Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Vimentin

13 Differential Expression of Biomarkers in Cancer Stem Cells and Side Populations in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Dipali Dhawan

Abstract:

Cancerous epithelial cells are confined to a primary site by the continued expression of adhesion molecules and the intact basal lamina. However, as the cancer progresses some cells are believed to undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) event, leading to increased motility, invasion and, ultimately, metastasis of the cells from the primary tumour to secondary sites within the body. These disseminated cancer cells need the ability to self-renew, as stem cells do, in order to establish and maintain a heterogeneous metastatic tumour mass. Identification of the specific subpopulation of cancer stem cells amenable to the process of metastasis is highly desirable. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cancer stem cells from luminal and basal breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468, MCF7 and T47D) on the basis of cell surface markers CD44 and CD24; as well as Side Populations (SP) using Hoechst 33342 dye efflux. The isolated populations were analysed for epithelial and mesenchymal markers like E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Sfrp1 and Vimentin by Western blotting and Immunocytochemistry. MDA-MB-231 cell lines contain a major population of CD44+CD24- cells whereas MCF7, T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell lines show a side population. We observed higher expression of N-cadherin in MCF-7 SP cells as compared to MCF-7NSP (Non-side population) cells suggesting that the SP cells are mesenchymal like cells and hence express increased N-cadherin with stem cell-like properties. There was an expression of Sfrp1 in the MCF7- NSP cells as compared to no expression in MCF7-SP cells, which suggests that the Wnt pathway is expressed in the MCF7-SP cells. The mesenchymal marker Vimentin was expressed only in MDA-MB-231 cells. Hence, understanding the breast cancer heterogeneity would enable a better understanding of the disease progression and therapeutic targeting.

Keywords: cancer stem cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, biomarkers, breast cancer

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12 Establishment and Aging Process Analysis in Dermal Fibroblast Cell Culture of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)

Authors: Yemima Dani Riani, Anggraini Barlian

Abstract:

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is one of well known long-lived turtle. Its age can reach 100 years old. Senescence in green turtle is an interesting process to study because until now no clear explanation has been established about senescence at cellular or molecular level in this species. Since 1999, green turtle announced as an endangered species. Hence, establishment of fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtle may be material for future study of senescence. One common marker used for detecting senescence is telomere shortening. Reduced telomerase activity, the reverse transcriptase enzyme which adds TTAGGG DNA sequence to telomere end, may also cause senescence. The purpose of this research are establish and identify green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture and also compare telomere length and telomerase activity from passage 5 and 14. Primary cell culture made with primary explant method then cultured in Leibovitz-15 (Sigma) supplemented by 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (Sigma) and 100 U/mL Penicillin/Streptomycin (Sigma) at 30 ± 1oC. Cells identified with Rabbit Anti-Vimentin Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) and Goat Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) using confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 170). Telomere length obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay (Roche) while telomerase activity obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomerase PCR ElisaPlus (Roche). Primary cell culture from green turtle skin had fibroblastic morphology and immunocytochemistry test with vimentin antibody proved the culture was fibroblast cell. Measurement of telomere length and telomerase activity showed that telomere length and telomerase activity of passage 14 was greater than passage 5. However, based on morphology, green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture showed senescent morphology. Based on the analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity, suspected fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtles is not undergo aging through telomere shortening.

Keywords: cell culture, chelonia mydas, telomerase, telomere, senescence

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11 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can

Abstract:

It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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10 Protective Role of CoQ10 or L-Carnitine on the Integrity of the Myocardium in Doxorubicin Induced Toxicity

Authors: Gehan A. Hegazy, Hesham N. Mustafa, Sally A. El Awdan, Marawan AbdelBaset

Abstract:

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of different cancers and its clinical usage is hindered by the oxidative injury-related cardiotoxicity. This work aims to declare if the harmful effects of DOX on the heart can be alleviated with the use of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or L-carnitine. The study was performed on seventy-two female Wistar albino rats divided into six groups, 12 animals each: Control group; DOX group (10 mg/kg); CoQ10 group (200 mg/kg); L-carnitine group (100 mg/kg); DOX + CoQ10 group; DOX + L-carnitine group. CoQ10 and L-carnitine treatment orally started five days before a single dose of 10 mg/kg DOX that injected intraperitoneally (IP) then the treatment continued for ten days. At the end of the study, serum biochemical parameters of cardiac damage, oxidative stress indices, and histopathological changes were investigated. CoQ10 or L-carnitine showed noticeable effects in improving cardiac functions evidenced reducing serum enzymes as serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), leptin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiotrophin-1, Troponin-I and Troponin-T. Also, alleviate oxidative stress, decrease of cardiac Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) and restoring cardiac reduced glutathione levels to normal levels. Both corrected the cardiac alterations histologically and ultrastructurally. With visible improvements in -SMA, vimentin and eNOS immunohistochemical markers. CoQ10 or L-carnitine supplementation improves the functional and structural integrity of the myocardium.

Keywords: CoQ10, doxorubicin, L-Carnitine, cardiotoxicity

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9 Combined Treatment of PARP-1 Inhibitor and Carbon Ion or Gamma Exposure Reduces the Metastatic Potential in Cultured Human Cells

Authors: Priyanka Chowdhury, Asitikantha Sarma, Utpal Ghosh

Abstract:

Hadron therapy using high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) ion beam is producing promising clinical results worldwide. The major advantages are its ability to kill radio-resistant tumor and its anti-metastatic activity. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors have been widely used as radiosensitizer, but its role in metastasis is unknown. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of PARP-1 depletion in combination with either Carbon Ion Beam (CIB) or gamma irradiation on metastatic potential of cultured cancerous cells. A549 cells were irradiated with CIB (0-4Gy) or gamma (0, 2, 4, 6 and 10 Gy) with and without PARP-1 inhibition. The metastatic potential of the cells was determined by cell migratory assay, expression, and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, expression of Cadherin, Fibronectin, and Vimentin. CIB exposure reduced migratory property and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 significantly. CIB with PARP-1 inhibition reduced cell migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMPs) activity in a synergistic manner. Expression of MMPs was also down-regulated in CIB and combined treatment. On the contrary, MMP- 2 and MMP-9 activity was significantly increased in gamma irradiated cells but decreased upon combined treatment of gamma and PARP-1 inhibitor. MMPs expression and migration was reduced when gamma irradiation was combined with PARP-1 inhibition. Thus, our study clearly demonstrates that PARP-1 inhibition in combination with either high or low LET can significantly suppress metastatic potential in cancer cells and thereby can be a promising tool in controlling metastatic cancers.

Keywords: high LET, low LET, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), PARP-1

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8 Mechanical Properties of Young and Senescence Fibroblast Cells Using Passive Microrheology

Authors: Samira Khalaji, , Fenneke Klein Jan, Kay-E. Gottschalk, Eugenia Makrantonaki, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek

Abstract:

Biological aging is a multi-dimensional process that takes place over a whole range of scales from the nanoscopic alterations within individual cells, over transformations in tissues and organs and to changes of the whole organism. On the single cell level, aging involves mutation of genes, differences in gene expression levels as well as altered posttranslational modifications of proteins. A variety of proteins is affected, including proteins of the cell cytoskeleton and migration machinery. Previous work quantified the expression of cytoskeleton proteins on the gene and protein levels in senescent and young fibroblasts. Their results show that senescent skin fibroblasts have an upregulated expression of the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin in contrast to actin and tubulin, which are downregulated. IFs play an important role in providing mechanical stability of cells. However, the mechanical properties of IFs depending on cellular senescence or age of the donor has not been studied so far. Hence, we employed passive microrheology on primary human dermal fibroblasts from female donors with age of 28 years (young) and 86 years (old) as model of in vivo aging and human normal dermal fibroblast from 11-year old male with CPD 17-35 (young) and CPD 58-59 (senescence) as a model of in vitro replicative senescence. In contrast to the expectations, our primary results show no significant differences in the viscoelastic properties of fibroblasts depending on age of the donor or cellular replicative senescence.

Keywords: aging, cytoskeleton, fibroblast, mechanical properties

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7 Isolation and Expansion of Human Periosteum-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Defined Serum-Free Culture Medium

Authors: Ainur Mukhambetova, Miras Karzhauov, Vyacheslav Ogay

Abstract:

Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to be differentiated into several cell lineages and are a promising source for cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, currently most MSCs culturing protocols use media supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS), which limits their application in clinic due to the possibility of zoonotic infections, contamination and immunological reactions. Consequently, formulating effective serum free culture medium becomes one of the important problems in contemporary cell biotechnology. Objectives: The aim of this study was to define an optimal serum-free medium for culturing of periosteum derived MSCs. Materials and methods: The MSCs were extracted from human periosteum and transferred to the culture flasks pretreated with CELLstart™. Immunophenotypic characterization, proliferation and in vitro differentiation of cells grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM were compared to the cells cultured in the standard FBS containing media. Chromosome analysis and flow cytometry were also performed. Results: We have shown that cells were grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM retained all the morphological, immunophenotypic (CD73, CD90, CD105, vimentin and Stro-1) and cell differentiation characteristics specific to MSCs. Chromosome analysis indicated no anomalies in the chromosome structure. Flow cytometry showed a high expression of cell adhesion molecules CD44 (98,8%), CD90 (97,4%), CD105 (99,1%). In addition, we have shown that cell is grown on STEM PRO® MSC SFM have higher proliferation capacity compared to cell expanded on standard FBS containing the medium. Conclusion: We have shown that STEM PRO® MSC SFM is optimal for culturing periosteum derived human MSCs which subsequently can be safely used in cell therapy.

Keywords: cell technologies, periosteum-derived MSCs, regenerative medicine, serum-free medium

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6 Solitary Fibrous Tumor Presumed to Be a Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Involving Right Branchial Plexus

Authors: Daniela Proca, Yuan Rong, Salvatore Luceno, Jalil Nasibli

Abstract:

Introduction: Solitary Fibrous Tumors (SFT) have many histologic mimickers and the only way to diagnose it, particularly in an unusual location, such as peripheral nerve trunks, is to use a comprehensive immunohistochemical staining panel. Monoclonal STAT6 immunostain is highly sensitive and specific for SFTs and particularly useful in the diagnosis of difficult SFT cases. Methods: We describe a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) involving the right branchial plexus in a 66 yo female with 4-year history of slowly growing chest wall mass with recent dysesthesias in fingers 4th and 5th. MRI showed a well-circumscribed heterogenous mass measuring 5.4 x 3.8 x 4.0 cm and encircling peripheral nerves of the branchial plexus; no involvement of the bone or muscle was noted. A biopsy showed a bland spindled and epithelioid proliferation with no significant mitotic activity, no necrosis, and no atypia; peripheral nerve fascicles were encircled by the lesion. The main clinical and pathologic differential diagnosis included peripheral nerve sheath tumor, particularly schwannoma; HE microscopy didn’t show the classic Antoni A and B areas but showed focal subtle nuclear palisading, as well as prominent vessels with hyalinization. Immunohistochemical stains showed focal, weak cytoplasmic S100 positivity in the lesion; CD 34 and Vimentin were strongly and diffusely positive; the neoplastic cells were negative with AE1/AE3, EMA, CD31, SMA, Desmin, Calretinin, HMB-45, Melan A, PAX-8, NSE. The immunohistochemical and histologic pattern was not typical of peripheral nerve sheath tumor. On additional stains, the tumor was positive with STAT-6 and bcl-2 and focally positive with CD99. Given this profile, the final diagnosis was that of a solitary fibrous tumor. Results: NA Conclusion: Very few SFTs involving peripheral nerves and mimicking a peripheral nerve sheath tumor are described in the literature. Although histologically benign on this biopsy, long-term follow-up is required because of the risk of recurrence of these tumors and their uncertain biological behavior.

Keywords: solitary fibrous tumor, pathology, diagnosis, immunohistochemistry

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5 Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Diabetic Therapy

Authors: K. J. Keerthi, Vasundhara Kamineni, A. Ravi Shanker, T. Rammurthy, A. Vijaya Lakshmi, Q. Hasan

Abstract:

Pancreatic β-cells are the predominant insulin-producing cell types within the Islets of Langerhans and insulin is the primary hormone which regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Apoptosis of β-cells or insufficient insulin production leads to Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Current therapy for diabetes includes either medical management or insulin replacement and regular monitoring. Replacement of β- cells is an attractive treatment option for both Type-1 and Type-2 DM in view of the recent paper which indicates that β-cells apoptosis is the common underlying cause for both the Types of DM. With the development of Edmonton protocol, pancreatic β-cells allo-transplantation became possible, but this is still not considered as standard of care due to subsequent requirement of lifelong immunosuppression and the scarcity of suitable healthy organs to retrieve pancreatic β-cell. Fetal pancreatic cells from abortuses were developed as a possible therapeutic option for Diabetes, however, this posed several ethical issues. Hence, in the present study Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into insulin producing cells which were isolated from Human Umbilical cord (HUC) tissue. MSCs have already made their mark in the growing field of regenerative medicine, and their therapeutic worth has already been validated for a number of conditions. HUC samples were collected with prior informed consent as approved by the Institutional ethical committee. HUC (n=26) were processed using a combination of both mechanical and enzymatic (collagenase-II, 100 U/ml, Gibco ) methods to obtain MSCs which were cultured in-vitro in L-DMEM (Low glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, Sigma, 4.5 mM glucose/L), 10% FBS in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C. After reaching 80-90% confluency, MSCs were characterized with Flowcytometry and Immunocytochemistry for specific cell surface antigens. Cells expressed CD90+, CD73+, CD105+, CD34-, CD45-, HLA-DR-/Low and Vimentin+. These cells were differentiated to β-cells by using H-DMEM (High glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium,25 mM glucose/L, Gibco), β-Mercaptoethanol (0.1mM, Hi-Media), basic Fibroblast growth factor (10 µg /L,Gibco), and Nicotinamide (10 mmol/L, Hi-Media). Pancreatic β-cells were confirmed by positive Dithizone staining and were found to be functionally active as they released 8 IU/ml insulin on glucose stimulation. Isolating MSCs from usually discarded, abundantly available HUC tissue, expanding and differentiating to β-cells may be the most feasible cell therapy option for the millions of people suffering from DM globally.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, human umbilical cord, mesenchymal stem cells, differentiation

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4 Biological Significance of Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA LINC00273 in Lung Cancer Cell Metastasis

Authors: Ipsita Biswas, Arnab Sarkar, Ashikur Rahaman, Gopeswar Mukherjee, Subhrangsu Chatterjee, Shamee Bhattacharjee, Deba Prasad Mandal

Abstract:

One of the major reasons for the high mortality rate of lung cancer is the substantial delays in disease detection at late metastatic stages. It is of utmost importance to understand the detailed molecular signaling and detect the molecular markers that can be used for the early diagnosis of cancer. Several studies explored the emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in various cancers as well as lung cancer. A long non-coding RNA LINC00273 was recently discovered to promote cancer cell migration and invasion, and its positive correlation with the pathological stages of metastasis may prove it to be a potential target for inhibiting cancer cell metastasis. Comparing real-time expression of LINC00273 in various human clinical cancer tissue samples with normal tissue samples revealed significantly higher expression in cancer tissues. This long intergenic noncoding RNA was found to be highly expressed in human liver tumor-initiating cells, human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cell line, as well as human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line. SiRNA and shRNA-induced knockdown of LINC00273 in both in vitro and in vivo nude mice significantly subsided AGS and A549 cancer cell migration and invasion. LINC00273 knockdown also reduced TGF-β induced SNAIL, SLUG, VIMENTIN, ZEB1 expression, and metastasis in A549 cells. Plenty of reports have suggested the role of microRNAs of the miR200 family in reversing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inhibiting ZEB transcription factors. In this study, hsa-miR-200a-3p was predicted via IntaRNA-Freiburg RNA tools to be a potential target of LINC00273 with a negative free binding energy of −8.793 kcal/mol, and this interaction was verified as a confirmed target of LINC00273 by RNA pulldown, real-time PCR and luciferase assay. Mechanistically, LINC00273 accelerated TGF-β induced EMT by sponging hsa-miR-200a-3p which in turn liberated ZEB1 and promoted prometastatic functions in A549 cells in vitro as verified by real-time PCR and western blotting. The similar expression patterns of these EMT regulatory pathway molecules, viz. LINC00273, hsa-miR-200a-3p, ZEB1 and TGF-β, were also detected in various clinical samples like breast cancer tissues, oral cancer tissues, lung cancer tissues, etc. Overall, this LINC00273 mediated EMT regulatory signaling can serve as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of lung cancer metastasis.

Keywords: epithelial to mesenchymal transition, long noncoding RNA, microRNA, non-small-cell lung carcinoma

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3 Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein-3 rs12252-CC Associated with the Progress of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Up-Regulating the Expression of Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3

Authors: Yuli Hou, Jianping Sun, Mengdan Gao, Hui Liu, Ling Qin, Ang Li, Dongfu Li, Yonghong Zhang, Yan Zhao

Abstract:

Background and Aims: Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a component of ISG (Interferon-Stimulated Gene) family. IFITM3 has been recognized as a key signal molecule regulating cell growth in some tumors. However, the function of IFITM3 rs12252-CC genotype in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown to author’s best knowledge. A cohort study was employed to clarify the relationship between IFITM3 rs12252-CC genotype and HCC progression, and cellular experiments were used to investigate the correlation of function of IFITM3 and the progress of HCC. Methods: 336 candidates were enrolled in study, including 156 with HBV related HCC and 180 with chronic Hepatitis B infections or liver cirrhosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to determine the gene polymorphism of IFITM3. The functions of IFITM3 were detected in PLC/PRF/5 cell with different treated:LV-IFITM3 transfected with lentivirus to knockdown the expression of IFITM3 and LV-NC transfected with empty lentivirus as negative control. The IFITM3 expression, proliferation and migration were detected by Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), QuantiGene Plex 2.0 assay, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, Cell Counting Kit(CCK)-8 and wound healing respectively. Six samples (three infected with empty lentiviral as control; three infected with LV-IFITM3 vector lentiviral as experimental group ) of PLC/PRF/5 were sequenced at BGI (Beijing Genomics Institute, Shenzhen,China) using RNA-seq technology to identify the IFITM3-related signaling pathways and chose PI3K/AKT pathway as related signaling to verify. Results: The patients with HCC had a significantly higher proportion of IFITM3 rs12252-CC compared with the patients with chronic HBV infection or liver cirrhosis. The distribution of CC genotype in HCC patients with low differentiation was significantly higher than that in those with high differentiation. Patients with CC genotype found with bigger tumor size, higher percentage of vascular thrombosis, higher distribution of low differentiation and higher 5-year relapse rate than those with CT/TT genotypes. The expression of IFITM3 was higher in HCC tissues than adjacent normal tissues, and the level of IFITM3 was higher in HCC tissues with low differentiation and metastatic than high/medium differentiation and without metastatic. Higher RNA level of IFITM3 was found in CC genotype than TT genotype. In PLC/PRF/5 cell with knockdown, the ability of cell proliferation and migration was inhibited. Analysis RNA sequencing and verification of RT-PCR found out the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin(PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway was associated with knockdown IFITM3.With the inhibition of IFITM3, the expression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was blocked and the expression of vimentin was decreased. Conclusions: IFITM3 rs12252-CC with the higher expression plays a vital role in the progress of HCC by regulating HCC cell proliferation and migration. These effects are associated with PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

Keywords: IFITM3, interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3, HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma, PI3K/ AKT/mTOR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin

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2 Multiple Primary Pulmonary Meningiomas: A Case Report

Authors: Wellemans Isabelle, Remmelink Myriam, Foucart Annick, Rusu Stefan, Compère Christophe

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Background: Primary pulmonary meningioma (PPM) is a very rare tumor and its occurrence has been reported only sporadically. Multiple PPMs are even more exceptional and herein, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the fourth case, focusing on the clinicopathological features of the tumor. Moreover, the possible relationship between the use of progesterone-only contraceptives and the development of these neoplasms will be discussed. Case report: We report a case of a 51-year-old female presenting three solid pulmonary nodules, with the following localizations: right superior lobe, right middle lobe and left superior lobe, described as incidental findings on computed-tomography (CT) during a pre-bariatric surgery check-up. The patient revealed no drinking or smoking history. The physical exam was unremarkable except for the obesity. The lesions ranged in size between 1.2 and 2.4 cm and presented as solid masses with lobulated contours. The largest lesion situated in the right superior lobe had mild fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on F-18 FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, which is highly suggestive of primary lung neoplasm. For pathological assessment, video-assisted thoracoscopic right middle lobectomy and wedge resection of the right superior lobe was performed. Histological examination revealed relatively well-circumscribed solid proliferation of bland meningothelial cells growing in whorls and lobular nests, presenting intranuclear pseudo-inclusions and psammoma bodies. No signs of anaplasia were observed. The meningothelial cells expressed diffusely Vimentin, focally Progesterone receptors and were negative for epithelial (cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3, CK7, CK20, Epithelial Membrane Antigen (EMA)), neuroendocrine markers (Synaptophysin, Chromogranin, CD56) and Estrogenic receptors. The proliferation labeling index Ki-67 was low (<5%). Metastatic meningioma was ruled out by brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The third lesion localized in the left superior lobe was followed-up and resected three years later because of its slow but significant growth (11 mm to 14 mm), alongside two new infracentimetric lesions. Those three lesions showed a morphological and immunohistochemical profile similar to previously resected lesions. Discussion: Although PPMs are mostly benign and slow-growing tumors with an excellent prognosis, they do not present specific radiological characteristics and it is difficult to differentiate them from other lung tumors, the histopathologic examination being essential. Aggressive behavior is associated with atypical or anaplastic features (WHO grades II-III). The etiology is still uncertain and different mechanisms have been proposed. A causal connection between sex hormones and meningothelial proliferation has long been suspected and few studies examining progesterone-only contraception and meningioma risk have all suggested an association. In line with this, our patient was treated with Levonorgestrel, a progesterone agonist, intra-uterine device (IUD). Conclusions: PPM, defined by the typical histological and immunohistochemical features of meningioma in the lungs and the absence of central nervous system lesions, is an extremely rare neoplasm, mainly solitary and associating and indolent growth. Because of the unspecific radiologic findings, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of lung neoplasms. Regarding multiple PPM, only three cases are reported in the literature and this is the first described in a woman treated by a progesterone-only IUD to the best of our knowledge.

Keywords: pulmonary meningioma, multiple meningioma, meningioma, pulmonary nodules

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1 Deciphering Tumor Stroma Interactions in Retinoblastoma

Authors: Rajeswari Raguraman, Sowmya Parameswaran, Krishnakumar Subramanian, Jagat Kanwar, Rupinder Kanwar

Abstract:

Background: Tumor microenvironment has been implicated in several cancers to regulate cell growth, invasion and metastasis culminating in outcome of therapy. Tumor stroma consists of multiple cell types that are in constant cross-talk with the tumor cells to favour a pro-tumorigenic environment. Not much is known about the existence of tumor microenvironment in the pediatric intraocular malignancy, Retinoblastoma (RB). In the present study, we aim to understand the multiple stromal cellular subtypes and tumor stromal interactions expressed in RB tumors. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry for stromal cell markers CD31, CD68, alpha-smooth muscle (α-SMA), vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues sections of RB (n=12). The differential expression of stromal target molecules; fibroblast activation protein (FAP), tenascin-C (TNC), osteopontin (SPP1), bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2), stromal derived factor 2 and 4 (SDF2 and SDF4) in primary RB tumors (n=20) and normal retina (n=5) was studied by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The differential expression was correlated with the histopathological features of RB. The interaction between RB cell lines (Weri-Rb-1, NCC-RbC-51) and Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) was also studied using direct co-culture and indirect co-culture methods. The functional effect of the co-culture methods on the RB cells was evaluated by invasion and proliferation assays. Global gene expression was studied by using Affymetrix 3’ IVT microarray. Pathway prediction was performed using KEGG and the key molecules were validated using qRT-PCR. Results: The immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of several stromal cell types such as endothelial cells (CD31+;Vim+/-); macrophages (CD68+;Vim+/-); Fibroblasts (Vim+; CD31-;CD68- );myofibroblasts (α-SMA+/ Vim+) and invading retinal astrocytes/ differentiated retinal glia (GFAP+; Vim+). A characteristic distribution of these stromal cell types was observed in the tumor microenvironment, with endothelial cells predominantly seen in blood vessels and macrophages near actively proliferating tumor or necrotic areas. Retinal astrocytes and glia were predominant near the optic nerve regions in invasive tumors with sparse distribution in tumor foci. Fibroblasts were widely distributed with rare evidence of myofibroblasts in the tumor. Both gene and protein expression revealed statistically significant (P<0.05) up-regulation of FAP, TNC and BST2 in primary RB tumors compared to the normal retina. Co-culture of BMSC with RB cells promoted invasion and proliferation of RB cells in direct and indirect contact methods respectively. Direct co-culture of RB cell lines with BMSC resulted in gene expression changes in ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, IL-8 and TGF-β signaling pathways associated with cancer. In contrast, various metabolic pathways such a glucose, fructose and amino acid metabolism were significantly altered under the indirect co-culture condition. Conclusion: The study suggests that the close interaction between RB cells and the stroma might be involved in RB tumor invasion and progression which is likely to be mediated by ECM-receptor interactions and secretory factors. Targeting the tumor stroma would be an attractive option for redesigning treatment strategies for RB.

Keywords: gene expression profiles, retinoblastoma, stromal cells, tumor microenvironment

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