Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 235

Search results for: Libyan oil corporation

235 Provision Electronic Management Requirements in Libyan Oil Companies

Authors: Hitham Yami

Abstract:

This study will focus primarily on assessing the availability requirements of the electronic management of oil companies in Libya, and the mean objectives of the research applying electronic management and make recommendations and steps to approach electronic management. There are limited research and statistical analysis to support electronic management in Libyan companies. The groundwork for the proposed approach is to develop independent variables and the dependent variables to be restructured after it Alntra side of the field and the side to get the data to achieve the desired results and solving the problem faced by the Libyan Oil Corporation. All these strategies are proposed to achieve the goal, and solving Libyan oil installations.

Keywords: oil company’s revenue, independent variables, electronic management, Libyan oil corporation

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234 Rock Paintings with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia

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The rock paintings of Grande Kabylia contain a good number of Libyan inscriptions. Of the 54 sites discovered, 23 have inscriptions painted in red ocher. We find them in rock shelters, on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Kabylia. Our job is to collect as many cave paintings as possible with Libyan inscriptions. Then we will make an analysis on the epigraphic level, the different forms of the characters and their frequencies. The other purpose of this research is to bring out the different characters used in these paintings and compare them with those of the Libyan steles of Grande Kabylia.

Keywords: Grande Kabylia, Libyan inscriptions, Libyan stele, rock paintings

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233 Quality Culture Framework Proposal for Libyan Industrial Companies

Authors: Mostafa Ahmed Shokshok

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Libyan industrial companies face many challenges in today's competitive market. Quality management culture approaches is one of these challenges which may furnish the road to the Libyan industrial companies to effectively empower their employees and improve their ability to respond to the international competition. The primary objective of this paper is to design a practical approach to guide Libyan industrial companies toward successful quality culture implementation.

Keywords: TQM, quality culture, Libyan manufacturing industries, quality framework

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232 Analysis of Steles with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia

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Several steles with Libyan inscriptions were discovered in Grande Kabylia (Algeria), but very few researchers were interested in these inscriptions. Our work is to list, if possible all these steles in order to do a descriptive study of the corpus. The steles analysis will be focused on the iconographic and epigraphic level and on the different forms of Libyan characters in order to highlight the alphabet used by the Grande Kabylia.

Keywords: epigraphy, stele, Libyan inscription, Grande Kabylia

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231 Chemical Analysis of Available Portland Cement in Libyan Market Using X-Ray Fluorescence

Authors: M. A. Elbagermia, A. I. Alajtala, M. Alkerzab

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This study compares the quality of different brands of Portland Cement (PC) available in Libyan market. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, and Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) were determined in accordance with Libyan (L.S.S) and Amrican (A.S.S) Standard Specifications. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant.

Keywords: Portland cement, chemical composition, Libyan market, X-Ray fluorescence

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230 A Primer to the Learning Readiness Assessment to Raise the Sharing of E-Health Knowledge amongst Libyan Nurses

Authors: Mohamed Elhadi M. Sharif, Mona Masood

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The usage of e-health facilities is seen to be the first priority by the Libyan government. As such, this paper focuses on how the key factors or elements of working size in terms of technological availability, structural environment, and other competence-related matters may affect nurses’ sharing of knowledge in e-health. Hence, this paper investigates learning readiness assessment to raise e-health for Libyan regional hospitals by using e-health services in nursing education.

Keywords: Libyan nurses, e-learning readiness, e-health, nursing education

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229 Libyan Residents in Britain and Identity of Place

Authors: Intesar Ibrahim

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Large-scale Libyan emigration is a relatively new phenomenon. Most of the Libyan families in the UK are new immigrants, unlike the other neighbouring countries of Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria and even Sudan. Libyans have no particular history of large-scale migration. On the other hand, many Libyan families live in modest homes located in large Muslim communities of Pakistanis and Yemenis. In the UK as a whole, there are currently 16 Libyan schools most of which are run during the weekend for children of school age. There are three such weekend schools in Sheffield that teach a Libyan school curriculum, and Libyan women and men run these schools. Further, there is also a Masjid (mosque) that is operated by Libyans, beside the other Masjids in the city, which most of the Libyan community attend for prayer and for other activities such as writing marriage contracts. The presence of this Masjid increases the attraction for Libyans to reside in the Sheffield area. This paper studies how Libyan immigrants in the UK make their decisions on their housing and living environment in the UK. Libyan residents in the UK come from different Libyan regions, social classes and lifestyles; this may have an impact on their choices in the interior designs of their houses in the UK. A number of case studies were chosen from Libyan immigrants who came from different types of dwellings in Libya, in order to compare with their homes and their community lifestyle in the UK and those in Libya. This study explores the meaning and the ways of using living rooms in Libyan emigrants’ houses in the UK and compares those with those in their houses back in their home country. For example, the way they set up furniture in rooms acts as an indicator of the hierarchical structure of society. The design of furniture for Libyan sitting rooms for floor-seating is different from that of the traditional English sitting room. The paper explores the identity and cultural differences that affected the style and design of the living rooms for Libyan immigrants in the UK. The study is carried out based on the "production of space" theory that any culture has its needs, style of living and way of thinking. I argue that the study found more than 70% of Libyan immigrants in the UK still furnish the living room in their traditional way (flooring seating).

Keywords: place, identity, culture, immigrants

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228 An Investigation of Quality Practices in Libyan Industrial Companies

Authors: Mostafa A. Shokshok, Omran Ali Abu Krais

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This paper describes the collection and analysis of data obtained from face-to-face interviews conducted in selected Libyan industrial companies. The objectives of the interviews are to enhance understanding, and generate explanations of current issues in culture and quality management systems in Libyan companies. The method used in analyzing the questions, as well as the main finding of each question are explained. The interviews probed areas identify national and organizational culture, quality management systems, current methods, effects, barriers and other factors affecting the success of quality management implementation. Eleven questions are prepared and been discussed with the interviewees.

Keywords: interviews, quality, culture, Libyan industrial companies

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227 Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Apology Strategies by Libyans

Authors: Ahmed Elgadri

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In the last thirty years, studies on cross-cultural pragmatics in general and apology strategies in specific have focused on western and East-Asian societies. A small volume of research has been conducted in investigating speech acts production by Arabic dialect speakers. Therefore, this study investigated the apology strategies used by Libyan Arabic speakers using an online Discourse Completion Task (DCT) questionnaire. The DCT consisted of six situations covering different social contexts. The survey was written in Libyan Arabic dialect to help generate vernacular speech as much as possible. The participants were 25 Libyan nationals, 12 females, and 13 males. Also, to get a deeper understanding of the motivation behind the use of certain strategies, the researcher interviewed four participants using the Libyan Arabic dialect as well. The results revealed a high use of IFID, offer of repair, and explanation. Although this might support the universality claim of speech acts strategies, it was clear that cultural norms and religion determined the choice of apology strategies significantly. This led to the discovery of new culture-specific strategies, as outlined later in this paper. This study gives an insight into politeness strategies in Libyan society, and it is hoped to contribute to the field of cross-cultural pragmatics.

Keywords: apologies, cross-cultural pragmatics, language and culture, Libyan Arabic, politeness, pragmatics, socio-pragmatics, speech acts

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226 Determination of Cadmium , Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati

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Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: tea, infusion, metals, Libya

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225 Determination of Lead , Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati, Eltayeb M. Emmima

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Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: boiling, infusion, metals, tea

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224 ELD79-LGD2006 Transformation Techniques Implementation and Accuracy Comparison in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Jamal A. Gledan, Othman A. Azzeidani

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During the last decade, Libya established a new Geodetic Datum called Libyan Geodetic Datum 2006 (LGD 2006) by using GPS, whereas the ground traversing method was used to establish the last Libyan datum which was called the Europe Libyan Datum 79 (ELD79). The current research paper introduces ELD79 to LGD2006 coordinate transformation technique, the accurate comparison of transformation between multiple regression equations and the three-parameters model (Bursa-Wolf). The results had been obtained show that the overall accuracy of stepwise multi regression equations is better than that can be determined by using Bursa-Wolf transformation model.

Keywords: geodetic datum, horizontal control points, traditional similarity transformation model, unconventional transformation techniques

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223 Understanding Walkability in the Libyan Urban Space: Policies, Perceptions and Smart Design for Sustainable Tripoli

Authors: A. Abdulla Khairi Mohamed, Mohamed Gamal Abdelmonem, Gehan Selim

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Walkability in civic and public spaces in Libyan cities is challenging due to the lack of accessibility design, informal merging into car traffic, and the general absence of adequate urban and space planning. The lack of accessible and pedestrian-friendly public spaces in Libyan cities has emerged as a major concern for the government if it is to develop smart and sustainable spaces for the 21st century. A walkable urban space has become a driver for urban development and redistribution of land use to ensure pedestrian and walkable routes between sites of living and workplaces. The characteristics of urban open space in the city centre play a main role in attracting people to walk when attending their daily needs, recreation and daily sports. There is significant gap in the understanding of perceptions, feasibility and capabilities of Libyan urban space to accommodate enhance or support the smart design of a walkable pedestrian-friendly environment that is safe and accessible to everyone. The paper aims to undertake observations of walkability and walkable space in the city of Tripoli as a benchmark for Libyan cities; assess the validity and consistency of the seven principal aspects of smart design, safety, accessibility and 51 factors that affect the walkability in open urban space in Tripoli, through the analysis of 10 local urban spaces experts (town planner, architect, transport engineer and urban designer); and explore user groups’ perceptions of accessibility in walkable spaces in Libyan cities through questionnaires. The study sampled 200 respondents in 2015-16. The results of this study are useful for urban planning, to classify the walkable urban space elements which affect to improve the level of walkability in the Libyan cities and create sustainable and liveable urban spaces.

Keywords: walkability, sustainability, liveability, accessibility

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222 Mobile Phone Banking Applies and Customer Intention: A Case Study in Libya

Authors: Iman E. Bouthahab, Badea B. Geador

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Aim of this paper is to explore the prospect of a new approach of mobile phone banking in Libya. This study evaluates customer knowledge on commercial mobile banking in Libya. To examine the relationship between age, occupation and intention for using mobile banking for commercial purpose, a survey was conducted to gather information from one hundred Libyan bank clients. The results indicate that Libyan customers have accepted the new technology and they are ready to use it. There is no significant joint relationship between age and occupation found in intention to use mobile banking in Libya. On the other hand, the customers’ knowledge about mobile banking has a greater relationship with the intention. This study has implications for demographic researches and consumer behaviour disciplines. It also has profitable implications for banks and managers in Libya, as it will assist in better understanding of the Libyan consumers and their activities, when they develop their market strategies and new service.

Keywords: mobile banking, intention, customer knowledge, banks in Libya

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221 Libyan Crude Oil Composition Analysis and Prediction

Authors: Omar Hussein El Ayadi, EmadY. El-Mansouri, Mohamed B. Dozan

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Production oil process require specific details i.e. oil composition. Generally, types of oil or differentiation between reservoir fluids depend specifically on composition. The main purpose of this study is to correlate and predict the Libyan oil (reservoir fluid and residual) composition utilizing tri-angle-coordinate plots discovered and tasked with Excel. The reservoir fluid data (61 old + 47 new), the residual oil data (33 new) collected from most of Libyan reservoirs were correlated with each others. Moreover, find a relation between stock tank molecular weight and stock tank oil gravity (oAPI), the molecular weight oh (C7+) versus residual oil gravity (oAPI). The average value of every oil composition was estimated including non-hydrocarbon (H2S, CO2, and N2). Nevertheless, the isomers (i-…) and normal (n-…) structure of (C4) and (C5) were also obtained. The summary of the conclusion is; utilizing excel Microsoft office to draw triangle coordinates to find two unknown component if only one is known. However, it is recommended to use the obtained oil composition plots and equations for any oil composition dependents i.e. optimum separator pressure.

Keywords: PVT, phase behavior, petroleum, chemical engineering

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220 Corporate Law and Its View Point of Locking in Capital

Authors: Saad Saeed Althiabi

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This paper discusses the corporate positioning and how it became popular as a way to systematize production because of the unique manner in which incorporation legalized organizers to secure financial capital through locking it in. The power to lock in capital comes from the fact that a corporate exists as a separate legal entity, whose survival and governance are separated from any of its participants. The law essentially creates a different legal person when a corporation is created. Although this idea has been played down in the legal learning of the last decades in favor of the view that a corporation is purely something through which natural persons interrelate, recent legal research has begun to reassess the importance of entity status. Entity status, under the law and the related separation of governance from input of financial capital through the configuration of a corporation, sanctioned corporate participants to do somewhat more than connect in a series of business transactions.

Keywords: corporate law, entity status, locking in capital, financial capital

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219 The Reality of the Application of Environmental Accounting in the Iron and Steel Sector in Libya: A Case Study in the Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata, Libya

Authors: Eltaib Elzarrouk E. E. Abdalmajeed

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This research aims at shedding the light on environmental accounting, which is considered to be one of the most important areas in accounting discipline. It also studies the reality of the application of environmental accounting in the iron and steel sector in Libya. The questionnaire of this study was used for data collection from respondents who are employed in the Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata – Libya (LISC). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was also used for the analysis. Several important results were revealed include that the (LISC) relatively applies environmental accounting, and it faces some obstacles in conducting its application. Furthermore, the researched company realizes the importance of applying environmental accounting as a need for quality procedures. It was suggested that training courses should be held periodically to spread the awareness of environmental accounting environment. In addition, social responsibility and sustainability should be taken into consideration in the company's strategic plan.

Keywords: environment, environmental accounting, environmental accounting disclosure, The Libyan Iron and Steel Company, Misurata- Libya (LISC)

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218 Transition Economies, Typology, and Models: The Case of Libya

Authors: Abderahman Efhialelbum

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The period since the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, and the collapse of the former Soviet Union in December 1985 has seen a major change in the economies and labour markets of Eastern Europe. The events also had reverberating effects across Asia and South America and parts of Africa, including Libya. This article examines the typologies and the models of transition economies. Also, it sheds light on the Libyan transition in particular and the impact of Qadhafi’s regime on the transition process. Finally, it illustrates how the Libyan transition process followed the trajectory of other countries using economic indicators such as free trade, property rights, and inflation.

Keywords: transition, economy, typology, model, Libya

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217 Corporate Governance Role of Audit Committees in the Banking Sector: Evidence from Libya

Authors: Abdulaziz Abdulsaleh

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This study aims at identifying the practices that should be taken into consideration by audit committees as a tool of corporate governance in Libyan commercial banks by investigating various perceptions on this topic. The study is based on a questionnaire submitted to audit committees ‘members at Libyan commercial banks, directors of internal audit departments as well as members of board of directors at these banks in addition to a number of external auditors and academic staff from Libyan universities. The study reveals that the role of audit committees has to be shifted from traditional areas of accounting to a broader role including functions related to financial reporting, audit planning, support the independence of internal and external auditors, acting as a channel of communication between external auditors and board of directors, reviewing external audit, and evaluating internal control systems. Although the study is a starting point in developing a framework of good audit committees’ practices in Libya, it is believed that the adoption of its results can result in enhancing the corporate governance practices not only in the banking sector but also in the entire corporate sector in Libya.

Keywords: audit committees, corporate governance, commercial banks, Libya

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216 Trait of Sales Professionals

Authors: Yuichi Morita, Yoshiteru Nakamori

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In car dealer business of Japan, a sale professional is a key factor of company’s success. We hypothesize that, if a corporation knows what is the sales professionals’ trait of its corporation’s business field, it will be easier for a corporation to secure and nurture sales persons effectively. The lean human resources management will ensure business success and good performance of corporations, especially small and medium ones. The goal of the paper is to determine the traits of sales professionals for small-and medium-size car dealers, using chi-square test and the variable rough set model. As a result, the results illustrate that experience of job change, learning ability and product knowledge are important, and an academic background, building a career with internal transfer, experience of the leader and self-development are not important to be a sale professional. Also, we illustrate sales professionals’ traits are persistence, humility, improvisation and passion at business.

Keywords: traits of sales professionals, variable precision rough sets theory, sales professional, sales professionals

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215 Barriers Facing the Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in Libyan Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Mohamed Abduelmula, Martin Birkett, Chris Connor

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Lean Manufacturing has developed from being a set of tools and methods to becoming a management philosophy which can be used to remove or reduce waste in manufacturing processes and so enhance the operational productivity of an enterprise. Several enterprises around the world have applied the lean manufacturing system and gained great improvements. This paper investigates the barriers and obstacles that face Libyan manufacturing companies to implement lean manufacturing. A mixed-method approach is suggested, starting with conducting a questionnaire to get quantitative data then using this to develop semi-structured interviews to collect qualitative data. The findings of the questionnaire results and how these can be used further develop the semi-structured interviews are then discussed. The survey was distributed to 65 manufacturing companies in Libya, and a response rate of 64.6% was obtained. The results showed that these are five main barriers to implementing lean in Libya, namely organizational culture, skills and expertise, and training program, financial capability, top management, and communication. These barriers were also identified from the literature as being significant obstacles to implementing Lean in other countries industries. Having an understanding of the difficulties that face the implementation of lean manufacturing systems, as a new and modern system and using this to develop a suitable framework will help to improve the manufacturing sector in Libya.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, barriers, questionnaire, Libyan manufacturing companies

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214 Aberrant Consumer Behavior in Seller’s and Consumer’s Eyes: Newly Developed Classification

Authors: Amal Abdelhadi

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Consumer misbehavior evaluation can be markedly different based on a number of variables and different from one environment to another. Using three aberrant consumer behavior (ACB) scenarios (shoplifting, stealing from hotel rooms and software piracy) this study aimed to explore Libyan seller and consumers of ACB. Materials were collected by using a multi-method approach was employed (qualitative and quantitative approaches) in two fieldwork phases. In the phase stage, a qualitative data were collected from 26 Libyan sellers’ by face-to-face interviews. In the second stage, a consumer survey was used to collect quantitative data from 679 Libyan consumers. This study found that the consumer’s and seller’s evaluation of ACB are not always consistent. Further, ACB evaluations differed based on the form of ACB. Furthermore, the study found that not all consumer behaviors that were considered as bad behavior in other countries have the same evaluation in Libya; for example, software piracy. Therefore this study suggested a newly developed classification of ACB based on marketers’ and consumers’ views. This classification provides 9 ACB types within two dimensions (marketers’ and consumers’ views) and three degrees of behavior evaluation (good, acceptable and misbehavior).

Keywords: aberrant consumer behavior, Libya, multi-method approach, planned behavior theory

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213 Online Metacognitive Reading Strategies Use by Postgraduate Libyan EFL Students

Authors: Najwa Alsayed Omar

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With the increasing popularity of the Internet, online reading has become an essential source for EFL readers. Using strategies to comprehend information on online reading texts play a crucial role in students’ academic success. Metacognitive reading strategies are effective factors that enhance EFL learners reading comprehension. This study aimed at exploring the use of online metacognitive reading strategies by postgraduate Libyan EFL students. Quantitative data was collected using the Survey of Online Reading Strategies (OSORS). The findings revealed that the participants were moderate users of metacognitive online reading strategies. Problem solving strategies were the most frequently reported used strategies, while support reading strategies were the least. The five most and least frequently reported strategies were identified. Based on the findings, some future research recommendations were presented.

Keywords: metacognitive strategies, online reading, online reading strategies, postgraduate students

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212 An Analysis of Present Supplier Selection Criteria of State Pharmaceutical Corporation (SPC) Sri Lanka: A Case Study

Authors: Gamalath M. B. P. Abeysekara

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Primary objective of any organization is to enhance the bottom line profit. Strategic procurement is one of the prominent aspects in view of receiving this ultimate objective. Strategic procurement is an activity used in each and every organization in their operations. Pharmaceutical procurement is an especially significant task for any organizations, particularly state sector concerned. The whole pharmaceutical procurement requirement of the country is procured through the State Pharmaceutical Corporation (SPC) of Sri Lanka. They follow Pharmaceutical Procurement Guideline of 2006 as the procurement principle. The main objective of this project is to identify the importance of State Pharmaceutical Corporation supplier selection criteria and critical analysis of pharmaceutical procurement procedure. State Pharmaceutical Corporations applied net price, product quality, past performance, and delivery of suppliers’ as main criteria for the selection suppliers. Data collection for this study was taken place through a questionnaire, given to fifty doctors within the Colombo district attached to five main state hospitals. Data analysis is carried out with mean and standard deviation functions. The ultimate outcomes indicated product quality, net price, and delivery of suppliers’ are the most important criteria behind the selection of suppliers. Critical analysis proved State Pharmaceutical Corporation should focus on net price reduction, improving laboratory testing facilities and effective communication between up and down stream of supply chain.

Keywords: government procurement procedure, pharmaceutical procurement supplier selection criteria, importance of SPC supplier selection criteria

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211 Quality Management System Audit and Its Impact on Company's Performance

Authors: Redha Elhuni

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The purpose of this paper is to find out the impact of Quality Management System (QMS) ISO/IEC 17025:2005 certification audit on company’s Performance. Libyan petroleum Institute has been certified ISO/IEC 17025:2005 for 8 years. Therefore, it is necessary to study and analyze the impact of that certification on its performance. Survey study has been done by distributing a questionnaire by handing it personally to qualified staff in the 15 accredited laboratories in the institute. The response rate was 66.6%. The statistical operations with the results of analytical study have been done to achieve the goal and objectives of the research. Finally, ISO/IEC 17025:2005 certification audit is found to have a positive effect on the institute’s performance.

Keywords: auditing process, ISO/IEC 17025:2005, quality management system, Libyan petroleum institute

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210 Legal Responsibility of the External Auditor Qualitative Case Study of Libyan Environment

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

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The aim of this paper is to determine a general frame of the auditor's legal responsibilities in Libya which were implied in professional codes and rules, these codes and rules were concerned with the auditor's rights and duties in conducting his professional duties. This will provide a background for the Libyan accounting profession, and the challenges in tailoring Auditors to meet third party's needs. Being informed of the kinds of legal responsibilities which the external auditors could face during conducting their duties. The study is based on a literature review and archival research, reinforced by a qualitative case study comprised of interviews, questionnaire and a study of internal documents. To reach such an understanding, the researcher designed two questionnaires for collecting the data. One questionnaire was distributed among the certified public accountant firms in Libya and the second was distributed among a group of randomly selected lawyers and judges in the same country. Most auditors agreed upon the determination of their responsibilities toward the state and they emphasized that their responsibilities toward their clients were limited to the accepted standards of auditing. Moreover, all auditors who were surveyed emphasized that there has never been any juridical claims against them, and as a consequence they have never paid any legal fines. This study focuses on one country, which does limit its generalisability. However, it also suggests fruitful research areas in considering the impact and challenge of the historic factors in the accounting profession in emerging economies.

Keywords: accounting, external auditor, legal responsibilities, libyan accounting profession

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209 Effect of Arbutus Pavarii ( Shemari ) Libyan Medical Plant on Ethylene Glycol Induced Urolithiasis in Male Albino Rats

Authors: Khaled. M.Benelhaj, Moada Elbadary

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The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Arbutus Pavarii (Shemari) Libyan medical plant on ethylene glycol(EG) induce lithiasis in adult male albino rats. The lithiasis was induced to rats by oral administration of EG (0.75 w/v%) for 21 days(group 1). Aqueous extract of Shemari (200 mg/kg) was given orally from 1st day for preventive regimen (group 2) and from day 21st up to 42nd day for curative regimen (group 3). The results indicated that the EG elevated the urinary ionic of calcium, oxalates and inorganic phosphate. The Shemari significantly (P<0.01) reduced the levels of these ions. The histopathological findings showed that EG caused marked pathological changes in renal cortex; necrosis of glomerular tufts; mildy thickened bowman’s capsule and coagulative necrosis of large number of convoluted tubules. However, the histological changes in preventive regimen group 2 showed the same changes observed in group 1, but milder in severity and less in frequency. It conclude that Shemari do reduce the urinary ionic levels of calcium, oxalates and inorganic phosphate but failed to prevent complete deterioration effects of EG on kidney structures.

Keywords: EG, shamari, kidney stone, Libyan medical plant, glycol, oxalates

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208 Malaysian Challenges and Experiences with National Higher Education Fund Corporation’s Educational Loan Default

Authors: Anjali Dewi Krishnan

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This paper attempts to explore the factors causing student loan defaults among NHEFC borrower besides measuring the enforcement actions that have been took by NHEFC to improve repayment rate. It starts by reviewing the causes of student loan default from the perspective of the loan borrowers besides finding out about the effectiveness of approaches taken by NHEFC (National Higher Education Fund Corporation) until now in order to increase the repayment rate and recover student loan default. The results gathered from the research used to investigate or identify the relationship between job statuses, gender, and ethnicity of the borrowers with repayment status, enforcement from the NHEFC side in the sense of student loan repayment; and respondent's opinion about enforcement in encouraging repayment of student loan and recover loan default. A combination of unemployment, financial constraint, inefficient repayment method and some other reasons of student loan defaults were discovered through this research. It finishes by presenting the reality whereby a student loan default is a result of inability to pay back and not about willingness to pay back.

Keywords: loan default, loan recovery, loan repayment, national higher education fund corporation

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207 Umm Arrazam, Libyan Driling Fluid Resistivity Evaluation

Authors: Omar Hussein El Ayadi, Ali Mustafa Alkekly, Nader Ahmad Musa

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Search and evaluate locale source of raw material which can be used as drilling fluid is one of most important economical target. Hopefully, to use Libyan clay that cost less than importing it from outside. Resistivity measurement and control is of primary concern in connection with electrical logging. The influences of resistivity utilizing Umm Arrazam clay were laboratory investigated at ambient condition (room temperature, atmospheric pressure) to fulfill the aim of the study. Several tests were carried-out on three sets of mud mixture with different densities (8.7, 9.0, and 9.3 ppg) as base mud. The resistivity of mud, mud filtrate, and mud cake were measured using resistivity- meter. Mud water losses were also measured. Several results obtained to describe the relationship between the resistivity ratios of mud filtrate to the mud, and the mud cake to mud. The summary of conclusion is that there are no great differences were obtained during comparison of resistivity and water loss of Umm Arrazam and Wyoming Clay.

Keywords: petroleum, drilling, mug, geological engineering

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206 Investments in Petroleum Industry Abnormally Normal: A Case Study Based on Petroleum and Natural Gas Companies in India

Authors: Radhika Ramanchi

Abstract:

The oil market during 2014-2015 in India with large price fluctuations is very confusing to individual investor. The drop in oil prices supported stocks of some oil marketing companies (OMCs) like Bharat Petroleum Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and Indian Oil Corporation etc their shares rose 84.74%, 128.63% and 59.16%, respectively. Lower oil prices, and lower current account, a smaller subsidy burden are the reasons for outperformance. On the other hand, lower crude prices giving downward pressure on upstream companies like Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd (ONGC) and Reliance Petroleum (RIL) Oil India Ltd (OIL). Not having clarity on a subsidy sharing mechanism is the reason for downward trend on these stocks. Shares of ONGC and RIL have underperformed so far in 2015. When the oil price fall profits of the companies will effect, generate less money and may cut their dividends in Long run. In this situation this paper objective is to study investment strategies in oil marketing companies, by applying CAPM and Security Market Line.

Keywords: petrol industry, price fluctuations, sharp single index model, SML, Markowitz model

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