Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6760

Search results for: UAV IEEE 802.11b datalink application

6760 The Maximum Throughput Analysis of UAV Datalink 802.11b Protocol

Authors: Inkyu Kim, SangMan Moon

Abstract:

This IEEE 802.11b protocol provides up to 11Mbps data rate, whereas aerospace industry wants to seek higher data rate COTS data link system in the UAV. The Total Maximum Throughput (TMT) and delay time are studied on many researchers in the past years This paper provides theoretical data throughput performance of UAV formation flight data link using the existing 802.11b performance theory. We operate the UAV formation flight with more than 30 quad copters with 802.11b protocol. We may be predicting that UAV formation flight numbers have to bound data link protocol performance limitations.

Keywords: UAV datalink, UAV formation flight datalink, UAV WLAN datalink application, UAV IEEE 802.11b datalink application

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6759 On the Performance Analysis of Coexistence between IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

Authors: Chompunut Jantarasorn, Chutima Prommak

Abstract:

This paper presents an intensive measurement studying of the network performance analysis when IEEE 802.11g Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) coexisting with IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN). The measurement results show that the coexistence between both networks could increase the Frame Error Rate (FER) of the IEEE 802.15.4 networks up to 60% and it could decrease the throughputs of the IEEE 802.11g networks up to 55%.

Keywords: wireless performance analysis, coexistence analysis, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.15.4

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6758 Analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Parameters to Achive Lower Packet Loss Rates

Authors: Imen Bouazzi

Abstract:

The IEEE-802.15.4 standard utilizes the CSMA-CA mechanism to control nodes access to the shared wireless communication medium. It is becoming the popular choice for various applications of surveillance and control used in wireless sensor network (WSN). The benefit of this standard is evaluated regarding of the packet loss probability who depends on the configuration of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters and the traffic load. Our exigency is to evaluate the effects of various configurable MAC parameters on the performance of beaconless IEEE 802.15.4 networks under different traffic loads, static values of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC parameters (macMinBE, macMaxCSMABackoffs, and macMaxFrame Retries) will be evaluated. To performance analysis, we use ns-2[2] network simulator.

Keywords: WSN, packet loss, CSMA/CA, IEEE-802.15.4

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6756 Design and Implementation of Medium Access Control Based Routing on Real Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed

Authors: Smriti Agarwal, Ashish Payal, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

IEEE 802.15.4 is a Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) standard combined with ZigBee, which is going to enable new applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT) domain. In recent years, it has become a popular standard for WSNs. Wireless communication among sensor motes, enabled by IEEE 802.15.4 standard, is extensively replacing the existing wired technology in a wide range of monitoring and control applications. Researchers have proposed a routing framework and mechanism that interacts with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using software platform. In this paper, we have designed and implemented MAC based routing (MBR) based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard using a hardware platform “SENSEnuts”. The experimental results include data through light and temperature sensors obtained from communication between PAN coordinator and source node through coordinator, MAC address of some modules used in the experimental setup, topology of the network created for simulation and the remaining battery power of the source node. Our experimental effort on a WSN Testbed has helped us in bridging the gap between theoretical and practical aspect of implementing IEEE 802.15.4 for WSNs applications.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, routing, WSN, ZigBee

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6755 Resource Allocation Scheme For IEEE802.16 Networks

Authors: Elmabruk Laias

Abstract:

IEEE Standard 802.16 provides QoS (Quality of Service) for the applications such as Voice over IP, video streaming and high bandwidth file transfer. With the ability of broadband wireless access of an IEEE 802.16 system, a WiMAX TDD frame contains one downlink subframe and one uplink subframe. The capacity allocated to each subframe is a system parameter that should be determined based on the expected traffic conditions. a proper resource allocation scheme for packet transmissions is imperatively needed. In this paper, we present a new resource allocation scheme, called additional bandwidth yielding (ABY), to improve transmission efficiency of an IEEE 802.16-based network. Our proposed scheme can be adopted along with the existing scheduling algorithms and the multi-priority scheme without any change. The experimental results show that by using our ABY, the packet queuing delay could be significantly improved, especially for the service flows of higher-priority classes.

Keywords: IEEE 802.16, WiMAX, OFDMA, resource allocation, uplink-downlink mapping

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6754 Lifetime Improvement of IEEE.802.15.6 Sensors in Scheduled Access Mode

Authors: Latif Adnane, C. E. Ait Zaouiat, M. Eddabbah

Abstract:

In Wireless Body Area Networks, the issue of systems lifetime is a big challenge to complete. In this paper, we have tackled this subject to suggest some solutions. For this aim, we have studied some batteries characteristics related to human body temperature. Moreover, we have analyzed a mathematical model which defines sensors lifetime (battery lifetime). Based on this model, we note that the random access increases the energy consumption, because nodes are waking up during the whole superframe period. Results show that using scheduled mode access of IEEE 802.15.6 maximizes the lifetime function, by setting nodes in the sleep mode in the inactive period of transmission.

Keywords: battery, energy consumption, IEEE 802.15.6, lifetime, polling

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6753 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) Using Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) for Complete Observability in Power System Network

Authors: Harshith Gowda K. S, Tejaskumar N, Shubhanga R. B, Gowtham N, Deekshith Gowda H. S

Abstract:

Phasor measurement units (PMU) are playing an important role in the current power system for state estimation. It is necessary to have complete observability of the power system while minimizing the cost. For this purpose, the optimal location of the phasor measurement units in the power system is essential. In a bus system, zero injection buses need to be evaluated to minimize the number of PMUs. In this paper, the optimization problem is formulated using mixed integer programming to obtain the optimal location of the PMUs with increased observability. The formulation consists of with and without zero injection bus as constraints. The formulated problem is simulated using a CPLEX solver in the GAMS software package. The proposed method is tested on IEEE 30, IEEE 39, IEEE 57, and IEEE 118 bus systems. The results obtained show that the number of PMUs required is minimal with increased observability.

Keywords: PMU, observability, mixed integer programming (MIP), zero injection buses (ZIB)

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6752 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rate

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6751 Application of Fuzzy Logic in Voltage Regulation of Radial Feeder with Distributed Generators

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava, Lakshya Bhat, Shivarudraswamy

Abstract:

Distributed Generation is the need of the hour. With current advancements in the DG technology, there are some major issues that need to be tackled in order to make this method of generation of energy more efficient and feasible. Among other problems, the control in voltage is the major issue that needs to be addressed. This paper focuses on control of voltage using reactive power control of DGs with the help of fuzzy logic. The membership functions have been defined accordingly and the control of the system is achieved. Finally, with the help of simulation results in Matlab, the control of voltage within the tolerance limit set (+/- 5%) is achieved. The voltage waveform graphs for the IEEE 14 bus system are obtained by using simple algorithm with MATLAB and then with fuzzy logic for 14 bus system. The goal of this project was to control the voltage within limits by controlling the reactive power of the DG using fuzzy logic.

Keywords: distributed generation, fuzzy logic, matlab, newton raphson, IEEE 14 bus, voltage regulation, radial network

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6750 Feasibility Study of Wireless Communication for the Control and Monitoring of Rotating Electrical Machine

Authors: S. Ben Brahim, T. H. Vuong, J. David, R. Bouallegue, M. Pietrzak-David

Abstract:

Electrical machine monitoring is important to protect motor from unexpected problems. Today, using wireless communication for electrical machines is interesting for both real time monitoring and diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we propose a system based on wireless communication IEEE 802.11 to control electrical machine. IEEE 802.11 standard is recommended for this type of applications because it provides a faster connection, better range from the base station, and better security. Therefore, our contribution is to study a new technique to control and monitor the rotating electrical machines (motors, generators) using wireless communication. The reliability of radio channel inside rotating electrical machine is also discussed. Then, the communication protocol, software and hardware design used for the proposed system are presented in detail and the experimental results of our system are illustrated.

Keywords: control, DFIM machine, electromagnetic field, EMC, IEEE 802.11, monitoring, rotating electrical machines, wireless communication

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6749 Contention Window Adjustment in IEEE 802.11-based Industrial Wireless Networks

Authors: Mohsen Maadani, Seyed Ahmad Motamedi

Abstract:

The use of wireless technology in industrial networks has gained vast attraction in recent years. In this paper, we have thoroughly analyzed the effect of contention window (CW) size on the performance of IEEE 802.11-based industrial wireless networks (IWN), from delay and reliability perspective. Results show that the default values of CWmin, CWmax, and retry limit (RL) are far from the optimum performance due to the industrial application characteristics, including short packet and noisy environment. An adaptive CW algorithm (payload-dependent) has been proposed to minimize the average delay. Finally a simple, but effective CW and RL setting has been proposed for industrial applications which outperforms the minimum-average-delay solution from maximum delay and jitter perspective, at the cost of a little higher average delay. Simulation results show an improvement of up to 20%, 25%, and 30% in average delay, maximum delay and jitter respectively.

Keywords: average delay, contention window, distributed coordination function (DCF), jitter, industrial wireless network (IWN), maximum delay, reliability, retry limit

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
6748 Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method

Authors: Satyendra Pratap Singh, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology using Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete observability of the power system. The objective of proposed algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs. In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better observability by proposed method.

Keywords: gravitational search algorithm (GSA), law of motion, law of gravity, observability, phasor measurement unit

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6747 Evaluation and Analysis of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network: Home Monitoring as Case Study

Authors: Omojokun G. Aju, Adedayo O. Sule

Abstract:

ZigBee wireless sensor and control network is one of the most popularly deployed wireless technologies in recent years. This is because ZigBee is an open standard lightweight, low-cost, low-speed, low-power protocol that allows true operability between systems. It is built on existing IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and therefore combines the IEEE 802.15.4 features and newly added features to meet required functionalities thereby finding applications in wide variety of wireless networked systems. ZigBee‘s current focus is on embedded applications of general-purpose, inexpensive, self-organising networks which requires low to medium data rates, high number of nodes and very low power consumption such as home/industrial automation, embedded sensing, medical data collection, smart lighting, safety and security sensor networks, and monitoring systems. Although the ZigBee design specification includes security features to protect data communication confidentiality and integrity, however, when simplicity and low-cost are the goals, security is normally traded-off. A lot of researches have been carried out on ZigBee technology in which emphasis has mainly been placed on ZigBee network performance characteristics such as energy efficiency, throughput, robustness, packet delay and delivery ratio in different scenarios and applications. This paper investigate and analyse the data accuracy, network implementation difficulties and security challenges of ZigBee network applications in star-based and mesh-based topologies with emphases on its home monitoring application using the ZigBee ProBee ZE-10 development boards for the network setup. The paper also expose some factors that need to be considered when designing ZigBee network applications and suggest ways in which ZigBee network can be designed to provide more resilient to network attacks.

Keywords: home monitoring, IEEE 802.14.5, topology, wireless security, wireless sensor network (WSN), ZigBee

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6746 Cost Analysis of Optimized Fast Network Mobility in IEEE 802.16e Networks

Authors: Seyyed Masoud Seyyedoshohadaei, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali

Abstract:

To support group mobility, the NEMO Basic Support Protocol has been standardized as an extension of Mobile IP that enables an entire network to change its point of attachment to the Internet. Using NEMO in IEEE 802.16e (WiMax) networks causes latency in handover procedure and affects seamless communication of real-time applications. To decrease handover latency and service disruption time, an integrated scheme named Optimized Fast NEMO (OFNEMO) was introduced by authors of this paper. In OFNEMO a pre-establish multi tunnels concept, cross function optimization and cross layer design are used. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to evaluate total cost consisting of signaling and packet delivery costs of the OFNEMO compared with RFC3963. Results show that OFNEMO increases probability of predictive mode compared with RFC3963 due to smaller handover latency. Even though OFNEMO needs extra signalling to pre-establish multi tunnel, it has less total cost thanks to its optimized algorithm. OFNEMO can minimize handover latency for supporting real time application in moving networks.

Keywords: fast mobile IPv6, handover latency, IEEE802.16e, network mobility

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6745 Voltage Problem Location Classification Using Performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine LS-SVM and Learning Vector Quantization LVQ

Authors: M. Khaled Abduesslam, Mohammed Ali, Basher H. Alsdai, Muhammad Nizam Inayati

Abstract:

This paper presents the voltage problem location classification using performance of Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) in electrical power system for proper voltage problem location implemented by IEEE 39 bus New-England. The data was collected from the time domain simulation by using Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). Outputs from simulation data such as voltage, phase angle, real power and reactive power were taken as input to estimate voltage stability at particular buses based on Power Transfer Stability Index (PTSI).The simulation data was carried out on the IEEE 39 bus test system by considering load bus increased on the system. To verify of the proposed LS-SVM its performance was compared to Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). The results showed that LS-SVM is faster and better as compared to LVQ. The results also demonstrated that the LS-SVM was estimated by 0% misclassification whereas LVQ had 7.69% misclassification.

Keywords: IEEE 39 bus, least squares support vector machine, learning vector quantization, voltage collapse

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6744 The Transient Reactive Power Regulation Capability of SVC for Large Scale WECS Connected to Distribution Networks

Authors: Y. Ates, A. R. Boynuegri, M. Uzunoglu, A. Karakas

Abstract:

The recent interest in alternative and renewable energy systems results in increased installed capacity ratio of such systems in total energy production of the world. Specifically, wind energy conversion systems (WECS) draw significant attention among possible alternative energy options, recently. On the contrary of the positive points of penetrating WECS in all over the world in terms of environment protection, energy independence of the countries, etc., there are significant problems to be solved for the grid connection of large scale WECS. The reactive power regulation, voltage variation suppression, etc. can be presented as major issues to be considered in this regard. Thus, this paper evaluates the application of a Static VAr Compensator (SVC) unit for the reactive power regulation and operation continuity of WECS during a fault condition. The system is modeled employing the IEEE 13 node test system. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the system performance with an overall grid simulation model close to real grid systems. The overall simulation model is developed in MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems® environments and the obtained results effectively match the target of the provided study.

Keywords: IEEE 13 bus distribution system, reactive power regulation, static VAr compensator, wind energy conversion system

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6743 High Performance Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Stochastic Low-Density Parity-Check Decoder Design for IEEE 802.3an Standard

Authors: Ghania Zerari, Abderrezak Guessoum, Rachid Beguenane

Abstract:

This paper introduces high-performance architecture for fully parallel stochastic Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) field programmable gate array (FPGA) based LDPC decoder. The new approach is designed to decrease the decoding latency and to reduce the FPGA logic utilisation. To accomplish the target logic utilisation reduction, the routing of the proposed sub-variable node (VN) internal memory is designed to utilize one slice distributed RAM. Furthermore, a VN initialization, using the channel input probability, is achieved to enhance the decoder convergence, without extra resources and without integrating the output saturated-counters. The Xilinx FPGA implementation, of IEEE 802.3an standard LDPC code, shows that the proposed decoding approach attain high performance along with reduction of FPGA logic utilisation.

Keywords: low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder, stochastic decoding, field programmable gate array (FPGA), IEEE 802.3an standard

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6742 Performance of Total Vector Error of an Estimated Phasor within Local Area Networks

Authors: Ahmed Abdolkhalig, Rastko Zivanovic

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the Total Vector Error of an estimated Phasor as define in IEEE C37.118 standard within different medium access in Local Area Networks (LAN). Three different LAN models (CSMA/CD, CSMA/AMP, and Switched Ethernet) are evaluated. The Total Vector Error of the estimated Phasor has been evaluated for the effect of Nodes Number under the standardized network Band-width values defined in IEC 61850-9-2 communication standard (i.e. 0.1, 1, and 10 Gbps).

Keywords: phasor, local area network, total vector error, IEEE C37.118, IEC 61850

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6741 Load Flow Analysis of 5-IEEE Bus Test System Using Matlab

Authors: H. Abaal, R. Skouri

Abstract:

A power flow analysis is a steady-state study of power grid. The goal of power flow analysis is to determine the voltages, currents, and real and reactive power flows in a system under a given load conditions. In this paper, the load flow analysis program by Newton Raphson polar coordinates Method is developed. The effectiveness of the developed program is evaluated through a simple 5-IEEE test system bus by simulations using MATLAB.

Keywords: power flow analysis, Newton Raphson polar coordinates method

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6740 Analyzing the Impact of DCF and PCF on WLAN Network Standards 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g

Authors: Amandeep Singh Dhaliwal

Abstract:

Networking solutions, particularly wireless local area networks have revolutionized the technological advancement. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have gained a lot of popularity as they provide location-independent network access between computing devices. There are a number of access methods used in Wireless Networks among which DCF and PCF are the fundamental access methods. This paper emphasizes on the impact of DCF and PCF access mechanisms on the performance of the IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g standards. On the basis of various parameters viz. throughput, delay, load etc performance is evaluated between these three standards using above mentioned access mechanisms. Analysis revealed a superior throughput performance with low delays for 802.11g standard as compared to 802.11 a/b standard using both DCF and PCF access methods.

Keywords: DCF, IEEE, PCF, WLAN

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6739 Fast Authentication Using User Path Prediction in Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Sathya Pavithra, Swaminathan Venkatraman

Abstract:

Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) utilizes the IEEE 802.1X mechanism for authentication. However, this mechanism incurs considerable delay during handoffs. This delay during handoffs results in service disruption which becomes a severe bottleneck. To overcome this delay, our article proposes a key caching mechanism based on user path prediction. If the user mobility follows that path, the user bypasses the normal IEEE 802.1X mechanism and establishes the necessary authentication keys directly. Through analytical and simulation modeling, we have proved that our mechanism effectively decreases the handoff delay thereby achieving fast authentication.

Keywords: authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA), handoff, mobile, user path prediction (UPP) and user pattern

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6738 The Study of ZigBee Protocol Application in Wireless Networks

Authors: Ardavan Zamanpour, Somaieh Yassari

Abstract:

ZigBee protocol network was developed in industries and MIT laboratory in 1997. ZigBee is a wireless networking technology by alliance ZigBee which is designed to low board and low data rate applications. It is a Protocol which connects between electrical devises with very low energy and cost. The first version of IEEE 802.15.4 which was formed ZigBee was based on 2.4GHZ MHZ 912MHZ 868 frequency band. The name of system is often reminded random directions that bees (BEES) traversing during pollination of products. Such as alloy of the ways in which information packets are traversed within the mesh network. This paper aims to study the performance and effectiveness of this protocol in wireless networks.

Keywords: ZigBee, protocol, wireless, networks

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6737 An Ontology Model for Systems Engineering Derived from ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288: 2015: Systems and Software Engineering - System Life Cycle Processes

Authors: Lan Yang, Kathryn Cormican, Ming Yu

Abstract:

ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288: 2015, Systems and Software Engineering - System Life Cycle Processes is an international standard that provides generic top-level process descriptions to support systems engineering (SE). However, the processes defined in the standard needs improvement to lift integrity and consistency. The goal of this research is to explore the way by building an ontology model for the SE standard to manage the knowledge of SE. The ontology model gives a whole picture of the SE knowledge domain by building connections between SE concepts. Moreover, it creates a hierarchical classification of the concepts to fulfil different requirements of displaying and analysing SE knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge management, model-based systems engineering, ontology modelling, systems engineering ontology

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6736 Application of Analytical Method for Placement of DG Unit for Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems

Authors: G. V. Siva Krishna Rao, B. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

The main aim of the paper is to implement a technique using distributed generation in distribution systems to reduce the distribution system losses and to improve voltage profiles. The fuzzy logic technique is used to select the proper location of DG and an analytical method is proposed to calculate the size of DG unit at any power factor. The optimal sizes of DG units are compared with optimal sizes obtained using the genetic algorithm. The suggested method is programmed under Matlab software and is tested on IEEE 33 bus system and the results are presented.

Keywords: DG Units, sizing of DG units, analytical methods, optimum size

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6735 Analysis of Network Connectivity for Ship-To-Ship Maritime Communication Using IEEE 802.11 on Maritime Environment of Tanjung Perak, Indonesia

Authors: Ahmad Fauzi Makarim, Okkie Puspitorini, Hani'ah Mahmudah, Nur Adi Siswandari, Ari Wijayanti

Abstract:

As a maritime country, Indonesia needs a solution in maritime connectivity which can assist the maritime communication system which including communication from harbor to the ship or ship to ship. The needs of many application services for maritime communication, whether for safety reasons until voyage service to help the process of voyage activity needs connection with a high bandwith. To support the government efforts in handling that kind of problem, a research is conducted in maritime communication issue by applying the new developed technology in Indonesia, namely IEEE 802.11. In this research, 3 outdoor WiFi devices are used in which have a frequency of 5.8 GHz. Maritime of Tanjung Perak harbor in Surabaya until Karang Jamuang Island are used as the location of the research with defining permission of ship node spreading by Navigation District Class 1. That maritime area formed by state 1 and state 2 areas which are the narrow area with average wave height of 0.7 meter based on the data from BMKG S urabaya. After that, wave height used as one of the parameters which are used in analyzing characteristic of signal propagation at sea surface, so it can be determined on the coverage area of transmitter system. In this research has been used three samples of outdoor wifi, there is the coverage of device A can be determined about 2256 meter, device B 4000 meter, and device C 1174 meter. Then to analyze of network connectivity for the ship to ship is used AODV routing algorithm system based on the value of the power transmit was smallest of all nodes within the transmitter coverage.

Keywords: maritime of Indonesia, maritime communications, outdoor wifi, coverage, AODV

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6734 The Security Trade-Offs in Resource Constrained Nodes for IoT Application

Authors: Sultan Alharby, Nick Harris, Alex Weddell, Jeff Reeve

Abstract:

The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) has received much attention over the last five years. It is predicted that the IoT will influence every aspect of our lifestyles in the near future. Wireless Sensor Networks are one of the key enablers of the operation of IoTs, allowing data to be collected from the surrounding environment. However, due to limited resources, nature of deployment and unattended operation, a WSN is vulnerable to various types of attack. Security is paramount for reliable and safe communication between IoT embedded devices, but it does, however, come at a cost to resources. Nodes are usually equipped with small batteries, which makes energy conservation crucial to IoT devices. Nevertheless, security cost in terms of energy consumption has not been studied sufficiently. Previous research has used a security specification of 802.15.4 for IoT applications, but the energy cost of each security level and the impact on quality of services (QoS) parameters remain unknown. This research focuses on the cost of security at the IoT media access control (MAC) layer. It begins by studying the energy consumption of IEEE 802.15.4 security levels, which is followed by an evaluation for the impact of security on data latency and throughput, and then presents the impact of transmission power on security overhead, and finally shows the effects of security on memory footprint. The results show that security overhead in terms of energy consumption with a payload of 24 bytes fluctuates between 31.5% at minimum level over non-secure packets and 60.4% at the top security level of 802.15.4 security specification. Also, it shows that security cost has less impact at longer packet lengths, and more with smaller packet size. In addition, the results depicts a significant impact on data latency and throughput. Overall, maximum authentication length decreases throughput by almost 53%, and encryption and authentication together by almost 62%.

Keywords: energy consumption, IEEE 802.15.4, IoT security, security cost evaluation

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6733 Comparative Analysis of Universal Filtered Multi Carrier and Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Systems for Wireless Communications

Authors: Raja Rajeswari K

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), a multi Carrier transmission technique that has been used in implementing the majority of wireless applications like Wireless Network Protocol Standards (like IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11n), in telecommunications (like LTE, LTE-Advanced) and also in Digital Audio & Video Broadcast standards. The latest research and development in the area of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, Universal Filtered Multi Carrier (UFMC) & Filtered OFDM (F-OFDM) has attracted lots of attention for wideband wireless communications. In this paper UFMC & F-OFDM system are implemented and comparative analysis are carried out in terms of M-ary QAM modulation scheme over Dolph-chebyshev filter & rectangular window filter and to estimate Bit Error Rate (BER) over Rayleigh fading channel.

Keywords: UFMC, F-OFDM, BER, M-ary QAM

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6732 Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generators for Profit Maximization Using Firefly Algorithm

Authors: Engy Adel Mohamed, Yasser Gamal-Eldin Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper presents a firefly based algorithm for optimal sizing and allocation of distributed generators for profit maximization. Distributed generators in the proposed algorithm are of photovoltaic and combined heat and power technologies. Combined heat and power distributed generators are modeled as voltage controlled nodes while photovoltaic distributed generators are modeled as constant power nodes. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and tested the unbalanced IEEE 37-node feeder. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in optimal selection of distributed generators size and site in order to maximize the total system profit.

Keywords: distributed generators, firefly algorithm, IEEE 37-node feeder, profit maximization

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6731 System Response of a Variable-Rate Aerial Application System

Authors: Daniel E. Martin, Chenghai Yang

Abstract:

Variable-rate aerial application systems are becoming more readily available; however, aerial applicators typically only use the systems for constant-rate application of materials, allowing the systems to compensate for upwind and downwind ground speed variations. Much of the resistance to variable-rate aerial application system adoption in the U.S. pertains to applicator’s trust in the systems to turn on and off automatically as desired. The objectives of this study were to evaluate a commercially available variable-rate aerial application system under field conditions to demonstrate both the response and accuracy of the system to desired application rate inputs. This study involved planting oats in a 35-acre fallow field during the winter months to establish a uniform green backdrop in early spring. A binary (on/off) prescription application map was generated and a variable-rate aerial application of glyphosate was made to the field. Airborne multispectral imagery taken before and two weeks after the application documented actual field deposition and efficacy of the glyphosate. When compared to the prescription application map, these data provided application system response and accuracy information. The results of this study will be useful for quantifying and documenting the response and accuracy of a commercially available variable-rate aerial application system so that aerial applicators can be more confident in their capabilities and the use of these systems can increase, taking advantage of all that aerial variable-rate technologies have to offer.

Keywords: variable-rate, aerial application, remote sensing, precision application

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