Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Cytokeratins

3 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can

Abstract:

It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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2 Pluripotent Stem Cells as Therapeutic Tools for Limbal Stem Cell Deficiencies and Drug Testing

Authors: Aberdam Edith, Sangari Linda, Petit Isabelle, Aberdam Daniel

Abstract:

Background and Rationale: Transparent avascularised cornea is essential for normal vision and depends on limbal stem cells (LSC) that reside between the cornea and the conjunctiva. Ocular burns or injuries may destroy the limbus, causing limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). The cornea becomes vascularised by invaded conjunctival cells, the stroma is scarring, resulting in corneal opacity and loss of vision. Grafted autologous limbus or cultivated autologous LCS can restore the vision, unless the two eyes are affected. Alternative cellular sources have been tested in the last decades, including oral mucosa or hair follicle epithelial cells. However, only partial success has been achieved by the use of these cells since they were not able to uniformly commit into corneal epithelial cells. Human pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) display both unlimited growth capacity and ability to differentiate into any cell type. Our goal was to design a standardized and reproducible protocol to produce transplantable autologous LSC from patients through cell reprogramming technology. Methodology: First, keratinocyte primary culture was established from a small number of plucked hair follicles of healthy donors. The resulting epithelial cells were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and further differentiate into corneal epithelial cells (CEC), according to a robust protocol that recapitulates the main step of corneal embryonic development. qRT-PCR analysis and immunofluorescent staining during the course of differentiation confirm the expression of stage specific markers of corneal embryonic lineage. First appear ectodermal progenitor-specific cytokeratins K8/K18, followed at day 7 by limbal-specific PAX6, TP63 and cytokeratins K5/K14. At day 15, K3/K12+-corneal cells are present. To amplify the iPSC-derived LSC (named COiPSC), intact small epithelial colonies were detached and cultivated in limbal cell-specific medium. In that culture conditions, the COiPSC can be frozen and thaw at any passage, while retaining their corneal characteristics for at least eight passages. To evaluate the potential of COiPSC as an alternative ocular toxicity model, COiPSC were treated at passage P0 to P4 with increasing amounts of SDS and Benzalkonium. Cell proliferation and apoptosis of treated cells was compared to LSC and the SV40-immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE) routinely used by cosmetological industrials. Of note, HCE are more resistant to toxicity than LSC. At P0, COiPSC were systematically more resistant to chemical toxicity than LSC and even to HCE. Remarkably, this behavior changed with passage since COiPSC at P2 became identical to LSC and thus closer to physiology than HCE. Comparative transcriptome analysis confirmed that COiPSC from P2 are similar to a mixture of LSC and CEC. Finally, by organotypic reconstitution assay, we demonstrated the ability of COiPSC to produce a 3D corneal epithelium on a stromal equivalent made of keratocytes. Conclusion: COiPSC could become valuable for two main applications: (1) an alternative robust tool to perform, in a reproducible and physiological manner, toxicity assays for cosmetic products and pharmacological tests of drugs. (2). COiPSC could become an alternative autologous source for cornea transplantation for LSCD.

Keywords: Limbal stem cell deficiency, iPSC, cornea, limbal stem cells

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1 Establishment and Characterization of a Dentigerous Cyst Cell Line

Authors: Muñiz-Lino Marcos Agustín, Vazquez Borbolla Jessica, Licéaga-Escalera Carlos

Abstract:

The ectomesenchymal tissues involved in tooth development and their remnants are the origin of different odontogenic lesions, including tumors and cysts of the jaws, with a wide range of clinical behaviors. Dentigerous cyst (DC) represents approximately 20% of all cases of odontogenic cysts, and it has been demonstrated that it can develop benign and malignant odontogenic tumors. DC is characterized by bone destruction of the area surrounding the crown of a tooth which has not erupted and it contain is liquid. The treatment of odontogenic tumors and cysts usually are partial or total removal of the jaw, causing important secondary co-morbidities. However, molecules implicated in DC pathogenesis as well in its development to odontogenic tumors remains unknown. A cellular model may be useful to study these molecules, but that model has not been established yet. Here, we reported the establishment of a cell culture derived from a dentigerous cyst. This cell line was named DeCy-1. In spite of its ectomesenchymal morphology, DeCy-1 cells express epithelial markers such as cytokeratins 5, 6, and 8. Furthermore, these cells express the ODAM protein, which is present in odontogenesis and in dental follicle, indicating that DeCy-1 cells derived from odontogenic epithelium. Analysis by electron microscopy of this cell line showed that it has a high vesicular activity, suggesting that DeCy-1 could secrete molecules that may be involved in DC pathogenesis. Thus, secreted proteins were analyzed by PAGE-SDS, where we observed approximately 11 bands. In addition, the capacity of these secretions to degrade proteins was analyzed by gelatin substrate zymography. A degradation band of about 62 kDa was found in these assays. Western blot assays suggested that the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) is responsible of this protease activity. Thus, our results indicate that the establishment of a cell line derived from DC is a useful in vitro model to study the biology of this odontogenic lesion and its participation in the development of odontogenic tumors.

Keywords: dentigerous cyst, MMP20, cancer, cell culture

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