Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1703

Search results for: diesel-generator unit

1703 Optimal Opportunistic Maintenance Policy for a Two-Unit System

Authors: Nooshin Salari, Viliam Makis, Jane Doe


This paper presents a maintenance policy for a system consisting of two units. Unit 1 is gradually deteriorating and is subject to soft failure. Unit 2 has a general lifetime distribution and is subject to hard failure. Condition of unit 1 of the system is monitored periodically and it is considered as failed when its deterioration level reaches or exceeds a critical level N. At the failure time of unit 2 system is considered as failed, and unit 2 will be correctively replaced by the next inspection epoch. Unit 1 or 2 are preventively replaced when deterioration level of unit 1 or age of unit 2 exceeds the related preventive maintenance (PM) levels. At the time of corrective or preventive replacement of unit 2, there is an opportunity to replace unit 1 if its deterioration level reaches the opportunistic maintenance (OM) level. If unit 2 fails in an inspection interval, system stops operating although unit 1 has not failed. A mathematical model is derived to find the preventive and opportunistic replacement levels for unit 1 and preventive replacement age for unit 2, that minimize the long run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. Numerical example is provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed model and the comparison of the proposed model with an optimal policy without opportunistic maintenance level for unit 1 is carried out.

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, opportunistic maintenance, preventive maintenance, two-unit system

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
1702 Cogeneration Unit for Small Stove

Authors: Michal Spilacek, Marian Brazdil, Otakar Stelcl, Jiri Pospisil


This paper shows an experimental testing of a small unit for combustion of solid fuels, such as charcoal and wood logs, that can provide electricity. One of the concepts is that the unit does not require a qualified personnel for its operation. The unit itself is composed of two main parts. The design requires a heat producing stove and an electricity producing thermoelectric generator. After the construction the unit was tested and the results shows that the emission release is within the legislative requirements for emission production and environmental protection. That qualifies such unit for indoor application.

Keywords: micro-cogeneration, thermoelectric generator, biomass combustion, wood stove

Procedia PDF Downloads 509
1701 Unit Root Tests Based On the Robust Estimator

Authors: Wararit Panichkitkosolkul


The unit root tests based on the robust estimator for the first-order autoregressive process are proposed and compared with the unit root tests based on the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator. The percentiles of the null distributions of the unit root test are also reported. The empirical probabilities of Type I error and powers of the unit root tests are estimated via Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results show that all unit root tests can control the probability of Type I error for all situations. The empirical power of the unit root tests based on the robust estimator are higher than the unit root tests based on the OLS estimator.

Keywords: autoregressive, ordinary least squares, type i error, power of the test, Monte Carlo simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
1700 Small Scale Stationary and Mobile Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Abduh, Robert Manurung, Hero Jan Heeres


Biodiesel can be produced in small scale mobile units which are designed with local input and demand. Unlike the typical biodiesel production plants, mobile biodiesel unit consiss of a biodiesel production facility placed inside a standard cargo container and mounted on a truck so that it can be transported to a region near the location of raw materials. In this paper, we review the existing concept and unit for the development of community-scale and mobile production of biodiesel. This includes the main reactor technology to produce biodiesel as well as the pre-treatment prior to the reaction unit. The pre-treatment includes the oil-expeller unit to obtain oil from the oilseeds as well as the quality control of the oil before it enters the reaction unit. This paper also discusses the post-treatment after the production of biodiesel. It includes the refining and purification of biodiesel to meet the product specification set by the biodiesel industry.

Keywords: biodiesel, community scale, mobile biodiesel unit, reactor technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1699 Low Back Pain and Patients Lifting Behaviors among Nurses Working in Al Sadairy Hospital, Aljouf

Authors: Fatma Abdel Moneim Al Tawil


Low back pain (LBP) among nurses has been the subject of research studies worldwide. However, evidence of the influence of patients lifting behaviors and LBP among nurses in Saudi Arabia remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between LBP and nurses lifting behaviors. LBP questionnaire was distributed to 100 nurses working in Alsadairy Hospital distributed as Emergency unit(9),Coronary Care unit (9), Intensive Care Unit (7), Dialysis unit (30), Burn unit (5), surgical unit (11), Medical (14) and, X-ray unit (15). The questionnaire included demographic data, attitude scale, Team work scale, Back pain history and Knowledge scale. Regarding to emergency unit, there is appositive significant relation between teamwork scale and Knowledge as r = (0.807) and P =0.05. Regarding to ICU unit, there is a positive significant relation between teamwork scale and attitude scale as r= (0.781) and P =0.05. Regarding to Dialysis unit, there is a positive significant relation between attitude scale and teamwork scale as r=(0.443) and P =0.05. The findings suggest enhanced awareness of occupational safety with safe patient handling practices among nursing students must be emphasized and integrated into their educational curriculum. Moreover, back pain prevention program should incorporate the promotion of an active lifestyle and fitness training the implementation of institutional patient handling policies.

Keywords: low back pain, lifting behaviors, nurses, team work

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1698 Optimal Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable Two-Unit System

Authors: Leila Jafari, Viliam Makis, G. B. Akram Khaleghei


In this paper, we present a maintenance model of a two-unit series system with economic dependence. Unit#1, which is considered to be more expensive and more important, is subject to condition monitoring (CM) at equidistant, discrete time epochs and unit#2, which is not subject to CM, has a general lifetime distribution. The multivariate observation vectors obtained through condition monitoring carry partial information about the hidden state of unit#1, which can be in a healthy or a warning state while operating. Only the failure state is assumed to be observable for both units. The objective is to find an optimal opportunistic maintenance policy minimizing the long-run expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and solved in the partially observable semi-Markov decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm for finding the optimal policy and the minimum average cost is developed and illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, semi-Markov decision process, multivariate Bayesian control chart, partially observable system, two-unit system

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
1697 Comparison of Two Maintenance Policies for a Two-Unit Series System Considering General Repair

Authors: Seyedvahid Najafi, Viliam Makis


In recent years, maintenance optimization has attracted special attention due to the growth of industrial systems complexity. Maintenance costs are high for many systems, and preventive maintenance is effective when it increases operations' reliability and safety at a reduced cost. The novelty of this research is to consider general repair in the modeling of multi-unit series systems and solve the maintenance problem for such systems using the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework. We propose an opportunistic maintenance policy for a series system composed of two main units. Unit 1, which is more expensive than unit 2, is subjected to condition monitoring, and its deterioration is modeled using a gamma process. Unit 1 hazard rate is estimated by the proportional hazards model (PHM), and two hazard rate control limits are considered as the thresholds of maintenance interventions for unit 1. Maintenance is performed on unit 2, considering an age control limit. The objective is to find the optimal control limits and minimize the long-run expected average cost per unit time. The proposed algorithm is applied to a numerical example to compare the effectiveness of the proposed policy (policy Ⅰ) with policy Ⅱ, which is similar to policy Ⅰ, but instead of general repair, replacement is performed. Results show that policy Ⅰ leads to lower average cost compared with policy Ⅱ. 

Keywords: condition-based maintenance, proportional hazards model, semi-Markov decision process, two-unit series systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
1696 Causal Relationship between Macro-Economic Indicators and Fund Unit Price Behaviour: Evidence from Malaysian Equity Unit Trust Fund Industry

Authors: Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman, Ahamed Kameel, Hasanuddeen Abdul Aziz


In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the relationship specifically the causal relation between fund unit prices of Islamic equity unit trust fund which measure by fund NAV and the selected macro-economic variables of Malaysian economy by using VECM causality test and Granger causality test. Monthly data has been used from Jan, 2006 to Dec, 2012 for all the variables. The findings of the study showed that industrial production index, political election and financial crisis are the only variables having unidirectional causal relationship with fund unit price. However, the global oil prices is having bidirectional causality with fund NAV. Thus, it is concluded that the equity unit trust fund industry in Malaysia is an inefficient market with respect to the industrial production index, global oil prices, political election and financial crisis. However, the market is approaching towards informational efficiency at least with respect to four macroeconomic variables, treasury bill rate, money supply, foreign exchange rate and corruption index.

Keywords: fund unit price, unit trust industry, Malaysia, macroeconomic variables, causality

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
1695 On Boundary Values of Hardy Space Banach Space-Valued Functions

Authors: Irina Peterburgsky


Let T be a unit circumference of a complex plane, E be a Banach space, E* and E** be its conjugate and second conjugate, respectively. In general, a Hardy space Hp(E), p ≥1, where functions act from the open unit disk to E, could contain a function for which even weak nontangential (angular) boundary value in the space E** does not exist at any point of the unit circumference T (C. Grossetete.) The situation is "better" when certain restrictions to the Banach space of values are applied (more or less resembling a classical case of scalar-valued functions depending on constrains, as shown by R. Ryan.) This paper shows that, nevertheless, in the case of a Banach space of a general type, the following positive statement is true: Proposition. For any function f(z) from Hp(E), p ≥ 1, there exists a function F(eiθ) on the unit circumference T to E** whose Poisson (in the Pettis sense) is integral regains the function f(z) on the open unit disk. Some characteristics of the function F(eiθ) are demonstrated.

Keywords: hardy spaces, Banach space-valued function, boundary values, Pettis integral

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
1694 Furnishing The Envelope; 3D Printed Construction Unit as Furniture

Authors: Maryam Kalkatechi


The paper presents the construction unit that was proposed as a result of researching and finding solutions for challenges of the traditional masonry unit. The concept of ‘unit as arrangements of cells’ was investigated in four categories of structure, handling and assembly, thermal characteristics and weather ability which resulted in construction unit as an independent system which shapes a part of the envelope. Comparing to the traditional wall systems in which the system is in layers, the part system is a monolithic piece by itself. Even though the overall wythe-10 inches- is less than the combined layers-14 inches- in a traditional wall system, it is still seen as a spatial component. The component as a furnishing of envelope is discussed from material application point of view. The algorithm definition of the arrangement cells crafts the relationship between cells and functionality with material. This craft is realized as the envelope furnishing. Three alternative materials in relation to furnishing the envelope are discussed for printing the construction unit; transparent plastic, opaque plastic and glass. The qualities vary in the four categories, however this paper focuses on the visual qualities of materials applied. In a diagram the qualities of the materials are compared in relation to each other.

Keywords: furnishing envelope, 3D printed construction unit, opaque plastic, transparent plastic, glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
1693 Exergy and Energy Analysis of Pre-Heating Unit of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company

Authors: M. Nuhu, S. Bilal, A. A. Hamisu, J. A. Abbas, Y. Z. Aminu, P. O. Helen


Exergy and energy analysis of preheating unit of FCCU of KRPC has been calculated and presented in this study. From the design, the efficiency of each heat exchanger was 86%. However, on completion of this work the efficiencies was calculated to be 39.90%, 55.66%, 56.22%, and 57.14% for 16E02, 16E03, 16E04, and 16E05 respectively. 16E04 has the minimum energy loss of 0.86%. The calculated second law and exergy efficiencies of the system were 43.01 and 56.99% respectively.

Keywords: exergy analysis, ideal work, efficiency, exergy destruction, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
1692 An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

Authors: Kyung-Suk Choi, Hyung-Joon Kim


Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. Their structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that the load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of a traditional steel moment-resisting system. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEM) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the structural influence of access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities, and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections.

Keywords: unit modular frame, steel moment connection, nonlinear analytical model, moment-rotation relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
1691 Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit

Authors: Radouane Elbahjaoui, Hamid El Qarnia


Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles’ volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.

Keywords: nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM), phase change material (PCM), nanoparticles, latent heat storage unit (LHSU), melting.

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1690 The Role of the Internal Audit Unit in Detecting and Preventing Fraud at Public Universities in West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Fury Khristianty Fitriyah


This study aims to identify the extent of the role of the Satuan Pengawas Intern (Internal Audit Unit) in detecting and preventing fraud in public universities in West Java under the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education. The research method applied was a qualitative case study approach, while the unit of analysis for this study is the Internal Audit Unit at each public university. Results of this study indicate that the Internal Audit Unit is able to detect and prevent fraud within a public university environment by means of red flags to mark accounting anomalies. These stem from inaccurate budget planning that prompts inappropriate use of funds, exacerbated by late disbursements of funds, which potentially lead to fictitious transactions, and discrepancies in recording state-owned assets into a state property management system (SIMAK BMN), which, if not conducted properly, potentially causes loss to the state.

Keywords: governance, internal control, fraud, public university

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1689 A Theoretical Model for a Humidification Dehumidification (HD) Solar Desalination Unit

Authors: Yasser El-Henawy, M. Abd El-Kader, Gamal H. Moustafa


A theoretical study of a humidification dehumidification solar desalination unit has been carried out to increase understanding the effect of weather conditions on the unit productivity. A humidification-dehumidification (HD) solar desalination unit has been designed to provide fresh water for population in remote arid areas. It consists of solar water collector and air collector; to provide the hot water and air to the desalination chamber. The desalination chamber is divided into humidification and dehumidification towers. The circulation of air between the two towers is maintained by the forced convection. A mathematical model has been formulated, in which the thermodynamic relations were used to study the flow, heat and mass transfer inside the humidifier and dehumidifier. The present technique is performed in order to increase the unit performance. Heat and mass balance has been done and a set of governing equations has been solved using the finite difference technique. The unit productivity has been calculated along the working day during the summer and winter sessions and has compared with the available experimental results. The average accumulative productivity of the system in winter has been ranged between 2.5 to 4 kg/, while the average summer productivity has been found between 8 to 12 kg/m2 day.

Keywords: solar desalination, solar collector, humidification and dehumidification, simulation, finite difference, water productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1688 Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: H. Kiani, S. Moradi, B. Soltani Soulgani, S. Mousavian


Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: desalting unit, crude oil, neural networks, simulation, recovery, separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1687 Number of Parametrization of Discrete-Time Systems without Unit-Delay Element: Single-Input Single-Output Case

Authors: Kazuyoshi Mori


In this paper, we consider the parametrization of the discrete-time systems without the unit-delay element within the framework of the factorization approach. In the parametrization, we investigate the number of required parameters. We consider single-input single-output systems in this paper. By the investigation, we find, on the discrete-time systems without the unit-delay element, three cases that are (1) there exist plants which require only one parameter and (2) two parameters, and (3) the number of parameters is at most three.

Keywords: factorization approach, discrete-time system, parameterization of stabilizing controllers, system without unit-delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
1686 Dual-Rail Logic Unit in Double Pass Transistor Logic

Authors: Hamdi Belgacem, Fradi Aymen


In this paper we present a low power, low cost differential logic unit (LU). The proposed LU receives dual-rail inputs and generates dual-rail outputs. The proposed circuit can be used in Arithmetic and Logic Units (ALU) of processor. It can be also dedicated for self-checking applications based on dual duplication code. Four logic functions as well as their inverses are implemented within a single Logic Unit. The hardware overhead for the implementation of the proposed LU is lower than the hardware overhead required for standard LU implemented with standard CMOS logic style. This new implementation is attractive as fewer transistors are required to implement important logic functions. The proposed differential logic unit can perform 8 Boolean logical operations by using only 16 transistors. Spice simulations using a 32 nm technology was utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed circuit and to prove its acceptable electrical behaviour.

Keywords: differential logic unit, double pass transistor logic, low power CMOS design, low cost CMOS design

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
1685 A Two Tailed Secretary Problem with Multiple Criteria

Authors: Alaka Padhye, S. P. Kane


The following study considers some variations made to the secretary problem (SP). In a multiple criteria secretary problem (MCSP), the selection of a unit is based on two independent characteristics. The units that appear before an observer are known say N, the best rank of a unit being N. A unit is selected, if it is better with respect to either first or second or both the characteristics. When the number of units is large and due to constraints like time and cost, the observer might want to stop earlier instead of inspecting all the available units. Let the process terminate at r2th unit where r1Keywords: joint distribution, marginal distribution, real ranks, secretary problem, selection criterion, two tailed secretary problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1684 Distributed Manufacturing (DM)- Smart Units and Collaborative Processes

Authors: Hermann Kuehnle


Developments in ICT totally reshape manufacturing as machines, objects and equipment on the shop floors will be smart and online. Interactions with virtualizations and models of a manufacturing unit will appear exactly as interactions with the unit itself. These virtualizations may be driven by providers with novel ICT services on demand that might jeopardize even well established business models. Context aware equipment, autonomous orders, scalable machine capacity or networkable manufacturing unit will be the terminology to get familiar with in manufacturing and manufacturing management. Such newly appearing smart abilities with impact on network behavior, collaboration procedures and human resource development will make distributed manufacturing a preferred model to produce. Computing miniaturization and smart devices revolutionize manufacturing set ups, as virtualizations and atomization of resources unwrap novel manufacturing principles. Processes and resources obey novel specific laws and have strategic impact on manufacturing and major operational implications. Mechanisms from distributed manufacturing engaging interacting smart manufacturing units and decentralized planning and decision procedures already demonstrate important effects from this shift of focus towards collaboration and interoperability.

Keywords: autonomous unit, networkability, smart manufacturing unit, virtualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
1683 Energy Saving and Performance Evaluation of an Air Handling Unit Integrated with a Membrane Energy Exchanger for Cold Climates

Authors: Peng Liu, Maria Justo Alonso, Hans Martin Mathisen


A theoretical model is developed to evaluate the performance and energy saving potential of an air handling unit integrated with a membrane energy exchanger in cold climates. The recovered sensible and latent heat, fan preheating use for frost prevention and heating energy consumed by heating coil after the ventilator is compared for the air handling unit combined heat and energy exchanger respectively. A concept of coefficient of performance of air handling unit is presented and applied to assess the energy use of air handling unit (AHU) in cold climates. The analytic results indicate downsizing of the preheating coil before exchanger and heating coils after exchanger are expected since the required power to preheat and condition the air is reduced compared to heat exchanger when the MEE is integrated with AHU. Simultaneously, a superior ratio of energy recovered (RER) is obtained from AHU build-in a counter-flow MEE. The AHU with sensible-only heat exchanger has noticeably low RER, around 1 at low outdoor air temperature where the maximum energy rate is desired to condition the severe cold and dry air.

Keywords: membrane energy exchanger, cold climate, energy efficient building, HVAC

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1682 Investigation of Magnetic Resonance Wireless Charger Efficiency for Mobile Device

Authors: SeungHee Ryu, Junil Moon


The magnetic resonance wireless power transfer system is widely researched due to its benefits such as spatial freedom. In this paper, power transmitting unit and power receiving unit of wireless battery charger for mobile devices is presented. Power transmitting unit efficiency is measured under different test conditions with power receiving units.

Keywords: magnetic resonance coupling, wireless power transfer, power transfer efficiency.

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
1681 Comparison between LQR and ANN Active Anti-Roll Control of a Single Unit Heavy Vehicle

Authors: Babesse Saad, Ameddah Djemeleddine


In this paper, a learning algorithm using neuronal networks to improve the roll stability and prevent the rollover in a single unit heavy vehicle is proposed. First, LQR control to keep balanced normalized rollovers, between front and rear axles, below the unity, then a data collected from this controller is used as a training basis of a neuronal regulator. The ANN controller is thereafter applied for the nonlinear side force model, and gives satisfactory results than the LQR one.

Keywords: rollover, single unit heavy vehicle, neural networks, nonlinear side force

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
1680 Gas Flotation Unit in Kuwait Oil Company Operations

Authors: Homoud Bourisli, Haitham Safar


Oil is one of main resources of energy in the world. As conventional oil is drying out, oil recovery is crucial to maintain the same level of oil production. Since water injection is one of the commonly used methods to increase and maintain pressure in oil wells, oil-water separation processes of the water associated with oil production for water injection oil recovery is very essential. Therefore, Gas Flotation Units are used for oil-water separation to be able to re-inject the treated water back into the wells to increase pressure.

Keywords: Kuwait oil company, dissolved gas flotation unit, induced gas flotation unit, oil-water separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 463
1679 Review of Sulfur Unit Capacity Expansion Options

Authors: Avinashkumar Karre


Sulfur recovery unit, most commonly called as Claus process, is very significant gas desulfurization process unit in refinery and gas industries. Explorations of new natural gas fields, refining of high-sulfur crude oils, and recent crude expansion projects are needing capacity expansion of Claus unit for many companies around the world. In refineries, the sulphur recovery units take acid gas from amine regeneration units and sour water strippers, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. The Claus process is hydraulically limited by mass flow rate. Reducing the pressure drop across control valves, flow meters, lines, knock-out drums, and packing improves the capacity. Oxygen enrichment helps improve the capacity by removing nitrogen, this is more commonly done on all capacity expansion projects. Typical upgrades required due to oxygen enrichment are new burners, new refractory in thermal reactor, resizing of 1st condenser, instrumentation changes, and steam/condensate heat integration. Some other capacity expansion options typically considered are tail gas compressor, replacing air blower with higher head, hydrocarbon minimization in the feed, water removal, and ammonia removal. Increased capacity related upgrades in sulfur recovery unit also need changes in the tail gas treatment unit, typical changes include improvement to quench tower duty, packing area upgrades in quench and absorber towers and increased amine circulation flow rates.

Keywords: Claus process, oxygen enrichment, sulfur recovery unit, tail gas treatment unit

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
1678 Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Unit Tablets of Aceclofenac

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan


The present research is aimed at fabrication of multiple-unit controlled-release tablet formulation of aceclofenac by employing acrylic polymers as the release controlling excipients for drug multi-particulates to achieve the desired objectives of maintaining the same controlled release characteristics as that prior to their compression into tablet. Various manufacturers are successfully manufacturing and marketing aceclofenac controlled release tablet by applying directly coating materials on the tablet. The basic idea behind development of such formulations was to employ aqueous acrylics polymers dispersion as an alternative to the existing approaches, wherein the forces of compression may cause twist of drug pellets, but do not have adverse effects on the drug release properties. Thus, the study was undertaken to illustrate manufacturing of controlled release aceclofenac multiple-unit tablet formulation.

Keywords: aceclofenac, multiple-unit tablets, acrylic polymers, controlled-release

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
1677 Construction Unit Rate Factor Modelling Using Neural Networks

Authors: Balimu Mwiya, Mundia Muya, Chabota Kaliba, Peter Mukalula


Factors affecting construction unit cost vary depending on a country’s political, economic, social and technological inclinations. Factors affecting construction costs have been studied from various perspectives. Analysis of cost factors requires an appreciation of a country’s practices. Identified cost factors provide an indication of a country’s construction economic strata. The purpose of this paper is to identify the essential factors that affect unit cost estimation and their breakdown using artificial neural networks. Twenty-five (25) identified cost factors in road construction were subjected to a questionnaire survey and employing SPSS factor analysis the factors were reduced to eight. The 8 factors were analysed using the neural network (NN) to determine the proportionate breakdown of the cost factors in a given construction unit rate. NN predicted that political environment accounted 44% of the unit rate followed by contractor capacity at 22% and financial delays, project feasibility, overhead and profit each at 11%. Project location, material availability and corruption perception index had minimal impact on the unit cost from the training data provided. Quantified cost factors can be incorporated in unit cost estimation models (UCEM) to produce more accurate estimates. This can create improvements in the cost estimation of infrastructure projects and establish a benchmark standard to assist the process of alignment of work practises and training of new staff, permitting the on-going development of best practises in cost estimation to become more effective.

Keywords: construction cost factors, neural networks, roadworks, Zambian construction industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1676 The Usage of Bridge Estimator for Hegy Seasonal Unit Root Tests

Authors: Huseyin Guler, Cigdem Kosar


The aim of this study is to propose Bridge estimator for seasonal unit root tests. Seasonality is an important factor for many economic time series. Some variables may contain seasonal patterns and forecasts that ignore important seasonal patterns have a high variance. Therefore, it is very important to eliminate seasonality for seasonal macroeconomic data. There are some methods to eliminate the impacts of seasonality in time series. One of them is filtering the data. However, this method leads to undesired consequences in unit root tests, especially if the data is generated by a stochastic seasonal process. Another method to eliminate seasonality is using seasonal dummy variables. Some seasonal patterns may result from stationary seasonal processes, which are modelled using seasonal dummies but if there is a varying and changing seasonal pattern over time, so the seasonal process is non-stationary, deterministic seasonal dummies are inadequate to capture the seasonal process. It is not suitable to use seasonal dummies for modeling such seasonally nonstationary series. Instead of that, it is necessary to take seasonal difference if there are seasonal unit roots in the series. Different alternative methods are proposed in the literature to test seasonal unit roots, such as Dickey, Hazsa, Fuller (DHF) and Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, Yoo (HEGY) tests. HEGY test can be also used to test the seasonal unit root in different frequencies (monthly, quarterly, and semiannual). Another issue in unit root tests is the lag selection. Lagged dependent variables are added to the model in seasonal unit root tests as in the unit root tests to overcome the autocorrelation problem. In this case, it is necessary to choose the lag length and determine any deterministic components (i.e., a constant and trend) first, and then use the proper model to test for seasonal unit roots. However, this two-step procedure might lead size distortions and lack of power in seasonal unit root tests. Recent studies show that Bridge estimators are good in selecting optimal lag length while differentiating nonstationary versus stationary models for nonseasonal data. The advantage of this estimator is the elimination of the two-step nature of conventional unit root tests and this leads a gain in size and power. In this paper, the Bridge estimator is proposed to test seasonal unit roots in a HEGY model. A Monte-Carlo experiment is done to determine the efficiency of this approach and compare the size and power of this method with HEGY test. Since Bridge estimator performs well in model selection, our approach may lead to some gain in terms of size and power over HEGY test.

Keywords: bridge estimators, HEGY test, model selection, seasonal unit root

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1675 Improving Radiation Efficiency Using Metamaterial in Pyramidal Horn Antenna

Authors: Amit Kumar Baghel, Sisir Kumar Nayak


The proposed metamaterial design help to increase the radiation efficiency at 2.9 GHz by reducing the side and back lobes by making the phase difference of the waves emerging from the phase center of the horn antenna same after passing through metamaterial array. The unit cell of the metamaterial is having concentric ring structure made of copper of 0.035 mm thickness on both sides of FR4 sheet. The inner ring diameter is kept as 3 mm, and the outer ring diameters are changed according to the path and tramission phase difference of the unit cell from the phase center of the antenna in both the horizontal and vertical direction, i.e., in x- and y-axis. In this case, the ring radius varies from 3.19 mm to 6.99 mm with the respective S21 phase difference of -62.25° to -124.64°. The total phase difference can be calculated by adding the path difference of the respective unit cell in the array to the phase difference of S21. Taking one of the unit cell as the reference, the total phase difference between the reference unit cell and other cells must be integer multiple of 360°. The variation of transmission coefficient S21 with the ring radius is greater than -6 dB. The array having 5 x 5 unit cell is kept inside the pyramidal horn antenna (L X B X H = 295.451 x 384.233 x 298.66 mm3) at a distance of 36.68 mm from the waveguide throat. There is an improvement in side lobe level in E-plane by 14.6 dB when the array is used. The front to back lobe ration is increased by 1 dB by using the array. The proposed antenna with metamaterial array can be used in beam shaping for wireless power transfer applications.

Keywords: metamaterial, side lobe level, front to back ratio, beam forming

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
1674 Investigation of Dispersion of Carbon Nanoparticles in Polymer Melt for the Fabrication of Functional Filaments

Authors: Merle Bischoff, Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide


Nanocomposites have become more and more important as the implementation of nanoparticles in polymer allows additional functions in common industrial parts. Especially in the fabrication of filaments or fibres nanomodification is important, as only very small fillers can be added to the very fine fibres (common diameter is 20 µm, fine filament are 1 µm). Discharging fibres, conductive fibres, and many other functional fibres raise in their importance nowadays. Especially the dispersion quality is essential for the final enhancement of the filament propertied. In this paper, the dispersion of carbon nanoparticles in polymer melt is enhanced by a newly developed sonication unit of ITA and BANDELIN electronic GmbH & Co. KG. The first development steps of the unit fabrication, as well as the first experimental results of the modification of the dispersion, are shown. Special focus will be laid on the sealing of the new sonication unit as well as the positioning and equipment size when being implemented in an existing melt spinning unit. Furthermore, the influence on the thereby manufactured nano-modified filaments will be shown.

Keywords: dispersion, sonication, carbon nanoparticles, filaments

Procedia PDF Downloads 216