area. In terms of research methods, qualitative description is the main focus. In terms of research content, it is limited to the expansion speed, intensity, and area of the new district itself and does not involve the expansion and utilization efficiency of space and the spillover efficiency to surrounding cities. The specific connotations of social, economic, political, and geographical categories are not thoroughly explored. It is often a general explanation that a certain factor has promoted it. The logic is not rigorous and convincing, and the description is relatively static, with different time and space. There is less literature on scale interaction. Through the reflection on the key and difficult points of the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area, it is clear that the existing research on the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area should be continued to drive the sustainable expansion of space.

Keywords: national new district, space expansion, driving mechanism, existing research

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2360 Modal Dynamic Analysis of a Mechanism with Deformable Elements from an Oil Pump Unit Structure

Authors: N. Dumitru, S. Dumitru, C. Copilusi, N. Ploscaru

Abstract:

On this research, experimental analyses have been performed in order to determine the oil pump mechanism dynamics and stability from an oil unit mechanical structure. The experimental tests were focused on the vibrations which occur inside of the rod element during functionality of the oil pump unit. The oil pump mechanism dynamic parameters were measured and also determined through numerical computations. Entire research is based on the oil pump unit mechanical system virtual prototyping. For a complete analysis of the mechanism, the frequency dynamic response was identified, mainly for the mechanism driven element, based on two methods: processing and virtual simulations with MSC Adams aid and experimental analysis. In fact, through this research, a complete methodology is presented where numerical simulations of a mechanism with deformed elements are developed on a dynamic mode and these can be correlated with experimental tests.

Keywords: modal dynamic analysis, oil pump, vibrations, flexible elements, frequency response

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2359 Research on Contract's Explicit Incentive and Reputation's Implicit Incentive Mechanism towards Construction Contractors

Authors: Li Ma, Meishuang Ma, Mengying Huang

Abstract:

The quality of construction projects reflects the credit and responsibilities of construction contractors for the owners and the whole society. Because the construction contractors master more relevant information about the entrusted engineering project under construction while the owners are in unfavorable position of gaining information, asymmetric information may lead the contractors act against the owners in order to pursue their own interests. Building a powerful motivation mechanism is the key to guarantee investor economic interests and the life and property of users in construction projects. Based on principal-agent theory and game theory, the authors develop relevant mathematical models to analyze and compare the contractor’s utility functions under different combinations of contracts’ explicit incentive mechanism and reputation’s implicit incentive mechanism aiming at finding out the conditions for incentive validity. The research concludes that the most rational motivation way is to combine the explicit and implicit incentive effects of both contracts and reputation mechanism, and puts forth some measures for problems on account of China’s current situation.

Keywords: construction contractors, contract, reputation, incentive mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2358 Analysis of Structure-Flow Interaction for Water Brake Mechanism

Authors: Murat Avci, Fatih Kosar, Ismail Yilmaz

Abstract:

In this study, structure-flow interaction for water brake mechanism is studied with Abaqus CEL approach. The water brake mechanism is used for dynamic systems such as sled system on rail. For the achievement of these system tests, structure-flow interaction should be investigated in detail. This study is about a sled test of an aircraft subsystem which rises to supersonic speeds thanks to rocket engines. To decrease or to stop the thrusting rocket sleds, water brake mechanisms are used. Water brake mechanism provides the deceleration of the structures that have supersonic speeds. Therefore, structure-flow interaction may cause damage to the water brake mechanism. To verify all design revisions with system tests are so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, structure-flow interaction that belongs to water brake mechanism is solved with Abaqus CEL approach. Fluid and deformation on the structure behaviors are modeled at the same time thanks to CEL approach. Provided analysis results are corrected with the dynamic tests. Deformation zones seen in numerical analysis are also observed in dynamic tests. Finally, Johnson-Cook material model parameters used for this analysis are proven, and it is understood that these parameters can be used for dynamic analysis like water brake mechanism.

Keywords: aircraft, rocket, structure-flow, supersonic

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2357 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Nhat Linh Ho, Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang, Hieu Giang Le

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: flexure hinge, compliant mechanism, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism, Taguchi method, response surface methodology, design of experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
2356 Design and Analysis of Flexible Slider Crank Mechanism

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents the optimal design and formulation of a kinematic model of a flexible slider crank mechanism. The objective of the proposed innovative design is to take extra advantage of the compliant mechanism and maximize the fatigue life by applying the Taguchi method. A formulated kinematic model is developed using a Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model (PRBM). By means of mathematic models, the kinematic behaviors of the flexible slider crank mechanism are captured using MATLAB software. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to show the stress distribution. The results show that the optimal shape of the flexible hinge includes a force of 8.5N, a width of 9mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Analysis of variance shows that the thickness of the proposed hinge is the most significant parameter, with an F test of 15.5. Finally, a prototype is manufactured to prepare for testing the kinematic and dynamic behaviors.

Keywords: kinematic behavior, fatigue life, pseudo-rigid-body model, flexible slider crank mechanism

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2355 Effects of Manufacture and Assembly Errors on the Output Error of Globoidal Cam Mechanisms

Authors: Shuting Ji, Yueming Zhang, Jing Zhao

Abstract:

The output error of the globoidal cam mechanism can be considered as a relevant indicator of mechanism performance, because it determines kinematic and dynamical behavior of mechanical transmission. Based on the differential geometry and the rigid body transformations, the mathematical model of surface geometry of the globoidal cam is established. Then we present the analytical expression of the output error (including the transmission error and the displacement error along the output axis) by considering different manufacture and assembly errors. The effects of the center distance error, the perpendicular error between input and output axes and the rotational angle error of the globoidal cam on the output error are systematically analyzed. A globoidal cam mechanism which is widely used in automatic tool changer of CNC machines is applied for illustration. Our results show that the perpendicular error and the rotational angle error have little effects on the transmission error but have great effects on the displacement error along the output axis. This study plays an important role in the design, manufacture and assembly of the globoidal cam mechanism.

Keywords: globoidal cam mechanism, manufacture error, transmission error, automatic tool changer

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2354 Development of a Harvest Mechanism for the Kahramanmaraş Chili Pepper

Authors: O. E. Akay, E. Güzel, M. T. Özcan

Abstract:

The pepper has quite a rich variety. The development of a single harvesting machine for all kinds of peppers is a difficult research topic. By development of harvesting mechanisms, we could be able to facilitate the pepper harvesting problems. In this study, an experimental harvesting machine was designed for chili pepper. Four-bar mechanism was used for the design of the prototype harvesting machine. At the result of harvest trials, 80% of peppers were harvested and 8% foreign materials were collected. These results have provided some tips on how to apply to large-scale pepper Four-bar mechanism of the harvest machine.

Keywords: kinematic simulation, four bar linkage, harvest mechanization, pepper harvest

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2353 Mechanism of Changing a Product Concept

Authors: Kiyohiro Yamazaki

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis explaining the mechanism in the case, where the product is deleted or reduced the fundamental function of the product through the product concept changes in the digital camera industry. This paper points out not owning the fundamental technology might cause the change of the product concept. Casio could create new competitive factor so that this paper discusses a possibility of the mechanism of changing the product concept.

Keywords: firm without fundamental technology, product development, product concept, digital camera industry, Casio

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2352 A Workable Mechanism to Support Students Who Are at Risk

Authors: Mohamed Chabi

Abstract:

The project of helping students at risk started at the Math department in the new foundation program at Qatar University in the fall 2012 semester. The purpose was to find ways to help students who were struggling with their math courses Elementary algebra or Precalculus course due to many factors. Department had formed the Committee “students at Risk” at the start of 12-13 to assist struggling students in our math courses to get their studies on track. A mechanism was developed to support students who are at risk using a developed E-Monitoring system. E-Monitoring system was developed to manage automatically all transactions relevant to the students’ attendance, Students ‘‘warning Students’’ grading, etc. E-Monitoring System produce various statistics such as, Overall course statistics, Performance, Students at Risk… to help department to develop a higher quality of education in the Foundation Program at Math department. The mechanism was studies and evaluated. Whatever the cause, the sooner we identify students who are not performing well academically, the sooner we can provide, or direct them to the resources that are available to them. In this paper, we outline the mechanism and its effect on students’ performance. The collected data from various exams shows that students had benefited from the mechanism.

Keywords: students at risk, e-monitoring system, warning students, performance

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2351 A Multivariate Analysis of Patent Price Variations in the Emerging United States Patent Auction Market: Role of Patent, Seller, and Bundling Related Characteristics

Authors: Pratheeba Subramanian, Anjula Gurtoo, Mary Mathew

Abstract:

Transaction of patents in emerging patent markets is gaining momentum. Pricing patents for a transaction say patent sale remains a challenge. Patents vary in their pricing with some patents fetching higher prices than others. Sale of patents in portfolios further complicates pricing with multiple patents playing a role in pricing a bundle. In this paper, a set of 138 US patents sold individually as single invention lots and 462 US patents sold in bundles of 120 portfolios are investigated to understand the dynamics of selling prices of singletons and portfolios and their determinants. Firstly, price variations when patents are sold individually as singletons and portfolios are studied. Multivariate statistical techniques are used for analysis both at the lot level as well as at the individual patent level. The results show portfolios fetching higher prices than singletons at the lot level. However, at the individual patent level singletons show higher prices than per patent price of individual patent members within the portfolio. Secondly, to understand the price determinants, the effect of patent, seller, and bundling related characteristics on selling prices is studied separately for singletons and portfolios. The results show differences in the set of characteristics determining prices of singletons and portfolios. Selling prices of singletons are found to be dependent on the patent related characteristics, unlike portfolios whose prices are found to be dependent on all three aspects – patent, seller, and bundling. The specific patent, seller and bundling characteristics influencing selling price are discussed along with the implications.

Keywords: auction, patents, portfolio bundling, seller type, selling price, singleton

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2350 Structured Access Control Mechanism for Mesh-based P2P Live Streaming Systems

Authors: Chuan-Ching Sue, Kai-Chun Chuang

Abstract:

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) live streaming systems still suffer a challenge when thousands of new peers want to join into the system in a short time, called flash crowd, and most of new peers suffer long start-up delay. Recent studies have proposed a slot-based user access control mechanism, which periodically determines a certain number of new peers to enter the system, and a user batch join mechanism, which divides new peers into several tree structures with fixed tree size. However, the slot-based user access control mechanism is difficult for accurately determining the optimal time slot length, and the user batch join mechanism is hard for determining the optimal tree size. In this paper, we propose a structured access control (SAC) mechanism, which constructs new peers to a multi-layer mesh structure. The SAC mechanism constructs new peer connections layer by layer to replace periodical access control, and determines the number of peers in each layer according to the system’s remaining upload bandwidth and average video rate. Furthermore, we propose an analytical model to represent the behavior of the system growth if the system can utilize the upload bandwidth efficiently. The analytical result has shown the similar trend in system growth as the SAC mechanism. Additionally, the extensive simulation is conducted to show the SAC mechanism outperforms two previously proposed methods in terms of system growth and start-up delay.

Keywords: peer-to-peer, live video streaming system, flash crowd, start-up delay, access control

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2349 Configuration Design and Optimization of the Movable Leg-Foot Lunar Soft-Landing Device

Authors: Shan Jia, Jinbao Chen, Jinhua Zhou, Jiacheng Qian

Abstract:

Lunar exploration is a necessary foundation for deep-space exploration. For the functional limitations of the fixed landers which are widely used currently and are to expand the detection range by the use of wheeled rovers with unavoidable path-repeatability, a movable lunar soft-landing device based on cantilever type buffer mechanism and leg-foot type walking mechanism is presented. Firstly, a 20 DoFs quadruped configuration based on pushrod is proposed. The configuration is of the bionic characteristics such as hip, knee and ankle joints, and can make the kinematics of the whole mechanism unchanged before and after buffering. Secondly, the multi-function main/auxiliary buffers based on crumple-energy absorption and screw-nut mechanism, as well as the telescopic device which could be used to protect the plantar force sensors during the buffer process are designed. Finally, the kinematic model of the whole mechanism is established, and the configuration optimization of the whole mechanism is completed based on the performance requirements of slope adaptation and obstacle crossing. This research can provide a technical solution integrating soft-landing, large-scale inspection and material-transfer for future lunar exploration and even mars exploration, and can also serve as the technical basis for developing the reusable landers.

Keywords: configuration design, lunar soft-landing device, movable, optimization

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2348 Idea Expropriation, Incentives, and Governance within Organizations

Authors: Gulseren Mutlu, Gurupdesh Pandher

Abstract:

This paper studies the strategic interplay between innovation, incentives, expropriation threat and disputes arising from expropriation from an intra-organization perspective. We present a simple principal-agent model with hidden actions and hidden information in which two employees can choose how much (innovative) effort to exert, whether to expropriate the innovation of the other employee and whether to dispute if innovation is expropriated. The organization maximizes its expected payoff by choosing the optimal reward scheme for both employees as well as whether to encourage or discourage disputes. We analyze two mechanisms under which innovative ideas are not expropriated. First, we show that under a non-contestable mechanism (in which the organization discourages disputes among employees), the organization has to offer a “rent” to the potential expropriator. However, under a contestable mechanism (in which the organization encourages disputes), there is no need for such rent. If the cost of resolving the dispute is negligible, the organization’s expected payoff is higher under a contestable mechanism. Second, we develop a comparable team mechanism in which innovation takes place as a result of the joint efforts of employees and innovation payments are made based on the team outcome. We show that if the innovation value is low and employees have similar productivity, then the organization is better off under a contestable mechanism. On the other hand, if the innovation value is high, the organization is better off under a team mechanism. Our results have important practical implications for the design of innovation reward system for employees, hiring policy and governance for different companies.

Keywords: innovation, incentives, expropriation threat, dispute resolution

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2347 Soot Formation in the Field of Combustion

Authors: Nacira Mecheri, N. Boussid

Abstract:

A new chemical mechanism designed to study the process of forming the first aromatic ring (benzene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a flame of acetylene (C2H2) has been developed. The mechanism developed, contains 50 chemical species involved in 268 reversible elementary reactions. The comparison between the results from modelling and experimental measurements allowed us to test the validity of the postulated mechanism in specific experimental conditions. Kinetic analysis of the flame by calculating the maximum rates for each elementary reaction, allowed us to identify key reactions pathways of consumption and formation of main precursors of soot.

Keywords: benzene, PAH, acetylene, modeling, flame, soot

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