Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Dioscorea deltoidea

20 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Dioscorea Deltoidea Callus Extract and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Mujeeb Mohd, Aqil Mohd, A. K. Najmi, Akhtar MMohd, Vasim Mohd

Abstract:

Dioscorea deltoidea belongs to the Dioscoreaceae family, is usually found in the north-western Himalayas and some other parts of the world up to an altitude of 1000–3000 m. D. deltoidea commonly known as yam and is an extensively used medicinal plant in the indigenous system of medicine. It has been reported to contain dioscine a steroidal glycoside in higher concentration. In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by a simple, efficient, environmentally benevolent and economic microwave-assisted method. Callus culture of D. deltoidea was developed and maintained on Murashige and skooge basal medium supplemented with different combination and concentration of plant growth regulators. Aqueous extract of callus culture was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The presence of a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band at 430 nm in UV–Vis reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Whereas FTIR analysis was performed to probe the possible functional group involved in the synthesis of AgNPs. Further extract and AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Dioscorea deltoidea, microwave, silver, nanoparticles

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19 Inhibitory Effect on TNF-Alpha Release of Dioscorea membranacea and Its Compounds

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Pakakrong Thongdeeying

Abstract:

The rhizomes of Dioscorea membranacea (DM) has long been used in Thai Traditional medicine to treat cancer and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatism. The objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory activity by determining the inhibitory effect on LPS-induced TNF-α from RAW264.7 cells of crude extracts and pure isolated compounds from DM. Three known dihydrophenantrene compounds were isolated by a bioassay guided isolation method from DM ethanolic extract [2,4 dimethoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) and 5-hydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene(2) and 5,6,2 -trihydroxy 3,4-methoxy, 9,10- dihydrophenanthrene (3)]. 1 showed the highest inhibitory effect on PGE2, followed by 3 and 1 (IC50 = 2.26, 4.97 and >20 μg/ml or 8.31,17.25 and > 20 µM respectively). These findings suggest that this plant showed anti-inflamatory effects by displaying an inhibitory effect on TNF-α release, hence, this result supports the usage of Thai traditional medicine to treat inflammation related diseases.

Keywords: Dioscorea membranacea, anti-inflammatory activity, TNF-Alpha , dihidrophenantrene compound

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18 Comparative Study of Antioxidant Activity in in vivo and in vitro Samples of Purple Greater Yam (Dioscorea alata L).

Authors: Sakinah Abdullah, Rosna Mat Taha

Abstract:

Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrite which result in oxidative stress leading to cellular damage. Natural antioxidant are in high demand because of their potential in health promotion and disease prevention and their improved safety and consumer acceptability. Plants are rich sources of natural antioxidant. Dioscorea alata L. known as 'ubi badak' in Malaysia were well known for their antioxidant content, but this plant was seasonal. Thus, tissue culture technique was used to mass propagate this plant. In the present work, a comparative study between in vitro (from tissue culture) and in vivo (from intact plant) samples of Dioscorea alata L. for their antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenil -1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were carried out. All samples had better radical scavenging activity but in vivo samples had the strongest radical scavenging activity compared to in vitro samples. Furthermore, tubers from in vivo samples showed the greatest free radical scavenging effect and comparatively greater phenolic content than in vitro samples.

Keywords: Dioscorea alata, tissue culture, antioxidant, in vivo, in vitro, DPPH

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17 The Effect of Combined Doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta on Apoptosis Induction in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Dina Fatmawati, Sofia Mubarika, Mae Sri Wahyuningsih

Abstract:

Chemotherapy for breast cancer is largely ineffective, but innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. In our previous study, the combination of Doxorubicin (Dox) and ethanolic extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber ((EED) was found to have a synergistic effect on T47D human breast cancer cell line. In this study, we investigated the apoptotic effect of the combination on T47D human breast cancer cells and normal fibroblasts cell line and its effects on the expression of Caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (cPARP-1) protein. T47D cell lines and fibroblasts cells were treated with the combination of Dox and EED. Apoptotic effect of the combination was determined using flow cytrometry assay. Protein expressions were determined by immunocytochemistry staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells were significantly higher in T47D cell lines (75%) than that of in fibroblast cells (23%). The expression of Caspase 3 (84.53%) and cPARP-1 (83.36%) were significantly higher in the cancer cell lines than those of normal cells. These results indicate that the combination of doxorubicin and Dioscorea esculenta is a promising candidate for the treatment of breast cancer cells.

Keywords: Dioscorea esculenta, Doxorubicin, apoptosis, immunocytochemistry, cancer cells

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16 The Effects of Ultrasound on the Extraction of Ficus deltoidea Leaves

Authors: Nur Aimi Syairah Mohd Abdul Alim, Azilah Ajit, A. Z. Sulaiman

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) on the extraction of Vitexin and Iso-Vitexin from Ficus deltoidea plants. In recent years, ultrasound technology has been found to be a potential herbal extraction technique. The passage of ultrasound energy in a liquid medium generates mechanical agitation and other physical effects due to acoustic cavitation. The main goal is to optimised ultrasonic-assisted extraction condition providing the highest extraction yield with the most desirable antioxidant activity and stability. Thus, a series of experiments has been developed to investigate the effect of ultrasound energy on the vegetal material and the implemented parameters by using HPLC-photodiode array detection. The influences of several experimental parameters on the ultrasonic extraction of Ficus deltoidea leaves were investigated: extraction time (1-8 h), solvent-to-water ratio (1:10 to 1:50), temperature (50–100 °C), duty cycle (10–continuous sonication) and intensity. The extracts at the optimized condition were compared with those obtained by conventional boiling extraction, in terms of bioactive constituents yield and chemical composition. The compounds of interest identified in the extracts were Vitexin and Isovitexin, which possess anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. Results showed that the main variables affecting the extraction process were temperature and time. Though in less extent, solvent-to-water ratio, duty cycle and intensity are also demonstrated to be important parameters. The experimental values under optimal conditions were in good consistent with the predicted values, which suggested that ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) is more efficient process as compared to conventional boiling extraction. It recommended that ultrasound extraction of Ficus deltoidea plants are feasible to replace the traditional time-consuming and low efficiency preparation procedure in the future modernized and commercialized manufacture of this highly valuable herbal medicine.

Keywords: Ficus, ultrasounds, vitexin, isovitexin

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15 Characterization of Edible Film from Uwi Starch (Dioscorea alata L.)

Authors: Miksusanti, Herlina, Wiwin

Abstract:

The research about modification uwi starch (Dioscorea alata L) by using propylene oxide has been done. Concentration of propylene oxide were 6%(v/w), 8%(v/w), and 10%(v/w). The amilograf parameters after modification were characteristic breakdown viscosity 43 BU and setback viscosity 975 BU. The modification starch have edible properties according to FDA (Food and Drug Administration) which have degree of modification < 7%, degree of substitution < 0,1 and propylene oxide concentration < 10%(v/w). The best propylene oxide in making of edible film was 8 %( v/w). The starch control can be made into edible film with thickness 0,136 mm, tensile strength 20,4605 MPa and elongation 22%. Modification starch of uwi can be made into edible film with thickness 0,146 mm, tensile strength 25, 3521 Mpa, elongation 30% and water vapor transmission 7, 2651 g/m2/24 hours. FTIR characterization of uwi starch showed the occurrence of hydroxypropylation. The peak spectrum at 2900 cm-1 showed bonding of C-H from methyl group, which is characteristic for modification starch with hydroxypropyl. Characterization with scanning electron microscopy showed that modification of uwi starch has turned the granule of starch to be fully swallon.

Keywords: uwi starch, edible film, propylen oxide, modification

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14 Physicochemical Properties and Toxicity Studies on a Lectin from the Bulb of Dioscorea bulbifera

Authors: Uchenna Nkiruka Umeononihu, Adenike Kuku, Oludele Odekanyin, Olubunmi Babalola, Femi Agboola, Rapheal Okonji

Abstract:

In this study, a lectin from the bulb of Dioscorea bulbifera was purified, characterised, and its acute and sub-acute toxicity was investigated with a view to evaluate its toxic effects in mice. The protein from the bulb was extracted by homogenising 50 g of the bulb in 500 ml of phosphate buffered saline (0.025 M) of pH 7.2, stirred for 3 hr, and centrifuged at the speed of 3000 rpm. Blood group and sugar specificity assays of the crude extract were determined. The lectin was purified in a two-step procedure- gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4-B arabinose. The degree of purity of the purified lectin was ascertained by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Detection of covalently bound carbohydrate was carried out with Periodic Acid-Schiffs (PAS) reagent staining technique. Effects of temperature, pH, and EDTA on the lectin were carried out using standard methods. This was followed by acute toxicity studies via oral and subcutaneous routes using mice. The animals were monitored for mortality and signs of toxicity. The sub-acute toxicity studies were carried out using rats. Different concentrations of the lectin were administered twice daily for 5 days via the subcutaneous route. The animals were sacrificed on the sixth day; blood samples and liver tissues were collected. Biochemical assays (determination of total protein, direct bilirubin, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were carried out on the serum and liver homogenates. The collected organs (heart, liver, kidney, and spleen) were subjected to histopathological analysis. The results showed that lectin from the bulbs of Dioscorea bulbifera agglutinated non-specifically the erythrocytes of the human ABO system as well as rabbit erythrocytes. The haemagglutinating activity was strongly inhibited by arabinose and dulcitol with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.781 and 6.25, respectively. The lectin was purified to homogeneity with native and subunit molecular weights of 56,273 and 29,373 Daltons, respectively. The lectin was thermostable up to 30 0C and lost 25 %, 33.3 %, and 100 % of its heamagglutinating activity at 40°C, 50°C, and 60°C, respectively. The lectin was maximally active at pH 4 and 5 but lost its total activity at pH eight, while EDTA (10 mM) had no effect on its haemagglutinating activity. PAS reagent staining showed that the lectin was not a glycoprotein. The sub-acute studies on rats showed elevated levels of ALT, AST, serum bilirubin, total protein in serum and liver homogenates suggesting damage to liver and spleen. The study concluded that the aerial bulb of D. bulbifera lectin was non-specific in its heamagglutinating activity and dimeric in its structure. The lectin shared some physicochemical characteristics with lectins from other Dioscorecea species and was moderately toxic to the liver and spleen of treated animals.

Keywords: Dioscorea bulbifera, heamagglutinin, lectin, toxicity

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13 Influence of Cooking on the Functional Properties of Dioscorea Schimperiana During Chips Production

Authors: Djeukeu Asongni William, Leng Marlyse, Gouado Inocent

Abstract:

Background: Process for obtaining D. schimperiana chips involves a long period of cooking followed by drying of obtained products in the sun. Such a process could induce the modification of the functional properties of the chips, thus reducing the technological uses of these products. This study was conducted with a view to assessing the impact of this process on the chips of D. schimperiana. Methods: The chips used were purchased in Baham, Bamendjou and Bagangté markets during the month of February 2013. A representative sample of each market chips was formed by mixing the chips of several sellers. The control sample consisted of fresh yams that have been sliced to the average size of local chips then dried in the oven at 45 ° C for 36 h. On each sample was performed the analysis of the physico-chemical properties (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, iron , phosphorus, reducing sugars, ash and total starch) and gelling properties both with and without inhibitor alpha-amylases (0.018 and 0.146 mol / l). Results: Results show that the levels of ash 2.99 g / 100gms, iron 1.01 g / 100gms and phosphorus 532.06 mg / 100gms fresh sample were significantly higher than those of the products obtained in the traditional process. The functional properties of the chips obtained from different methods shows that the peak viscosity of the fresh sample is larger than the other samples with or without inhibitor. In addition, the fresh sample has the lowest breakdown under the same conditions. Conclusion: These results show that traditional process reduces technological potential of chips, thus limiting the value of D. schimperiana.

Keywords: Dioscorea schimperiana, chips, functional properties, technological properties, valorization

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12 Potential for Biological Control of Postharvest Fungal Rot of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) Tubers in Storage with Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Victor Iorungwa Gwa, Ebenezer Jonathan Ekefan

Abstract:

Potential of Trichoderma harzianum for biological control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) tubers in storage was studied. Pathogenicity test revealed the susceptibility of healthy looking yam tubers to Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonganae after fourteen days of inoculation. Treatments comprising A. niger, B. theobromae, and F. oxysporum each paired with T. harzianum and were arranged in completely randomized design and stored for five months. Experiments were conducted between December 2015 and April 2016 and December 2016 and April 2017. Results showed that tubers treated with the pathogenic fungi alone caused mean percentage rot of between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 22.22 % (A. niger) while the paired treatments produced only between 2.22 % (T. harzianum by F. oxysporum) and 6.67 % (T. harzianum by A. niger). In the second year of storage, mean percentage rot was found to be between 13.33 % (F. oxysporum) and 28.89 % (A. niger) while in the paired treatment rot was only between 6.67 % (F. oxysporum) and 8.89% (A. niger). Tubers treated with antagonist alone produced 0.00 % and 2.22 % in the first and second year, respectively. Result revealed that there was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in mean percentage rot between the first year and the second year except where B. theobromae was inoculated alone, A. niger and T. harzianum paired and B. theobromae and T. harzianum paired. The most antagonised fungus in paired treatment for both years was F. oxysporum f. sp. melonganae, while the least antagonised, was A. niger and B. theobromae. It is, therefore, concluded that T. harzianum has potentials to control rot causing pathogens of yam tubers in storage. This can compliment or provide better alternative ways of reducing rot in yam tubers than by the use of chemical fungicides which are not environmentally friendly.

Keywords: biological control, fungal rot, postharvest, Trichoderma harzianum, white yam

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11 Antifungal Nature of Bacillus Subtilis in Controlling Post Harvest Fungal Rot of Yam

Authors: Ifueko Oghogho Ukponmwan, Mike O. Orji

Abstract:

This study investigated the antifungal activity of Bacilluss subtilis in the control of postharvest fungal rot of white yam (Dioscorea spp). Bacillus subtilis was isolated from the soil and fungi (Aspergillus spp, Mucor and yeasts) were isolated from rotten yam. The organisms were paired in yam nutrient agar (YNA) and yam Sabourraud dextrose agar media. In the yam dextrose agar media (YSDA) plates, the Bacillus grew rapidly and established itself and restricted the growth of the fungi organisms, but there was no zone of inhibition. This behaviour of Bacillus on the plates of YSDA was also observed in the yams where the fungi caused rot but the rot was suppressed by the presence of the Bacillus as compared to the degree of rot observed in the control that had only spoilage fungi. The control yam showed greater rot than other yams that contained a combination of Bacillus and fungi. The t-Test analysis showed that the difference in the rot between the treated samples and the control sample is significant and this implies that the presence of Bacillus significantly reduced the growth of fungi in the samples (yams). It was revealed from this study that Bacillus subtilis treatment can be successfully used to preserve white yams in storage. Its fast growth and early establishment in the sample accounts for its antifungal strength.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, rot, fungi, yam

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10 A Review on Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Jane O. Munonye

Abstract:

Climate change has both negative and positive effects in agricultural production. For agriculture to be sustainable in adverse climate change condition, some natural measures are needed. The issue is to produce more food with available natural resources and reduce the contribution of agriculture to climate change. The study reviewed climate change and sustainable agriculture in southeast Nigeria. Data from the study were from secondary sources. Ten scientific papers were consulted and data for the review were collected from three. The objectives of the paper were as follows: to review the effect of climate change on one major arable crop in southeast Nigeria (yam; Dioscorea rotundata); evident of climate change impact and methods for sustainable agricultural production in adverse weather condition. Some climatic parameter as sunshine, relative humidity and rainfall have negative relationship with yam production and significant at 10% probability. Crop production was predicted to decline by 25% per hectare by 2060 while livestock production has increased the incidence of diseases and pathogens as the major effect to agriculture. Methods for sustainable agriculture and damage of natural resources by climate change were highlighted. Agriculture needs to be transformed as climate changes to enable the sector to be sustainable. There should be a policy in place to facilitate the integration of sustainability in Nigeria agriculture.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, sustainability, yam

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9 Mathematical Modeling of the Effect of Pretreatment on the Drying Kinetics, Energy Requirement and Physico-Functional Properties of Yam (Dioscorea Rotundata) and Cocoyam (Colocasia Esculenta)

Authors: Felix U. Asoiro, Kingsley O. Anyichie, Meshack I. Simeon, Chinenye E. Azuka

Abstract:

The work was aimed at studying the effects of microwave drying (450 W) and hot air oven drying on the drying kinetics and physico-functional properties of yams and cocoyams species. The yams and cocoyams were cut into chips of thicknesses of 3mm, 5mm, 7mm, 9mm, and 11mm. The drying characteristics of yam and cocoyam chips were investigated under microwave drying and hot air oven temperatures (50oC – 90oC). Drying methods, temperature, and thickness had a significant effect on the drying characteristics and physico-functional properties of yam and cocoyam. The result of the experiment showed that an increase in the temperature increased the drying time. The result also showed that the microwave drying method took lesser time to dry the samples than the hot air oven drying method. The iodine affinity of starch for yam was higher than that of cocoyam for the microwaved dried samples over those of hot air oven-dried samples. The results of the analysis would be useful in modeling the drying behavior of yams and cocoyams under different drying methods. It could also be useful in the improvement of shelf life for yams and cocoyams as well as designs of efficient systems for drying, handling, storage, packaging, processing, and transportation of yams and cocoyams.

Keywords: coco yam, drying, microwave, modeling, energy consumption, iodine affinity, drying ate

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8 Thermophysical Properties and Kinetic Study of Dioscorea bulbifera

Authors: Emmanuel Chinagorom Nwadike, Joseph Tagbo Nwabanne, Matthew Ndubuisi Abonyi, Onyemazu Andrew Azaka

Abstract:

This research focused on the modeling of the convective drying of aerial yam using finite element methods. The thermo-gravimetric analyzer was used to determine the thermal stability of the sample. An aerial yam sample of size 30 x 20 x 4 mm was cut with a mold designed for the purpose and dried in a convective dryer set at 4m/s fan speed and temperatures of 68.58 and 60.56°C. The volume shrinkage of the resultant dried sample was determined by immersing the sample in a toluene solution. The finite element analysis was done with PDE tools in Matlab 2015. Seven kinetic models were employed to model the drying process. The result obtained revealed three regions in the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) profile of aerial yam. The maximum thermal degradation rates of the sample occurred at 432.7°C. The effective thermal diffusivity of the sample increased as the temperature increased from 60.56°C to 68.58°C. The finite element prediction of moisture content of aerial yam at an air temperature of 68.58°C and 60.56°C shows R² of 0.9663 and 0.9155, respectively. There was a good agreement between the finite element predicted moisture content and the measured moisture content, which is indicative of a highly reliable finite element model developed. The result also shows that the best kinetic model for the aerial yam under the given drying conditions was the Logarithmic model with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991.

Keywords: aerial yam, finite element, convective, effective, diffusivity

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7 Soil Properties and Yam Performance as Influenced by Poultry Manure and Tillage on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Adeleye

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Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soil tillage techniques and poultry manure application on the soil properties and yam (Dioscorea rotundata) performance in Ondo, southwestern Nigeria for two farming seasons. Five soil tillage techniques, namely ploughing (P), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and zero-tillage (ZT) each combined with and without poultry manure at the rate of 10 tha-1 were investigated. Data were obtained on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of yam. Soil moisture content, bulk density, total porosity and post harvest soil chemical characteristics were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage-manure treatments. Addition of poultry manure to the tillage techniques in the study increased soil total porosity, soil moisture content and reduced soil bulk density. Poultry manure improved soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable Ca, k, leaf nutrients content of yam, yam growth and tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that the possible deleterious effect of tillage on soil properties, growth and yield of yam on an alfisol in southwestern Nigeria can be reduced by combining tillage with poultry manure.

Keywords: poultry manure, tillage, soil chemical properties, yield

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6 Trend and Cuses of Decline in Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumentorum) Production in Enugu State, Nigeria: Implication for Food Security and Biodiversity Conservation

Authors: J. C. Iwuchukwu, K. C. Okwor

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In recent time and in the study area, yam farmers are moving into less laborious and more economical crops and very few yam farmers are growing trifoliate yam. In yam markets, little or no bitter yam is displayed or sold. The work was therefore designed to ascertain trend and causes of decline in trifoliate yam production in Enugu state. Three agricultural zones, six blocks, eighteen circles and one hundred and eight trifoliate yam farmers that were purposively selected constituted sample for the study. An interview schedule was used to collect data while percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for data analysis. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents had no extension contact, Majority (90.7%) sourced information on trifoliate yam from neighbours/friends/relatives and produced mainly for consumption (67.6%) during rainy season (70.4%). Trifoliate yam was produced manually(71.3%) and organically (58.3%) in a mixture of other crops (87%) using indigenous/local varieties (73.1%). Mean size of land allocated to trifoliate yam production was relatively steady, mean cost of input and income were increasing while output was decreasing within the years under consideration (before 2001 to 2014). Poor/lack of finance(M=1.8) and drudgery associated with trifoliate yam product(M=1.72) were some of the causes of decline in trifoliate yam production in the area. The study recommended that more research and public enlightenment campaigns on the importance of trifoliate yam should be carried out to encourage and consolidate farmers and the masses effort in production and consumption of the crop so that it will not go extinct and then contribute to food security.

Keywords: causes, decline, trend, trifoliate yam

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5 Evaluation of ROS Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Tuber Extract of Dioscorea Bulbifera on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Debasmita Dubey, Rajesh Kumar Meher, Smruti Pragya Samal, Pradeep Kumar Naik

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Background: To determine antioxidant properties and anticancer activity by ROS and mitochondrial transmembrane potential mediated apoptosis against MCF7, MDA-MB-231, cell line. Methods: Leaf sample was extracted using methanol by microwave digestion technique. The antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract were determined by a DPPH scavenging assay. In vitro anticancer activity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, apoptosis activity and DNA fragmentation study, as well as intracellular ROS activity of most potential leaf extract, were also determined by using the MDA-MB-231cell line. In vivo animal toxicity study was carried out using mice model. Results: Methanolic leaf extract has shown the highest antioxidant, as well as anticancer activity, is based on the assay conducted. For the identification of active phytochemicals from methanolic extract, High-resolution mass spectroscopy-LCMS was used. In vitro cytotoxicity study against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell line and IC 50 value was found to be 37.5µg/ml. From histopathological studies, no toxicity in liver and kidney tissue was identified. Conclusion: This plant tuber can be used as a regular diet to reduce the chance of breast cancer. Further, more studies should be conducted to isolate and identify the responsible compound.

Keywords: human breast adenocarcinoma, ROS, mitochondrial transmembrane, apoptosis

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4 In vitro Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemistry of Some Philippine Creeping Medicinal Plants

Authors: Richard I. Licayan, Aisle Janne B. Dagpin, Romeo M. Del Rosario, Nenita D. Palmes

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Hiptage benghalensis, Antigonon leptopus, Macroptillium atropurpureum, and Dioscorea bulbifera L. are herbal weeds that have been used by traditional healers in rural communities in the Philippines as medicine. In this study, the basic pharmacological components of the crude secondary metabolites extracted from the four herbal weeds and their in vitro antioxidant properties was investigated to provide baseline data for the possible development of these metabolites in pharmaceutical products. Qualitative screening of the secondary metabolites showed that alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroids, and flavonoids were present in their leaf extracts. All of the plant extracts showed varied antioxidant activity. The greatest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in H. begnhalensis (84.64%), followed by A. leptopus (68.21%), M. atropurpureum (26.62%), and D. bulbifera L. (19.04%). The FRAP assay revealed that H. benghalensis had the highest antioxidant activity (8.32 mg/g) while ABTS assay showed that M. atropurpureum had the strongest scavenging ability of free radicals (0.0842 mg Trolox/g). The total flavonoid content (TFC) analysis showed that D. bulbifera L. had the highest TFC (420.35 mg quercetin per gram-dried material). The total phenolic content (TPC) of the four herbal weeds showed large variations, between 26.56±0.160 and 55.91±0.087 mg GAE/g dried material. The plant leaf extracts arranged in increasing values of TPC are H. benghalensis (26.565) < A. leptopus (37.29) < D. bulbifera L. (46.81) < M. atropurpureum (55.91). The obtained results may support their use in herbal medicine and as baseline data for the development of new drugs and standardized phytomedicines.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, total flavonoids, total phenolics, creeping herbal weeds

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3 A Comparative Study on the Phenolics Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Water Yam Landraces in Kerala, India

Authors: Anumol Jose, Sajana Nazar, M. R. Vishnu, M. Anilkumar

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Water yam is an underutilized tropical tuber crop and a rich source of polyphenol compounds and acylated anthocyanins. There is an inverse relationship between the risk of chronic human diseases and the consumption of polyphenolic rich diet. Dioscorea alata is a plant species with several undocumented landraces. In this study, several landraces of water yam with distinct morphological features were collected from all over kerala. Distinct variation in morphological feature among landraces was tuber colour and only those landraces which expressed consistent morphological characters for constitutively two growing seasons were included in the study. Plants were categorized according to the L*a*b* colour attributes of tuber extracts. There were five categories, red, pink, orange, yellow and white. Total phenol, flavanoid and anthocyanin content of the tuber extracts were measured spectroscopically and correlated with antioxidant properties determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate free radical method and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Landraces showed statistically significant difference in all the parameters studied and strong correlation were observed between total phenol and antioxidant activity. Out of the five categories orange coloured tubers showed relatively high phenol and flavanoid content.Colour variations of tuber extracts correlated with anthocyanin quantity and polymeric nature of anthocyanins. This study helps to identify and categorize landraces of D.alata with potential health benefits and commercial applications. Distinct colour characteristics of tuber could be useful in the field of natural colorants. This study also aimed to document and preserve landraces of water yams for further study and research in this area.

Keywords: the antioxidant property, anthocyanins, polyphenols, water yam

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2 Kinetics of Sugar Losses in Hot Water Blanching of Water Yam (Dioscorea alata)

Authors: Ayobami Solomon Popoola

Abstract:

Yam is majorly a carbohydrate food grown in most parts of the world. It could be boiled, fried or roasted for consumption in a variety of ways. Blanching is an established heat pre-treatment given to fruits and vegetables prior to further processing such as dehydration, canning, freezing etc. Losses of soluble solids during blanching has been a great problem because a reasonable quantity of the water-soluble nutrients are inevitably leached into the blanching water. Without blanching, the high residual levels of reducing sugars after extended storage produce a dark, bitter-tasting product because of the Maillard reactions of reducing sugars at frying temperature. Measurement and prediction of such losses are necessary for economic efficiency in production and to establish the level of effluent treatment of the blanching water. This paper aims at resolving this problem by investigating the effects of cube size and temperature on the rate of diffusional losses of reducing sugars and total sugars during hot water blanching of water-yam. The study was carried out using four temperature levels (65, 70, 80 and 90 °C) and two cubes sizes (0.02 m³ and 0.03 m³) at 4 times intervals (5, 10, 15 and 20 mins) respectively. Obtained data were fitted into Fick’s non-steady equation from which diffusion coefficients (Da) were obtained. The Da values were subsequently fitted into Arrhenius plot to obtain activation energies (Ea-values) for diffusional losses. The diffusion co-efficient were independent of cube size and time but highly temperature dependent. The diffusion coefficients were ≥ 1.0 ×10⁻⁹ m²s⁻¹ for reducing sugars and ≥ 5.0 × 10⁻⁹ m²s⁻¹ for total sugars. The Ea values ranged between 68.2 to 73.9 KJmol⁻¹ and 7.2 to 14.30 KJmol⁻¹ for reducing sugars and total sugars losses respectively. Predictive equations for estimating amount of reducing sugars and total sugars with blanching time of water-yam at various temperatures were also presented. The equation could be valuable in process design and optimization. However, amount of other soluble solids that might have leached into the water along with reducing and total sugars during blanching was not investigated in the study.

Keywords: blanching, kinetics, sugar losses, water yam

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1 Organic Tuber Production Fosters Food Security and Soil Health: A Decade of Evidence from India

Authors: G. Suja, J. Sreekumar, A. N. Jyothi, V. S. Santhosh Mithra

Abstract:

Worldwide concerns regarding food safety, environmental degradation and threats to human health have generated interest in alternative systems like organic farming. Tropical tuber crops, cassava, sweet potato, yams, and aroids are food-cum-nutritional security-cum climate resilient crops. These form stable or subsidiary food for about 500 million global population. Cassava, yams (white yam, greater yam, and lesser yam) and edible aroids (elephant foot yam, taro, and tannia) are high energy tuberous vegetables with good taste and nutritive value. Seven on-station field experiments at ICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, India and seventeen on-farm trials in three districts of Kerala, were conducted over a decade (2004-2015) to compare the varietal response, yield, quality and soil properties under organic vs conventional system in these crops and to develop a learning system based on the data generated. The industrial, as well as domestic varieties of cassava, the elite and local varieties of elephant foot yam and taro and the three species of Dioscorea (yams), were on a par under both systems. Organic management promoted yield by 8%, 20%, 9%, 11% and 7% over conventional practice in cassava, elephant foot yam, white yam, greater yam and lesser yam respectively. Elephant foot yam was the most responsive to organic management followed by yams and cassava. In taro, slight yield reduction (5%) was noticed under organic farming with almost similar tuber quality. The tuber quality was improved with higher dry matter, starch, crude protein, K, Ca and Mg contents. The anti-nutritional factors, oxalate content in elephant foot yam and cyanogenic glucoside content in cassava were lowered by 21 and 12.4% respectively. Organic plots had significantly higher water holding capacity, pH, available K, Fe, Mn and Cu, higher soil organic matter, available N, P, exchangeable Ca and Mg, dehydrogenase enzyme activity and microbial count. Organic farming scored significantly higher soil quality index (1.93) than conventional practice (1.46). The soil quality index was driven by water holding capacity, pH and available Zn followed by soil organic matter. Organic management enhanced net profit by 20-40% over chemical farming. A case in point is the cost-benefit analysis in elephant foot yam which indicated that the net profit was 28% higher and additional income of Rs. 47,716 ha-1 was obtained due to organic farming. Cost-effective technologies were field validated. The on-station technologies developed were validated and popularized through on-farm trials in 10 sites (5 ha) under National Horticulture Mission funded programme in elephant foot yam and seven sites in yams and taro. The technologies are included in the Package of Practices Recommendations for crops of Kerala Agricultural University. A learning system developed using artificial neural networks (ANN) predicted the performance of elephant foot yam organic system. Use of organically produced seed materials, seed treatment in cow-dung, neem cake, bio-inoculant slurry, farmyard manure incubated with bio-inoculants, green manuring, use of neem cake, bio-fertilizers and ash formed the strategies for organic production. Organic farming is an eco-friendly management strategy that enables 10-20% higher yield, quality tubers and maintenance of soil health in tuber crops.

Keywords: eco-agriculture, quality, root crops, healthy soil, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 263