Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: barcodes

10 Unsupervised Classification of DNA Barcodes Species Using Multi-Library Wavelet Networks

Authors: Abdesselem Dakhli, Wajdi Bellil, Chokri Ben Amar

Abstract:

DNA Barcode, a short mitochondrial DNA fragment, made up of three subunits; a phosphate group, sugar and nucleic bases (A, T, C, and G). They provide good sources of information needed to classify living species. Such intuition has been confirmed by many experimental results. Species classification with DNA Barcode sequences has been studied by several researchers. The classification problem assigns unknown species to known ones by analyzing their Barcode. This task has to be supported with reliable methods and algorithms. To analyze species regions or entire genomes, it becomes necessary to use similarity sequence methods. A large set of sequences can be simultaneously compared using Multiple Sequence Alignment which is known to be NP-complete. To make this type of analysis feasible, heuristics, like progressive alignment, have been developed. Another tool for similarity search against a database of sequences is BLAST, which outputs shorter regions of high similarity between a query sequence and matched sequences in the database. However, all these methods are still computationally very expensive and require significant computational infrastructure. Our goal is to build predictive models that are highly accurate and interpretable. This method permits to avoid the complex problem of form and structure in different classes of organisms. On empirical data and their classification performances are compared with other methods. Our system consists of three phases. The first is called transformation, which is composed of three steps; Electron-Ion Interaction Pseudopotential (EIIP) for the codification of DNA Barcodes, Fourier Transform and Power Spectrum Signal Processing. The second is called approximation, which is empowered by the use of Multi Llibrary Wavelet Neural Networks (MLWNN).The third is called the classification of DNA Barcodes, which is realized by applying the algorithm of hierarchical classification.

Keywords: DNA barcode, electron-ion interaction pseudopotential, Multi Library Wavelet Neural Networks (MLWNN)

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9 Effects of Ubiquitous 360° Learning Environment on Clinical Histotechnology Competence

Authors: Mari A. Virtanen, Elina Haavisto, Eeva Liikanen, Maria Kääriäinen

Abstract:

Rapid technological development and digitalization has affected also on higher education. During last twenty years multiple of electronic and mobile learning (e-learning, m-learning) platforms have been developed and have become prevalent in many universities and in the all fields of education. Ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is not that widely known or used. Ubiquitous learning environments (ULE) are the new era of computer-assisted learning. They are based on ubiquitous technology and computing that fuses the learner seamlessly into learning process by using sensing technology as tags, badges or barcodes and smart devices like smartphones and tablets. ULE combines real-life learning situations into virtual aspects and can be flexible used in anytime and anyplace. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ubiquitous 360 o learning environment on higher education students’ clinical histotechnology competence. A quasi-experimental study design was used. 57 students in biomedical laboratory science degree program was assigned voluntarily to experiment (n=29) and to control group (n=28). Experimental group studied via ubiquitous 360o learning environment and control group via traditional web-based learning environment (WLE) in a 8-week educational intervention. Ubiquitous 360o learning environment (ULE) combined authentic learning environment (histotechnology laboratory), digital environment (virtual laboratory), virtual microscope, multimedia learning content, interactive communication tools, electronic library and quick response barcodes placed into authentic laboratory. Web-based learning environment contained equal content and components with the exception of the use of mobile device, interactive communication tools and quick response barcodes. Competence of clinical histotechnology was assessed by using knowledge test and self-report developed for this study. Data was collected electronically before and after clinical histotechnology course and analysed by using descriptive statistics. Differences among groups were identified by using Wilcoxon test and differences between groups by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Statistically significant differences among groups were identified in both groups (p<0.001). Competence scores in post-test were higher in both groups, than in pre-test. Differences between groups were very small and not statistically significant. In this study the learning environment have developed based on 360o technology and successfully implemented into higher education context. And students’ competence increases when ubiquitous learning environment were used. In the future, ULE can be used as a learning management system for any learning situation in health sciences. More studies are needed to show differences between ULE and WLE.

Keywords: competence, higher education, histotechnology, ubiquitous learning, u-learning, 360o

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8 E-Resource Management: Digital Environment for a Library System

Authors: Vikram Munjal, Harpreet Munjal

Abstract:

A few years ago we could hardly think of Libraries' strategic plan that includes the bold and amazing prediction of a mostly digital environment for a library system. However, sheer hard work by the engineers, academicians, and librarians made it feasible. However, it requires huge expenditure and now a day‘s spending for electronic resources (e-resources) have been growing much more rapidly than have the materials budgets of which such resources are usually a part. And many libraries are spending a huge amount on e-resources. Libraries today are in the midst of a profound shift toward reliance on e-resources, and this reliance seems to have deepened in recent years as libraries have shed paper journal subscriptions to help pay for online access. This has been exercised only to cater user behavior and attitudes that seem to be changing even more quickly in this dynamic scenario.

Keywords: radio frequency identification, management, scanning, barcodes, checkout and tags

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7 Preliminary Evaluation of Passive UHF-Band RFID for Identifying Floating Objects on the Sea

Authors: Yasuhiro Sato, Kodai Noma, Kenta Sawada, Kazumasa Adachi, Yoshinori Matsuura, Saori Iwanaga

Abstract:

RFID system is used to identify objects such as passenger identification in public transportation, instead of linear or 2-dimensional barcodes. Key advantages of RFID system are to identify objects without physical contact, and to write arbitrary information into RFID tag. These advantages may help to improve maritime safety and efficiency of activity on the sea. However, utilization of RFID system for maritime scenes has not been considered. In this paper, we evaluate the availability of a generic RFID system operating on the sea. We measure RSSI between RFID tag floating on the sea and RFID antenna, and check whether a RFID reader can access a tag or not, while the distance between a floating buoy and the ship, and the angle are changed. Finally, we discuss the feasibility and the applicability of RFID system on the sea through the results of our preliminary experiment.

Keywords: RFID, experimental evaluation, RSSI, maritime use

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6 Persistent Homology of Convection Cycles in Network Flows

Authors: Minh Quang Le, Dane Taylor

Abstract:

Convection is a well-studied topic in fluid dynamics, yet it is less understood in the context of networks flows. Here, we incorporate techniques from topological data analysis (namely, persistent homology) to automate the detection and characterization of convective/cyclic/chiral flows over networks, particularly those that arise for irreversible Markov chains (MCs). As two applications, we study convection cycles arising under the PageRank algorithm, and we investigate chiral edges flows for a stochastic model of a bi-monomer's configuration dynamics. Our experiments highlight how system parameters---e.g., the teleportation rate for PageRank and the transition rates of external and internal state changes for a monomer---can act as homology regularizers of convection, which we summarize with persistence barcodes and homological bifurcation diagrams. Our approach establishes a new connection between the study of convection cycles and homology, the branch of mathematics that formally studies cycles, which has diverse potential applications throughout the sciences and engineering.

Keywords: homology, persistent homolgy, markov chains, convection cycles, filtration

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5 Multilocus Phylogenetic Approach Reveals Informative DNA Barcodes for Studying Evolution and Taxonomy of Fusarium Fungi

Authors: Alexander A. Stakheev, Larisa V. Samokhvalova, Sergey K. Zavriev

Abstract:

Fusarium fungi are among the most devastating plant pathogens distributed all over the world. Significant reduction of grain yield and quality caused by Fusarium leads to multi-billion dollar annual losses to the world agricultural production. These organisms can also cause infections in immunocompromised persons and produce the wide range of mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone, which are hazardous to human and animal health. Identification of Fusarium fungi based on the morphology of spores and spore-forming structures, colony color and appearance on specific culture media is often very complicated due to the high similarity of these features for closely related species. Modern Fusarium taxonomy increasingly uses data of crossing experiments (biological species concept) and genetic polymorphism analysis (phylogenetic species concept). A number of novel Fusarium sibling species has been established using DNA barcoding techniques. Species recognition is best made with the combined phylogeny of intron-rich protein coding genes and ribosomal DNA sequences. However, the internal transcribed spacer of (ITS), which is considered to be universal DNA barcode for Fungi, is not suitable for genus Fusarium, because of its insufficient variability between closely related species and the presence of non-orthologous copies in the genome. Nowadays, the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1α) gene is the “gold standard” of Fusarium taxonomy, but the search for novel informative markers is still needed. In this study, we used two novel DNA markers, frataxin (FXN) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) to discover phylogenetic relationships between Fusarium species. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of TEF1α, FXN, HSP90, as well as intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA (IGS), beta-tubulin (β-TUB) and phosphate permease (PHO) genes has been conducted for 120 isolates of 19 Fusarium species from different climatic zones of Russia and neighboring countries using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) algorithms. Our analyses revealed that FXN and HSP90 genes could be considered as informative phylogenetic markers, suitable for evolutionary and taxonomic studies of Fusarium genus. It has been shown that PHO gene possesses more variable (22 %) and parsimony informative (19 %) characters than other markers, including TEF1α (12 % and 9 %, correspondingly) when used for elucidating phylogenetic relationships between F. avenaceum and its closest relatives – F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum, F. torulosum. Application of novel DNA barcodes confirmed the fact that F. arthrosporioides do not represent a separate species but only a subspecies of F. avenaceum. Phylogeny based on partial PHO and FXN sequences revealed the presence of separate cluster of four F. avenaceum strains which were closer to F. torulosum than to major F. avenaceum clade. The strain F-846 from Moldova, morphologically identified as F. poae, formed a separate lineage in all the constructed dendrograms, and could potentially be considered as a separate species, but more information is needed to confirm this conclusion. Variable sites in PHO sequences were used for the first-time development of specific qPCR-based diagnostic assays for F. acuminatum and F. torulosum. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 15-29-02527).

Keywords: DNA barcode, fusarium, identification, phylogenetics, taxonomy

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4 Colour Quick Response Code with High Damage Resistance Capability

Authors: Minh Nguyen

Abstract:

Today, QR or Quick Response Codes are prevalent, and mobile/smart devices can efficiently read and understand them. Therefore, we can see their appearance in many areas, such as storing web pages/websites, business phone numbers, redirecting to an app download, business location, social media. The popularity of the QR Code is mainly because of its many advantages, such as it can hold a good amount of information, is small, easy to scan and read by a general RGB camera, and it can still work with some damages on its surface. However, there are still some issues. For instance, some areas needed to be kept untouched for its successful decode (e.g., the “Finder Patterns,” the “Quiet Zone,” etc.), the capability of built-in auto-correction is not robust enough, and it is not flexible enough for many application such as Augment Reality (AR). We proposed a new Colour Quick Response Code that has several advantages over the original ones: (1) there is no untouchable area, (2) it allows up to 40% of the entire code area to be damaged, (3) it is more beneficial for Augmented Reality applications, and (4) it is back-compatible and readable by available QR Code scanners such as Pyzbar. From our experience, our Colour Quick Response Code is significantly more flexible on damage compared to the original QR Code. Our code is believed to be suitable in situations where standard 2D Barcodes fail to work, such as curved and shiny surfaces, for instance, medical blood test sample tubes and syringes.

Keywords: QR code, computer vision, image processing, 2D barcode

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3 Effective Nutrition Label Use on Smartphones

Authors: Vladimir Kulyukin, Tanwir Zaman, Sarat Kiran Andhavarapu

Abstract:

Research on nutrition label use identifies four factors that impede comprehension and retention of nutrition information by consumers: label’s location on the package, presentation of information within the label, label’s surface size, and surrounding visual clutter. In this paper, a system is presented that makes nutrition label use more effective for nutrition information comprehension and retention. The system’s front end is a smartphone application. The system’s back end is a four node Linux cluster for image recognition and data storage. Image frames captured on the smartphone are sent to the back end for skewed or aligned barcode recognition. When barcodes are recognized, corresponding nutrition labels are retrieved from a cloud database and presented to the user on the smartphone’s touchscreen. Each displayed nutrition label is positioned centrally on the touchscreen with no surrounding visual clutter. Wikipedia links to important nutrition terms are embedded to improve comprehension and retention of nutrition information. Standard touch gestures (e.g., zoom in/out) available on mainstream smartphones are used to manipulate the label’s surface size. The nutrition label database currently includes 200,000 nutrition labels compiled from public web sites by a custom crawler. Stress test experiments with the node cluster are presented. Implications for proactive nutrition management and food policy are discussed.

Keywords: mobile computing, cloud computing, nutrition label use, nutrition management, barcode scanning

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2 Bioinformatic Approaches in Population Genetics and Phylogenetic Studies

Authors: Masoud Sheidai

Abstract:

Biologists with a special field of population genetics and phylogeny have different research tasks such as populations’ genetic variability and divergence, species relatedness, the evolution of genetic and morphological characters, and identification of DNA SNPs with adaptive potential. To tackle these problems and reach a concise conclusion, they must use the proper and efficient statistical and bioinformatic methods as well as suitable genetic and morphological characteristics. In recent years application of different bioinformatic and statistical methods, which are based on various well-documented assumptions, are the proper analytical tools in the hands of researchers. The species delineation is usually carried out with the use of different clustering methods like K-means clustering based on proper distance measures according to the studied features of organisms. A well-defined species are assumed to be separated from the other taxa by molecular barcodes. The species relationships are studied by using molecular markers, which are analyzed by different analytical methods like multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). The species population structuring and genetic divergence are usually investigated by PCoA and PCA methods and a network diagram. These are based on bootstrapping of data. The Association of different genes and DNA sequences to ecological and geographical variables is determined by LFMM (Latent factor mixed model) and redundancy analysis (RDA), which are based on Bayesian and distance methods. Molecular and morphological differentiating characters in the studied species may be identified by linear discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC). We shall illustrate these methods and related conclusions by giving examples from different edible and medicinal plant species.

Keywords: GWAS analysis, K-Means clustering, LFMM, multidimensional scaling, redundancy analysis

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1 Application of a Synthetic DNA Reference Material for Optimisation of DNA Extraction and Purification for Molecular Identification of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Mina Kalantarzadeh, Claire Lockie-Williams, Caroline Howard

Abstract:

DNA barcoding is increasingly used for identification of medicinal plants worldwide. In the last decade, a large number of DNA barcodes have been generated, and their application in species identification explored. The success of DNA barcoding process relies on the accuracy of the results from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step which could be negatively affected due to a presence of inhibitors or degraded DNA in herbal samples. An established DNA reference material can be used to support molecular characterisation protocols and prove system suitability, for fast and accurate identification of plant species. The present study describes the use of a novel reference material, the trnH-psbA British Pharmacopoeia Nucleic Acid Reference Material (trnH-psbA BPNARM), which was produced to aid in the identification of Ocimum tenuiflorum L., a widely used herb. During DNA barcoding of O. tenuiflorum, PCR amplifications of isolated DNA produced inconsistent results, suggesting an issue with either the method or DNA quality of the tested samples. The trnH-psbA BPNARM was produced and tested to check for the issues caused during PCR amplification. It was added to the plant material as control DNA before extraction and was co-extracted and amplified by PCR. PCR analyses revealed that the amplification was not as successful as expected which suggested that the amplification is affected by presence of inhibitors co-extracted from plant materials. Various potential issues were assessed during DNA extraction and optimisations were made accordingly. A DNA barcoding protocol for O. tenuiflorum was published in the British Pharmacopoeia 2016, which included the reference sequence. The trnH-psbA BPNARM accelerated degradation test which investigates the stability of the reference material over time demonstrated that it has been stable when stored at 56 °C for a year. Using this protocol and trnH-psbA reference material provides a fast and accurate method for identification of O. tenuiflorum. The optimisations of the DNA extraction using the trnH-psbA BPNARM provided a signposting method which can assist in overcoming common problems encountered when using molecular methods with medicinal plants.

Keywords: degradation, DNA extraction, nucleic acid reference material, trnH-psbA

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