Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: I. D. Arroyo

12 Methodologies, Systems Development Life Cycle and Modeling Languages in Agile Software Development

Authors: I. D. Arroyo

Abstract:

This article seeks to integrate different concepts from contemporary software engineering with an agile development approach. We seek to clarify some definitions and uses, we make a difference between the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and the methodologies, we differentiate the types of frameworks such as methodological, philosophical and behavioral, standards and documentation. We define relationships based on the documentation of the development process through formal and ad hoc models, and we define the usefulness of using DevOps and Agile Modeling as integrative methodologies of principles and best practices.

Keywords: methodologies, modeling languages, agile modeling, UML

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
11 Adsorption of Paracetamol Using Activated Carbon of Dende and Babassu Coconut Mesocarp

Authors: R. C. Ferreira, H. H. C. De Lima, A. A. Cândido, O. M. Couto Junior, P. A. Arroyo, K. Q De Carvalho, G. F. Gauze, M. A. S. D. Barros

Abstract:

Removal of the widespread used drug paracetamol from water was investigated using activated carbon originated from dende coconut mesocarp and babassu coconut mesocarp. Kinetic and equilibrium data were obtained at different values of pH. Babassu activated carbon showed higher efficiency due to its acidity and higher microporosity. Pseudo-second order model was better adjusted to the kinetic results. Equilibrium data may be represented by Langmuir equation. Lower solution pH provided better removal efficiency as the carbonil groups may be attracted by the positively charged carbon surface.

Keywords: adsorption, activated carbon, babassu, dende

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
10 Influence of Water Hardness on Column Adsorption of Paracetamol by Biomass of Babassu Coconut Shell

Authors: O. M. Couto Junior, I. Matos, I. M. Fonseca, P. A. Arroyo, E. A. Silva, M. A. S. D. Barros

Abstract:

This study was the adsorption of paracetamol from aqueous solutions on fixed beds of activated carbon from babassy coconut shell. Several operation conditions on the shape of breakthrough curves were investigated and proposed model is successfully validated with the literature data and obtained experimental data. The initial paracetamol concentration increases from 20 to 50 mg.L-1, and the break point time decreases, tb, from 18.00 to 10.50 hours. The fraction of unused bed length, HUNB, at break-through point is obtained in the range of 1.62 to 2.81 for 20 to 50 mg.L-1 of initial paracetamol concentration. The presence of Ca+2 and Mg+2 are responsible for increasing the hardness of the water, affects significantly the adsorption kinetics, and lower removal efficiency by adsorption of paracetamol on activated carbons. The axial dispersion coefficients, DL, was constants for concentrated feed solution, but this parameter has different values for deionized and hardness water. The mass transfer coefficient, Ks, was increasing with concentrated feed solution.

Keywords: paracetamol, adsorption, water hardness, activated carbon.

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
9 Effects of Medium Composition on the Production of Biomass and a Carbohydrate Isomerase by a Novel Strain of Lactobacillus

Authors: M. Miriam Hernández-Arroyo, Ivonne Caro-Gonzales, Miguel Ángel Plascencia-Espinosa, Sergio R. Trejo-Estrada

Abstract:

A large biodiversity of Lactobacillus strains has been detected in traditional foods and beverages from Mexico. A selected strain of Lactobacillus sp - PODI-20, used for the obtained from an artisanal fermented beverage was cultivated in different carbon sources in a complex medium, in order to define which carbon sourced induced more effectively the isomerization of arabinose by cell fractions obtained by fermentation. Four different carbon sources were tested in a medium containing peptone and yeast extract and mineral salts. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, and lactose were tested individually at three different concentrations: 3.5, 6, and 10% w/v. The biomass yield ranged from 1.72 to 17.6 g/L. The cell pellet was processed by mechanical homogenization. Both fractions, the cellular debris, and the lysis supernatant were tested for their ability to isomerize arabinose into ribulose. The highest yield of isomer was 12 % of isomerization in the supernatant fractions; whereas up to 9.3% was obtained by the use of cell debris. The isomerization of arabinose has great significance in the production of lactic acid by fermentation of complex carbohydrate hydrolysates.

Keywords: isomerase, tagatose, aguamiel, isomerization

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
8 Synthesis of Telechelic Polymers for Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Paula C Arroyo, Norma A Sánchez, Mikhail Tlenkopatchev

Abstract:

The continuous growth in population has resulted in an increment in road construction. The road construction requires more lasting and resistant pavements. Among the different applications of polymers, the reinforcement of pavements throw the modification of asphalt has demonstrated to be an area of special interest for new polymers. The modified asphalt should exhibit a considerable good performance, good elastic properties and an increment in the performance grade (PG). Some of the current polymers used in asphalt are styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-(glycidyl methacrylate) and ethylene-vinyl acetate EVA. The goal of this study was to synthesize low molecular weight (2,000 – 150,000 D) telechelic polymers to be applied at low concentrations in asphalt in order to modify its rheological properties and make it more resistant and durable. The telechelic polymers were obtained from different molar relationships between tensioned and functionalized olefins by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and cross metathesis (CR). The synthesis was carried out under inert conditions with Grubbs second generation catalyst. The reaction efficiency was superior to 96% and telechelic polymers were characterized. The telechelic polymers were used to modify asphalt and the rheological properties of the modified asphalt were evaluated finding that at low concentrations (1%) the PG increased in one or two degrees.

Keywords: asphalt polymers, metathesis polymers, telechelic polymers, modified asphalt

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
7 Antifungal Susceptibility of Yeasts Isolated from Clinical Samples from a Tertiary Hospital from State of Puebla

Authors: Ricardo Munguia-Perez, Nayeli Remigio-Alvarado, M.Miriam Hernandez-Arroyo, Elsa Castañeda-Roldan

Abstract:

Fungi have emerged as important pathogens causing morbidity and mortality mainly in immunosuppressed, malnourished and elderly patients. It has detected an increase in resistance to azoles primarily to fluconazol. The fungal infections have become a problem of public health for the resistance to antifungal agents, they have developed new antifungals with broad-spectrum. The aim of this study was determine the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated from clinical samples (respiratory secretions, exudates, wounds, blood cultures, urine cultures) obtained from inpatients and outpatients of a tertiary hospital from State of Puebla. The antifungal susceptibility of the yeast from several clinical samples were determined by the CLS M44-A disk diffusion methods. 149 samples of yeast were analyzed. All species were 100% susceptible to nystatin and amphotericin B. Candida albicans showed resistance of 95.5 % to fluconazole, 50.7 % to 5-flurocytosine and 55.2 % intermediate susceptibility to ketoconazole. Candida glabrata 81.3 % was susceptibility to ketoconazole and 75 % to fluconazole, for the case of 5-flurocytosine the 56.3 % was susceptible. Candida krusei 100 % was susceptible to ketoconazole, 50 % to fluconazole and 37.5 % to 5-flurocytosine. The internal medicine have greater diversity of yeast, the samples have susceptibility of 64.7% to ketoconazole, 47.1 % to fluconazole and 27.5 % to 5-flurocytosine. Hospitalized patients are more resistant to fluconazole and nystatin, but in the case of outpatients presents resistance to ketoconazole.

Keywords: antifungal, susceptibility, yeast, clinical samples

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
6 Culturable Microbial Diversity of Agave Artisanal Fermentations from Central Mexico

Authors: Thalía Moreno-García Malo, Santiago Torres-Ríos, María G. González-Cruz, María M. Hernández-Arroyo, Sergio R. Trejo-Estrada

Abstract:

Agave atrovirens is the main source of agave sap, the raw material for the production of pulque, an artisanal fermented beverage, traditional since prehispanic times in the highlands of central Mexico. Agave sap is rich in glucose, sucrose and fructooligosaccharides, and strongly differs from agave syrup from A. tequilana, which is mostly a high molecular weight fructan. Agave sap is converted into pulque by a highly diverse microbial community which includes bacteria, yeast and even filamentous fungi. The bacterial diversity has been recently studied. But the composition of consortia derived from directed enrichments differs sharply from the whole fermentative consortium. Using classical microbiology methods, and selective liquid and solid media formulations, either bacterial or fungal consortia were developed and analyzed. Bacterial consortia able to catabolize specific prebiotic saccharides were selected and preserved for future developments. Different media formulations, selective for bacterial genera such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were also used. For yeast, specific media, osmotic pressure and unique carbon sources were used as selective agents. Results show that most groups are represented in the enrichment cultures; although very few are recoverable from the whole consortium in artisanal pulque. Diversity and abundance vary among consortia. Potential bacterial probiotics obtained from agave sap and agave juices show tolerance to hydrochloric acid, as well as strong antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Agave, pulque, microbial consortia, prebiotic activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
5 International Trade and Regional Inequality in South America: A Study Applied to Brazil and Argentina

Authors: Mónica Arroyo

Abstract:

South America shows increasing decline in regional export values in the last years, after a strong growth of trade flows especially with China up to 2013. This change is due to the end of the commodity price boom, the slowing of the Chinese economy and the effects of the 2008 economic crisis. This paper examines the integration of regional economies in this context, particularly the situation in Brazil and Argentina. Based on transformations over the last two decades, the analysis is focused on the spatial circuits of production linked to foreign markets, contributing to the understanding of the different uses of territory and the within-country inequality. The South American regional exports, consisting basically of raw materials, are concentrated in a few companies. Large areas are intended for the production of agriculture and mining commodities, under the command of major economic groups, both domestic and foreign, relegating the local population to less productive places or, in most cases, forcing them to change their activity and to migrate to other regions in search of some source of income. On the other hand, the dynamics of these commodities’ spatial circuits of production print requirements in territories in terms of infrastructure and regulation. Capturing this movement requires understanding businesses and government’s role in territorial regulation, and consequently how regional systems are changing – for instance, economic specialisation, growing role of services, investment in roads, railways, ports, and airports. This paper aims to highlight topics for discussion on regional economic dynamics and their different degrees of internationalisation. The intention is to contribute to the debate about the relations between trade, globalization, and development.

Keywords: regional inequality, international trade, developing world, South America

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
4 Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Production from Nitritation/Denitritation: Treatment of Centrate from Pig Manure Co-Digestion as a Model

Authors: Lai Peng, Cristina Pintucci, Dries Seuntjens, José Carvajal-Arroyo, Siegfried Vlaeminck

Abstract:

Economic incentives drive the implementation of short-cut nitrogen removal processes such as nitritation/denitritation (Nit/DNit) to manage nitrogen in waste streams devoid of biodegradable organic carbon. However, as any biological nitrogen removal process, the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) could be emitted from Nit/DNit. Challenges remain in understanding the fundamental mechanisms and development of engineered mitigation strategies for N2O production. To provide answers, this work focuses on manure as a model, the biggest wasted nitrogen mass flow through our economies. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR; 4.5 L) was used treating the centrate (centrifuge supernatant; 2.0 ± 0.11 g N/L of ammonium) from an anaerobic digester processing mainly pig manure, supplemented with a co-substrate. Glycerin was used as external carbon source, a by-product of vegetable oil. Out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was targeted using a combination of low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (down to 0.5 mg O2/L), high temperature (35ºC) and relatively high free ammonia (FA) (initially 10 mg NH3-N/L). After reaching steady state, the process was able to remove 100% of ammonium with minimum nitrite and nitrate in the effluent, at a reasonably high nitrogen loading rate (0.4 g N/L/d). Substantial N2O emissions (over 15% of the nitrogen loading) were observed at the baseline operational condition, which were even increased under nitrite accumulation and a low organic carbon to nitrogen ratio. Yet, higher DO (~2.2 mg O2/L) lowered aerobic N2O emissions and weakened the dependency of N2O on nitrite concentration, suggesting a shift of N2O production pathway at elevated DO levels. Limiting the greenhouse gas emissions (environmental protection) from such a system could be substantially minimized by increasing the external carbon dosage (a cost factor), but also through the implementation of an intermittent aeration and feeding strategy. Promising steps forward have been presented in this abstract, yet at the conference the insights of ongoing experiments will also be shared.

Keywords: mitigation, nitrous oxide, nitritation/denitritation, pig manure

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
3 Identifying Temporary Housing Main Vertexes through Assessing Post-Disaster Recovery Programs

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Oriol Pons, Carmen Mendoza Arroyo, Albert de la Fuente

Abstract:

In the aftermath of a natural disaster, the major challenge most cities and societies face, regardless of their diverse level of prosperity, is to provide temporary housing (TH) for the displaced population (DP). However, the features of TH, which have been applied in previous recovery programs, greatly varied from case to case. This situation demonstrates that providing temporary accommodation for DP in a short period time and usually in great numbers is complicated in terms of satisfying all the beneficiaries’ needs, regardless of the societies’ welfare levels. Furthermore, when previously used strategies are applied to different areas, the chosen strategies are most likely destined to fail, unless the strategies are context and culturally based. Therefore, as the population of disaster-prone cities are increasing, decision-makers need a platform to help to determine all the factors, which caused the outcomes of the prior programs. To this end, this paper aims to assess the problems, requirements, limitations, potential responses, chosen strategies, and their outcomes, in order to determine the main elements that have influenced the TH process. In this regard, and in order to determine a customizable strategy, this study analyses the TH programs of five different cases as: Marmara earthquake, 1999; Bam earthquake, 2003; Aceh earthquake and tsunami, 2004; Hurricane Katrina, 2005; and, L’Aquila earthquake, 2009. The research results demonstrate that the main vertexes of TH are: (1) local characteristics, including local potential and affected population features, (2) TH properties, which needs to be considered in four phases: planning, provision/construction, operation, and second life, and (3) natural hazards impacts, which embraces intensity and type. Accordingly, this study offers decision-makers the opportunity to discover the main vertexes, their subsets, interactions, and the relation between strategies and outcomes based on the local conditions of each case. Consequently, authorities may acquire the capability to design a customizable method in the face of complicated post-disaster housing in the wake of future natural disasters.

Keywords: post-disaster temporary accommodation, urban resilience, natural disaster, local characteristic

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
2 Pushover Analysis of a Typical Bridge Built in Central Zone of Mexico

Authors: Arturo Galvan, Jatziri Y. Moreno-Martinez, Daniel Arroyo-Montoya, Jose M. Gutierrez-Villalobos

Abstract:

Bridges are one of the most seismically vulnerable structures on highway transportation systems. The general process for assessing the seismic vulnerability of a bridge involves the evaluation of its overall capacity and demand. One of the most common procedures to obtain this capacity is by means of pushover analysis of the structure. Typically, the bridge capacity is assessed using non-linear static methods or non-linear dynamic analyses. The non-linear dynamic approaches use step by step numerical solutions for assessing the capacity with the consuming computer time inconvenience. In this study, a nonlinear static analysis (‘pushover analysis’) was performed to predict the collapse mechanism of a typical bridge built in the central zone of Mexico (Celaya, Guanajuato). The bridge superstructure consists of three simple supported spans with a total length of 76 m: 22 m of the length of extreme spans and 32 m of length of the central span. The deck width is of 14 m and the concrete slab depth is of 18 cm. The bridge is built by means of frames of five piers with hollow box-shaped sections. The dimensions of these piers are 7.05 m height and 1.20 m diameter. The numerical model was created using a commercial software considering linear and non-linear elements. In all cases, the piers were represented by frame type elements with geometrical properties obtained from the structural project and construction drawings of the bridge. The deck was modeled with a mesh of rectangular thin shell (plate bending and stretching) finite elements. The moment-curvature analysis was performed for the sections of the piers of the bridge considering in each pier the effect of confined concrete and its reinforcing steel. In this way, plastic hinges were defined on the base of the piers to carry out the pushover analysis. In addition, time history analyses were performed using 19 accelerograms of real earthquakes that have been registered in Guanajuato. In this way, the displacements produced by the bridge were determined. Finally, pushover analysis was applied through the control of displacements in the piers to obtain the overall capacity of the bridge before the failure occurs. It was concluded that the lateral deformation of the piers due to a critical earthquake occurred in this zone is almost imperceptible due to the geometry and reinforcement demanded by the current design standards and compared to its displacement capacity, they were excessive. According to the analysis, it was found that the frames built with five piers increase the rigidity in the transverse direction of the bridge. Hence it is proposed to reduce these frames of five piers to three piers, maintaining the same geometrical characteristics and the same reinforcement in each pier. Also, the mechanical properties of materials (concrete and reinforcing steel) were maintained. Once a pushover analysis was performed considering this configuration, it was concluded that the bridge would continue having a “correct” seismic behavior, at least for the 19 accelerograms considered in this study. In this way, costs in material, construction, time and labor would be reduced in this study case.

Keywords: collapse mechanism, moment-curvature analysis, overall capacity, push-over analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
1 Numerical Prediction of Width Crack of Concrete Dapped-End Beams

Authors: Jatziri Y. Moreno-Martinez, Arturo Galvan, Xavier Chavez Cardenas, Hiram Arroyo

Abstract:

Several methods have been utilized to study the prediction of cracking of concrete structural under loading. The finite element analysis is an alternative that shows good results. The aim of this work was the numerical study of the width crack in reinforced concrete beams with dapped ends, these are frequently found in bridge girders and precast concrete construction. Properly restricting cracking is an important aspect of the design in dapped ends, it has been observed that the cracks that exceed the allowable widths are unacceptable in an aggressive environment for reinforcing steel. For simulating the crack width, the discrete crack approach was considered by means of a Cohesive Zone (CZM) Model using a function to represent the crack opening. Two cases of dapped-end were constructed and tested in the laboratory of Structures and Materials of Engineering Institute of UNAM. The first case considers a reinforcement based on hangers as well as on vertical and horizontal ring, the second case considers 50% of the vertical stirrups in the dapped end to the main part of the beam were replaced by an equivalent area (vertically projected) of diagonal bars under. The loading protocol consisted on applying symmetrical loading to reach the service load. The models were performed using the software package ANSYS v. 16.2. The concrete structure was modeled using three-dimensional solid elements SOLID65 capable of cracking in tension and crushing in compression. Drucker-Prager yield surface was used to include the plastic deformations. The reinforcement was introduced with smeared approach. Interface delamination was modeled by traditional fracture mechanics methods such as the nodal release technique adopting softening relationships between tractions and the separations, which in turn introduce a critical fracture energy that is also the energy required to break apart the interface surfaces. This technique is called CZM. The interface surfaces of the materials are represented by a contact elements Surface-to-Surface (CONTA173) with bonded (initial contact). The Mode I dominated bilinear CZM model assumes that the separation of the material interface is dominated by the displacement jump normal to the interface. Furthermore, the opening crack was taken into consideration according to the maximum normal contact stress, the contact gap at the completion of debonding, and the maximum equivalent tangential contact stress. The contact elements were placed in the crack re-entrant corner. To validate the proposed approach, the results obtained with the previous procedure are compared with experimental test. A good correlation between the experimental and numerical Load-Displacement curves was presented, the numerical models also allowed to obtain the load-crack width curves. In these two cases, the proposed model confirms the capability of predicting the maximum crack width, with an error of ± 30 %. Finally, the orientation of the crack is a fundamental for the prediction of crack width. The results regarding the crack width can be considered as good from the practical point view. Load-Displacement curve of the test and the location of the crack were able to obtain favorable results.

Keywords: cohesive zone model, dapped-end beams, discrete crack approach, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 84