Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4244

Search results for: DNLSE-Discrete non linear schrodinger equation

4244 Analytical Solution of Non–Autonomous Discrete Non-Linear Schrodinger Equation With Saturable Non-Linearity

Authors: Mishu Gupta, Rama Gupta


It has been elucidated here that non- autonomous discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation is associated with saturable non-linearity through photo-refractive media. We have investigated the localized solution of non-autonomous saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equations. The similarity transformation has been involved in converting non-autonomous saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation to constant-coefficient saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (SDNLSE), whose exact solution is already known. By back substitution, the solution of the non-autonomous version has been obtained. We have analysed our solution for the hyperbolic and periodic form of gain/loss term, and interesting results have been obtained. The most important characteristic role is that it helps us to analyse the propagation of electromagnetic waves in glass fibres and other optical wave mediums. Also, the usage of SDNLSE has been seen in tight binding for Bose-Einstein condensates in optical mediums. Even the solutions are interrelated, and its properties are prominently used in various physical aspects like optical waveguides, Bose-Einstein (B-E) condensates in optical mediums, Non-linear optics in photonic crystals, and non-linear kerr–type non-linearity effect and photo refracting medium.

Keywords: B-E-Bose-Einstein, DNLSE-Discrete non linear schrodinger equation, NLSE-non linear schrodinger equation, SDNLSE - saturable discrete non linear Schrodinger equation

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4243 Approximate Solution to Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation with Harmonic Oscillator by Elzaki Decomposition Method

Authors: Emad K. Jaradat, Ala’a Al-Faqih


Nonlinear Schrödinger equations are regularly experienced in numerous parts of science and designing. Varieties of analytical methods have been proposed for solving these equations. In this work, we construct an approximate solution for the nonlinear Schrodinger equations, with harmonic oscillator potential, by Elzaki Decomposition Method (EDM). To illustrate the effects of harmonic oscillator on the behavior wave function, nonlinear Schrodinger equation in one and two dimensions is provided. The results show that, it is more perfectly convenient and easy to apply the EDM in one- and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation.

Keywords: non-linear Schrodinger equation, Elzaki decomposition method, harmonic oscillator, one and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation

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4242 Exact Solutions of a Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation with Kerr Law Nonlinearity

Authors: Muna Alghabshi, Edmana Krishnan


A nonlinear Schrodinger equation has been considered for solving by mapping methods in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions (JEFs). The equation under consideration has a linear evolution term, linear and nonlinear dispersion terms, the Kerr law nonlinearity term and three terms representing the contribution of meta materials. This equation which has applications in optical fibers is found to have soliton solutions, shock wave solutions, and singular wave solutions when the modulus of the JEFs approach 1 which is the infinite period limit. The equation with special values of the parameters has also been solved using the tanh method.

Keywords: Jacobi elliptic function, mapping methods, nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, tanh method

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4241 On the Grid Technique by Approximating the Derivatives of the Solution of the Dirichlet Problems for (1+1) Dimensional Linear Schrodinger Equation

Authors: Lawrence A. Farinola


Four point implicit schemes for the approximation of the first and pure second order derivatives for the solution of the Dirichlet problem for one dimensional Schrodinger equation with respect to the time variable t were constructed. Also, special four-point implicit difference boundary value problems are proposed for the first and pure second derivatives of the solution with respect to the spatial variable x. The Grid method is also applied to the mixed second derivative of the solution of the Linear Schrodinger time-dependent equation. It is assumed that the initial function belongs to the Holder space C⁸⁺ᵃ, 0 < α < 1, the Schrodinger wave function given in the Schrodinger equation is from the Holder space Cₓ,ₜ⁶⁺ᵃ, ³⁺ᵃ/², the boundary functions are from C⁴⁺ᵃ, and between the initial and the boundary functions the conjugation conditions of orders q = 0,1,2,3,4 are satisfied. It is proven that the solution of the proposed difference schemes converges uniformly on the grids of the order O(h²+ k) where h is the step size in x and k is the step size in time. Numerical experiments are illustrated to support the analysis made.

Keywords: approximation of derivatives, finite difference method, Schrödinger equation, uniform error

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4240 A Trapezoidal-Like Integrator for the Numerical Solution of One-Dimensional Time Dependent Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Johnson Oladele Fatokun, I. P. Akpan


In this paper, the one-dimensional time dependent Schrödinger equation is discretized by the method of lines using a second order finite difference approximation to replace the second order spatial derivative. The evolving system of stiff ordinary differential equation (ODE) in time is solved numerically by an L-stable trapezoidal-like integrator. Results show accuracy of relative maximum error of order 10-4 in the interval of consideration. The performance of the method as compared to an existing scheme is considered favorable.

Keywords: Schrodinger’s equation, partial differential equations, method of lines (MOL), stiff ODE, trapezoidal-like integrator

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4239 Soliton Solutions of the Higher-Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with Dispersion Effects

Authors: H. Triki, Y. Hamaizi, A. El-Akrmi


We consider the higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation model with fourth-order dispersion, cubic-quintic terms, and self-steepening. This equation governs the propagation of fem to second pulses in optical fibers. We present new bright and dark solitary wave type solutions for such a model under certain parametric conditions. This kind of solution may be useful to explain some physical phenomena related to wave propagation in a nonlinear optical fiber systems supporting high-order nonlinear and dispersive effects.

Keywords: nonlinear Schrödinger equation, high-order effects, soliton solution

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4238 The Soliton Solution of the Quadratic-Cubic Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

Authors: Sarun Phibanchon, Yuttakarn Rattanachai


The quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation can be explained the weakly ion-acoustic waves in magnetized plasma with a slightly non-Maxwellian electron distribution by using the Madelung's fluid picture. However, the soliton solution to the quadratic-cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is determined by using the direct integration. By the characteristics of a soliton, the solution can be claimed that it's a soliton by considering its time evolution and their collisions between two solutions. These results are shown by applying the spectral method.

Keywords: soliton, ion-acoustic waves, plasma, spectral method

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4237 A Study of Non Linear Partial Differential Equation with Random Initial Condition

Authors: Ayaz Ahmad


In this work, we present the effect of noise on the solution of a partial differential equation (PDE) in three different setting. We shall first consider random initial condition for two nonlinear dispersive PDE the non linear Schrodinger equation and the Kortteweg –de vries equation and analyse their effect on some special solution , the soliton solutions.The second case considered a linear partial differential equation , the wave equation with random initial conditions allow to substantially decrease the computational and data storage costs of an algorithm to solve the inverse problem based on the boundary measurements of the solution of this equation. Finally, the third example considered is that of the linear transport equation with a singular drift term, when we shall show that the addition of a multiplicative noise term forbids the blow up of solutions under a very weak hypothesis for which we have finite time blow up of a solution in the deterministic case. Here we consider the problem of wave propagation, which is modelled by a nonlinear dispersive equation with noisy initial condition .As observed noise can also be introduced directly in the equations.

Keywords: drift term, finite time blow up, inverse problem, soliton solution

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4236 Relativistic Energy Analysis for Some q Deformed Shape Invariant Potentials in D Dimensions Using SUSYQM Approach

Authors: A. Suparmi, C. Cari, M. Yunianto, B. N. Pratiwi


D-dimensional Dirac equations of q-deformed shape invariant potentials were solved using supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) in the case of exact spin symmetry. The D dimensional radial Dirac equation for shape invariant potential reduces to one-dimensional Schrodinger type equation by an appropriate variable and parameter change. The relativistic energy spectra were analyzed by using SUSY QM and shape invariant properties from radial D dimensional Dirac equation that have reduced to one dimensional Schrodinger type equation. The SUSY operator was used to generate the D dimensional relativistic radial wave functions, the relativistic energy equation reduced to the non-relativistic energy in the non-relativistic limit.

Keywords: D-dimensional dirac equation, non-central potential, SUSY QM, radial wave function

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4235 Propagation of W Shaped of Solitons in Fiber Bragg Gratings

Authors: Mezghiche Kamel


We present solitary wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger (PNLS) equation describing propagation of femtosecond light pulses through the fiber Bragg grating structure where the pulse dynamics is governed by the nonlinear-coupled mode (NLCM) equations. Using the multiple scale analysis, we reduce the NLCM equations into the perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger (PNLS) type equation. Unlike the reported solitary wave solutions of the PNLS equation, the novel ones can describe W shaped of solitons and their properties.

Keywords: fiber bragg grating, nonlinear-coupled mode equations, w shaped of solitons, PNLS

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4234 Energy States of Some Diatomic Molecules: Exact Quantization Rule Approach

Authors: Babatunde J. Falaye


In this study, we obtain the approximate analytical solutions of the radial Schrödinger equation for the Deng-Fan diatomic molecular potential by using exact quantization rule approach. The wave functions have been expressed by hypergeometric functions via the functional analysis approach. An extension to rotational-vibrational energy eigenvalues of some diatomic molecules are also presented. It is shown that the calculated energy levels are in good agreement with the ones obtained previously E_nl-D (shifted Deng-Fan).

Keywords: Schrödinger equation, exact quantization rule, functional analysis, Deng-Fan potential

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4233 Dynamics of Light Induced Current in 1D Coupled Quantum Dots

Authors: Tokuei Sako


Laser-induced current in a quasi-one-dimensional nanostructure has been studied by a model of a few electrons confined in a 1D electrostatic potential coupled to electrodes at both ends and subjected to a pulsed laser field. The time-propagation of the one- and two-electron wave packets has been calculated by integrating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation directly by the symplectic integrator method with uniform Fourier grid. The temporal behavior of the resultant light-induced current in the studied systems has been discussed with respect to the lifetime of the quasi-bound states formed when the static bias voltage is applied.

Keywords: pulsed laser field, nanowire, electron wave packet, quantum dots, time-dependent Schrödinger equation

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4232 Existence and Concentration of Solutions for a Class of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations Involving p-Biharmonic Operator

Authors: Debajyoti Choudhuri, Ratan Kumar Giri, Shesadev Pradhan


The perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation involving the p-biharmonic and the p-Laplacian operators involving a real valued parameter and a continuous real valued potential function defined over the N- dimensional Euclidean space has been considered. By the variational technique, an existence result pertaining to a nontrivial solution to this non-linear partial differential equation has been proposed. Further, by the Concentration lemma, the concentration of solutions to the same problem defined on the set consisting of those elements where the potential function vanishes as the real parameter approaches to infinity has been addressed.

Keywords: p-Laplacian, p-biharmonic, elliptic PDEs, Concentration lemma, Sobolev space

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4231 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang


This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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4230 Asymptotic Expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers Equation

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu


It is common knowledge that many physical problems (such as non-linear shallow-water waves and wave motion in plasmas) can be described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, which possesses certain special solutions, known as solitary waves or solitons. As a marriage of the KdV equation and the classical Burgers (KdVB) equation, the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces in the presence of viscous dissipation. Asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior and is a key tool for exploring the differential equations which arise in the mathematical modeling of real-world phenomena. By using variable transformations, the asymptotic expansion of the KdVB equation is presented in this paper. The asymptotic expansion may provide a good gauge on the validation of the corresponding numerical scheme.

Keywords: asymptotic expansion, differential equation, Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) equation, soliton

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4229 An Analytical Method for Solving General Riccati Equation

Authors: Y. Pala, M. O. Ertas


In this paper, the general Riccati equation is analytically solved by a new transformation. By the method developed, looking at the transformed equation, whether or not an explicit solution can be obtained is readily determined. Since the present method does not require a proper solution for the general solution, it is especially suitable for equations whose proper solutions cannot be seen at first glance. Since the transformed second order linear equation obtained by the present transformation has the simplest form that it can have, it is immediately seen whether or not the original equation can be solved analytically. The present method is exemplified by several examples.

Keywords: Riccati equation, analytical solution, proper solution, nonlinear

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4228 Fixed Point Iteration of a Damped and Unforced Duffing's Equation

Authors: Paschal A. Ochang, Emmanuel C. Oji


The Duffing’s Equation is a second order system that is very important because they are fundamental to the behaviour of higher order systems and they have applications in almost all fields of science and engineering. In the biological area, it is useful in plant stem dependence and natural frequency and model of the Brain Crash Analysis (BCA). In Engineering, it is useful in the study of Damping indoor construction and Traffic lights and to the meteorologist it is used in the prediction of weather conditions. However, most Problems in real life that occur are non-linear in nature and may not have analytical solutions except approximations or simulations, so trying to find an exact explicit solution may in general be complicated and sometimes impossible. Therefore we aim to find out if it is possible to obtain one analytical fixed point to the non-linear ordinary equation using fixed point analytical method. We started by exposing the scope of the Duffing’s equation and other related works on it. With a major focus on the fixed point and fixed point iterative scheme, we tried different iterative schemes on the Duffing’s Equation. We were able to identify that one can only see the fixed points to a Damped Duffing’s Equation and not to the Undamped Duffing’s Equation. This is because the cubic nonlinearity term is the determining factor to the Duffing’s Equation. We finally came to the results where we identified the stability of an equation that is damped, forced and second order in nature. Generally, in this research, we approximate the solution of Duffing’s Equation by converting it to a system of First and Second Order Ordinary Differential Equation and using Fixed Point Iterative approach. This approach shows that for different versions of Duffing’s Equations (damped), we find fixed points, therefore the order of computations and running time of applied software in all fields using the Duffing’s equation will be reduced.

Keywords: damping, Duffing's equation, fixed point analysis, second order differential, stability analysis

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4227 Stability of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Schrödinger Equation with Finite Approximation

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto


Recent technological advance has prompted significant interest in developing the control theory of quantum systems. Following the increasing interest in the control of quantum dynamics, this paper examines the control problem of Schrödinger equation because quantum dynamics is basically governed by Schrödinger equation. From the practical point of view, stochastic disturbances cannot be avoided in the implementation of control method for quantum systems. Thus, we consider here the robust stabilization problem of Schrödinger equation against stochastic disturbances. In this paper, we adopt model predictive control method in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time. The objective of this study is to derive the stability criterion for model predictive control of Schrödinger equation under stochastic disturbances.

Keywords: optimal control, stochastic systems, quantum systems, stabilization

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4226 Schrödinger Equation with Position-Dependent Mass: Staggered Mass Distributions

Authors: J. J. Peña, J. Morales, J. García-Ravelo, L. Arcos-Díaz


The Point canonical transformation method is applied for solving the Schrödinger equation with position-dependent mass. This class of problem has been solved for continuous mass distributions. In this work, a staggered mass distribution for the case of a free particle in an infinite square well potential has been proposed. The continuity conditions as well as normalization for the wave function are also considered. The proposal can be used for dealing with other kind of staggered mass distributions in the Schrödinger equation with different quantum potentials.

Keywords: free particle, point canonical transformation method, position-dependent mass, staggered mass distribution

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4225 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura


We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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4224 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde, C. C. Jibunoh


In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.

Keywords: spectral decomposition, linear RHS, homogeneous linear systems, eigenvalues of the Jacobian

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4223 Second Harmonic Generation of Higher-Order Gaussian Laser Beam in Density Rippled Plasma

Authors: Jyoti Wadhwa, Arvinder Singh


This work presents the theoretical investigation of an enhanced second-harmonic generation of higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma having a density ramp. The mechanism responsible for the self-focusing of a laser beam in plasma is considered to be the relativistic mass variation of plasma electrons under the effect of a highly intense laser beam. Using the moment theory approach and considering the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the non-linear Schrodinger wave equation, the differential equation is derived, which governs the spot size of the higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma. The nonlinearity induced by the laser beam creates the density gradient in the background plasma electrons, which is responsible for the excitation of the electron plasma wave. The large amplitude electron plasma wave interacts with the fundamental beam, which further produces the coherent radiations with double the frequency of the incident beam. The analysis shows the important role of the different modes of higher-order Gaussian laser beam and density ramp on the efficiency of generated harmonics.

Keywords: density rippled plasma, higher order Gaussian laser beam, moment theory approach, second harmonic generation.

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4222 Chaotic Motion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Subject to Damping Effect

Authors: Tai-Ping Chang


In the present study, the effects on chaotic motion of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) due to the linear and nonlinear damping are investigated. By using the Hamilton’s principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a matrix is derived. The Galerkin’s method is adopted to simplify the integro-partial differential equation into a nonlinear dimensionless governing equation for the SWCNT, which turns out to be a forced Duffing equation. The variations of the Lyapunov exponents of the SWCNT with damping and harmonic forcing amplitudes are investigated. Based on the computations of the top Lyapunov exponent, it is concluded that the chaotic motion of the SWCNT occurs when the amplitude of the periodic excitation exceeds certain value, besides, the chaotic motion of the SWCNT occurs with small linear damping and tiny nonlinear damping.

Keywords: chaotic motion, damping, Lyapunov exponents, single-walled carbon nanotube

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4221 Linearization of Y-Force Equation of Rigid Body Equation of Motion and Behavior of Fighter Aircraft under Imbalance Weight on Wings during Combat

Authors: Jawad Zakir, Syed Irtiza Ali Shah, Rana Shaharyar, Sidra Mahmood


Y-force equation comprises aerodynamic forces, drag and side force with side slip angle β and weight component along with the coupled roll (φ) and pitch angles (θ). This research deals with the linearization of Y-force equation using Small Disturbance theory assuming equilibrium flight conditions for different state variables of aircraft. By using assumptions of Small Disturbance theory in non-linear Y-force equation, finally reached at linearized lateral rigid body equation of motion; which says that in linearized Y-force equation, the lateral acceleration is dependent on the other different aerodynamic and propulsive forces like vertical tail, change in roll rate (Δp) from equilibrium, change in yaw rate (Δr) from equilibrium, change in lateral velocity due to side force, drag and side force components due to side slip, and the lateral equation from coupled rotating frame to decoupled rotating frame. This paper describes implementation of this lateral linearized equation for aircraft control systems. Another significant parameter considered on which y-force equation depends is ‘c’ which shows that any change bought in the weight of aircrafts wing will cause Δφ and cause lateral force i.e. Y_c. This simplification also leads to lateral static and dynamic stability. The linearization of equations is required because much of mathematics control system design for aircraft is based on linear equations. This technique is simple and eases the linearization of the rigid body equations of motion without using any high-speed computers.

Keywords: Y-force linearization, small disturbance theory, side slip, aerodynamic force drag, lateral rigid body equation of motion

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4220 Bandgap Engineering of CsMAPbI3-xBrx Quantum Dots for Intermediate Band Solar Cell

Authors: Deborah Eric, Abbas Ahmad Khan


Lead halide perovskites quantum dots have attracted immense scientific and technological interest for successful photovoltaic applications because of their remarkable optoelectronic properties. In this paper, we have simulated CsMAPbI3-xBrx based quantum dots to implement their use in intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). These types of materials exhibit optical and electrical properties distinct from their bulk counterparts due to quantum confinement. The conceptual framework provides a route to analyze the electronic properties of quantum dots. This layer of quantum dots optimizes the position and bandwidth of IB that lies in the forbidden region of the conventional bandgap. A three-dimensional MAPbI3 quantum dot (QD) with geometries including spherical, cubic, and conical has been embedded in the CsPbBr3 matrix. Bound energy wavefunction gives rise to miniband, which results in the formation of IB. If there is more than one miniband, then there is a possibility of having more than one IB. The optimization of QD size results in more IBs in the forbidden region. One band time-independent Schrödinger equation using the effective mass approximation with step potential barrier is solved to compute the electronic states. Envelope function approximation with BenDaniel-Duke boundary condition is used in combination with the Schrödinger equation for the calculation of eigen energies and Eigen energies are solved for the quasi-bound states using an eigenvalue study. The transfer matrix method is used to study the quantum tunneling of MAPbI3 QD through neighbor barriers of CsPbI3. Electronic states are computed using Schrödinger equation with effective mass approximation by considering quantum dot and wetting layer assembly. Results have shown the varying the quantum dot size affects the energy pinning of QD. Changes in the ground, first, second state energies have been observed. The QD is non-zero at the center and decays exponentially to zero at boundaries. Quasi-bound states are characterized by envelope functions. It has been observed that conical quantum dots have maximum ground state energy at a small radius. Increasing the wetting layer thickness exhibits energy signatures similar to bulk material for each QD size.

Keywords: perovskite, intermediate bandgap, quantum dots, miniband formation

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4219 Finite Time Blow-Up and Global Solutions for a Semilinear Parabolic Equation with Linear Dynamical Boundary Conditions

Authors: Xu Runzhang, Yang Yanbing, Niu Yi, Zhang Mingyou, Liu Yu


For a class of semilinear parabolic equations with linear dynamical boundary conditions in a bounded domain, we obtain both global solutions and finite time blow-up solutions when the initial data varies in the phase space H1(Ω). Our main tools are the comparison principle, the potential well method and the concavity method. In particular, we discuss the behavior of the solutions with the initial data at critical and high energy level.

Keywords: high energy level, critical energy level, linear dynamical boundary condition, semilinear parabolic equation

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4218 Symbolic Computation on Variable-Coefficient Non-Linear Dispersive Wave Equations

Authors: Edris Rawashdeh, I. Abu-Falahah, H. M. Jaradat


The variable-coefficient non-linear dispersive wave equation is investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. By virtue of a newly developed simplified bilinear method, multi-soliton solutions for such an equation have been derived. Effects of the inhomogeneities of media and nonuniformities of boundaries, depicted by the variable coefficients, on the soliton behavior are discussed with the aid of the characteristic curve method and graphical analysis.

Keywords: dispersive wave equations, multiple soliton solution, Hirota Bilinear Method, symbolic computation

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4217 System of Linear Equations, Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Rabia Khan, Nargis Munir, Suriya Gharib, Syeda Roshana Ali


In this paper linear equations are discussed in detail along with elimination method. Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan schemes are carried out to solve the linear system of equation. This paper comprises of matrix introduction, and the direct methods for linear equations. The goal of this research was to analyze different elimination techniques of linear equations and measure the performance of Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan method, in order to find their relative importance and advantage in the field of symbolic and numeric computation. The purpose of this research is to revise an introductory concept of linear equations, matrix theory and forms of Gaussian elimination through which the performance of Gauss Jordan and Gaussian elimination can be measured.

Keywords: direct, indirect, backward stage, forward stage

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4216 Mapping Method to Solve a Nonlinear Schrodinger Type Equation

Authors: Edamana Vasudevan Krishnan


This paper studies solitons in optical materials with the help of Mapping Method. Two types of nonlinear media have been investigated, namely, the cubic nonlinearity and the quintic nonlinearity. The soliton solutions, shock wave solutions and singular solutions have been derives with certain constraint conditions.

Keywords: solitons, integrability, metamaterials, mapping method

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4215 Stern-Gerlach Force in Quantum Magnetic Field and Schrodinger's Cat

Authors: Mandip Singh


Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in our understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of quantum reality. If classical physics is an approximation of quantum physics, then quantum entanglement should persist at a macroscopic scale. In this paper, a thought experiment is presented where a free falling spin polarized Bose-Einstein condensate interacts with a quantum superimposed magnetic field of nonzero gradient. In contrast to the semiclassical Stern-Gerlach experiment, the magnetic field and the spin degrees of freedom both are considered to be quantum mechanical in a generalized scenario. As a consequence, a Bose-Einstein condensate can be prepared at distinct locations in space in a sense of quantum superposition. In addition, the generation of Schrodinger-cat like quantum states shall be presented.

Keywords: Schrodinger-cat quantum states, macroscopic entanglement, macroscopic quantum fields, foundations of quantum physics

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