Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: EpCAM

4 Determination of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients by Electrochemical Biosensor

Authors: Gökçe Erdemir, İlhan Yaylım, Serap Erdem-Kuruca, Musa Mutlu Can

Abstract:

It has been determined that the main reason for the death of cancer disease is caused by metastases rather than the primary tumor. The cells that leave the primary tumor and enter the circulation and cause metastasis in the secondary organs are called "circulating tumor cells" (CTCs). The presence and number of circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor prognosis in many major types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. It is thought that knowledge of circulating tumor cells, which are seen as the main cause of cancer-related deaths due to metastasis, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The fact that tissue biopsies used in cancer diagnosis and follow-up are an invasive method and are insufficient in understanding the risk of metastasis and the progression of the disease have led to new searches. Liquid biopsy tests performed with a small amount of blood sample taken from the patient for the detection of CTCs are easy and reliable, as well as allowing more than one sample to be taken over time to follow the prognosis. However, since these cells are found in very small amounts in the blood, it is very difficult to capture them and specially designed analytical techniques and devices are required. Methods based on the biological and physical properties of the cells are used to capture these cells in the blood. Early diagnosis is very important in following the prognosis of tumors of epithelial origin such as breast, lung, colon and prostate. Molecules such as EpCAM, vimentin, and cytokeratins are expressed on the surface of cells that pass into the circulation from very few primary tumors and reach secondary organs from the circulation, and are used in the diagnosis of cancer in the early stage. For example, increased EpCAM expression in breast and prostate cancer has been associated with prognosis. These molecules can be determined in some blood or body fluids to be taken from patients. However, more sensitive methods are required to be able to determine when they are at a low level according to the course of the disease. The aim is to detect these molecules found in very few cancer cells with the help of sensitive, fast-sensing biosensors, first in breast cancer cells reproduced in vitro and then in blood samples taken from breast cancer patients. In this way, cancer cells can be diagnosed early and easily and effectively treated.

Keywords: electrochemical biosensors, breast cancer, circulating tumor cells, EpCAM, Vimentin, Cytokeratins

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3 Tumor Cell Detection, Isolation and Monitoring Using Bi-Layer Magnetic Microfluidic Chip

Authors: Amir Seyfoori, Ehsan Samiei, Mohsen Akbari

Abstract:

The use of microtechnology for detection and high yield isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown enormous promise as an indication of clinical metastasis prognosis and cancer treatment monitoring. The Immunomagnetic assay has been also coupled to microtechnology to improve the selectivity and efficiency of the current methods of cancer biomarker isolation. In this way, generation and configuration of the local high gradient magnetic field play essential roles in such assay. Additionally, considering the intrinsic heterogeneity of cancer cells, real-time analysis of isolated cells is necessary to characterize their responses to therapy. Totally, on-chip isolation and monitoring of the specific tumor cells is considered as a pressing need in the way of modified cancer therapy. To address these challenges, we have developed a bi-layer magnetic-based microfluidic chip for enhanced CTC detection and capturing. Micromagnet arrays at the bottom layer of the chip were fabricated using a new method of magnetic nanoparticle paste deposition so that they were arranged at the center of the chain microchannel with the lowest fluid velocity zone. Breast cancer cells labelled with EPCAM-conjugated smart microgels were immobilized on the tip of the micromagnets with greater localized magnetic field and stronger cell-micromagnet interaction. Considering different magnetic nano-powder usage (MnFe2O4 & gamma-Fe2O3) and micromagnet shapes (ellipsoidal & arrow), the capture efficiency of the systems was adjusted while the higher CTC capture efficiency was acquired for MnFe2O4 arrow micromagnet as around 95.5%. As a proof of concept of on-chip tumor cell monitoring, magnetic smart microgels made of thermo-responsive poly N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid (PNIPAM-AA) composition were used for both purposes of targeted cell capturing as well as cell monitoring using antibody conjugation and fluorescent dye loading at the same time. In this regard, magnetic microgels were successfully used as cell tracker after isolation process so that by raising the temperature up to 37⁰ C, they released the contained dye and stained the targeted cell just after capturing. This microfluidic device was able to provide a platform for detection, isolation and efficient real-time analysis of specific CTCs in the liquid biopsy of breast cancer patients.

Keywords: circulating tumor cells, microfluidic, immunomagnetic, cell isolation

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2 The Physiological Effect of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Cancer Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Adult Stem Cells

Authors: Jeongyeon Park, Yeo Jun Yoon, Jiyoung Seo, In Seok Moon, Hae Jun Lee, Kiwon Song

Abstract:

Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) is defined as a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. CAPP generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy. With an annular type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) CAPP-generating device combined with a helium (He) gas feeding system, we showed that CAPP selectively induced apoptosis in various cancer cells while it promoted proliferation of the adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ASC). The apoptotic effect of CAPP was highly selective toward p53-mutated cancer cells. The intracellular ROS was mainly responsible for apoptotic cell death in CAPP-treated cancer cells. CAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of CAPP as a potent cancer therapy. With the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells, CAPP stimulated proliferation of the ASC, a kind of mesenchymal stem cell that is capable of self-renewing and differentiating into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and neurons. CAPP-treated ASCs expressed the stem cell markers and differentiated into adipocytes as untreated ASCs. The increase of proliferation by CAPP in ASCs was offset by a NO scavenger but was not affected by ROS scavengers, suggesting that NO generated by CAPP is responsible for the activated proliferation in ASCs. Usually, cancer stem cells are reported to be resistant to known cancer therapies. When we applied CAPP of the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells to liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) that express CD133 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) cancer stem cell markers, apoptotic cell death was not examined. Apoptotic cell death of liver CSCs was induced by the CAPP generated from a device with an air-based flatten type DBD. An exposure of liver CSCs to CAPP decreased the viability of liver CSCs to a great extent, suggesting plasma be used as a promising anti-cancer treatment. To validate whether CAPP can be a promising anti-cancer treatment or an adjuvant modality to eliminate remnant tumor in cancer surgery of vestibular schwannoma, we applied CAPP to mouse schwannoma cell line SC4 Nf2 ‑/‑ and human schwannoma cell line HEI-193. A CAPP treatment leads to anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. We are currently studying the molecular mechanisms of differential physiological effect of CAPP; the proliferation of ASCs and apoptosis of various cancer cells and CSCs.

Keywords: cold atmospheric pressure plasma, apoptosis, proliferation, cancer cells, adult stem cells

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1 TNF Modulation of Cancer Stem Cells in Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Rafia S. Al-lamki, Jun Wang, Simon Pacey, Jordan Pober, John R. Bradley

Abstract:

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), signaling through TNFR2, may act an autocrine growth factor for renal tubular epithelial cells. Clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCC) contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) that give rise to progeny which form the bulk of the tumor. CSCs are rarely in cell cycle and, as non-proliferating cells, resist most chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, recurrence after chemotherapy may result from the survival of CSCs. Therapeutic targeting of both CSCs and the more differentiated bulk tumor populations may provide a more effective strategy for treatment of RCC. In this study, we hypothesized that TNFR2 signaling will induce CSCs in ccRCC to enter cell cycle so that treatment with ligands that engage TNFR2 will render CSCs susceptible to chemotherapy. To test this hypothesis, we have utilized wild-type TNF (wtTNF) or specific muteins selective for TNFR1 (R1TNF) or TNFR2 (R2TNF) to treat either short-term organ cultures of ccRCC and adjacent normal kidney (NK) tissue or cultures of CD133+ cells isolated from ccRCC and adjacent NK, hereafter referred to as stem cell-like cells (SCLCs). The effect of cyclophosphamide (CP), currently an effective anticancer agent, was tested on CD133+SCLCs from ccRCC and NK before and after R2TNF treatment. Responses to TNF were assessed by flow cytometry (FACS), immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR, TUNEL, and cell viability assays. Cytotoxic effect of CP was analyzed by Annexin V and propidium iodide staining with FACS. In addition, we assessed the effect of TNF on isolated SCLCs differentiation using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Clinical samples of ccRCC contain a greater number SCLCs compared to NK and the number of SCSC increases with higher tumor grade. Isolated SCLCs show expression of stemness markers (oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28) but not differentiation markers (cytokeratin, CD31, CD45, and EpCAM). In ccRCC organ cultures, wtTNF and R2TNF increase CD133 and TNFR2 expression and promote cell cycle entry whereas wtTNF and R1TNF increase TNFR1 expression and promote cell death of SCLCs. Similar findings are observed in SCLCs isolated from NK but the effect was greater in SCLCs isolated from ccRCC. Application of CP distinctly triggered apoptotic and necrotic cell death in SLCSs pre-treatment with R2TNF as compared to CP treatment alone, with SCLCs from ccRCC more sensitive to CP compared to SLCS from NK. Furthermore, TNF promotes differentiation of SCLCs to an epithelial phenotype in 3D cultures, confirmed by cytokeratin expression and loss of stemness markers Nanog and Sox2. The differentiated cells show positive expression of TNF and TNFR2. These findings provide evidence that selective engagement of TNFR2 drive CSCs to cell proliferation/differentiation, and targeting of cycling cells with TNFR2 agonist in combination with anti-cancer agents may be a potential therapy for RCC.

Keywords: cancer stem cells, ccRCC, cell cycle, cell death, TNF, TNFR1, TNFR2, CD133

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