Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Shinichi Arakawa

21 Utility Analysis of API Economy Based on Multi-Sided Platform Markets Model

Authors: Mami Sugiura, Shinichi Arakawa, Masayuki Murata, Satoshi Imai, Toru Katagiri, Motoyoshi Sekiya

Abstract:

API (Application Programming Interface) economy, where many participants join/interact and form the economy, is expected to increase collaboration between information services through API, and thereby, it is expected to increase market value from the service collaborations. In this paper, we introduce API evaluators, which are the activator of API economy by reviewing and/or evaluating APIs, and develop a multi-sided API economy model that formulates interactions among platform provider, API developers, consumers, and API evaluators. By obtaining the equilibrium that maximizes utility of all participants, the impact of API evaluators on the utility of participants in the API economy is revealed. Numerical results show that, with the existence of API evaluators, the number of developers and consumers increase by 1.5% and the utility of platformer increases by 2.3%. We also discuss the strategies of platform provider to maximize its utility under the existence of API evaluators.

Keywords: API economy, multi-sided markets, API evaluator, platform, platform provider

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20 Breath Ethanol Imaging System Using Real Time Biochemical Luminescence for Evaluation of Alcohol Metabolic Capacity

Authors: Xin Wang, Munkbayar Munkhjargal, Kumiko Miyajima, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

The measurement of gaseous ethanol plays an important role of evaluation of alcohol metabolic capacity in clinical and forensic analysis. A 2-dimensional visualization system for gaseous ethanol was constructed and tested in visualization of breath and transdermal alcohol. We demonstrated breath ethanol measurement using developed high-sensitive visualization system. The concentration of breath ethanol calculated with the imaging signal was significantly different between the volunteer subjects of ALDH2 (+) and (-).

Keywords: breath ethanol, ethnaol imaging, biochemical luminescence, alcohol metabolism

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19 Cavitas Sensors into Human Cavities: Soft-Contact Lens and Mouthguard Sensors

Authors: Kohji Mitsubayashi, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

‘Cavitas sensors’ attached to human body cavities such as a contact lens type and a mouthguard (‘no implantable', ‘no wearable’) attracted attention as self-detachable devices for daily medicine. In this contribution, the soft contact lens glucose sensor for tear sugar monitoring will be introduced. And the mouthguard sensor with dental materials integrated with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wireless module for real-time monitoring of saliva glucose would also be demonstrated. In the near future, those self-detachable cavitas sensors are expected to improve quality of life in view of the aging of society.

Keywords: cavitas sensor, biosensor, contact lens, mouthguard

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18 Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol by Fe-Doped Tio2 under Solar Simulated Light

Authors: Mohamed Gar Alalm, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Tawfik

Abstract:

In the present work, photocatalytic oxidation of phenol by iron (Fe+2) doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) was studied. The source of irradiation was solar simulated light under measured UV flux. The effect of light intensity, pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of phenol were investigated. The maximum removal of phenol at optimum conditions was 78%. The optimum pH was 5.3. The most effective degradation occurred when the catalyst dosage was 600 mg/L. increasing the initial concentration of phenol decreased the degradation efficiency due to the deactivation of active sites by additional intermediates. Phenol photocatalytic degradation moderately fitted to the pseudo-first order kinetic equation approximated from Langmuir–Hinshelwood model.

Keywords: phenol, photocatalytic, solar, titanium dioxide

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17 Influence of Different Thicknesses on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of a-C:H Films

Authors: S. Tunmee, P. Wongpanya, I. Toda, X. L. Zhou, Y. Nakaya, N. Konkhunthot, S. Arakawa, H. Saitoh

Abstract:

The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) were deposited on p-type Si (100) substrates at different thicknesses by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (rf-PECVD). Raman spectra display asymmetric diamond-like peaks, representative of the a-C:H films. The decrease of intensity ID/IG ratios revealed the sp3 content arise at different thicknesses of the a-C:H films. In terms of mechanical properties, the high hardness and elastic modulus values show the elastic and plastic deformation behaviors related to sp3 content in amorphous carbon films. Electro chemical properties showed that the a-C:H films exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in air-saturated 3.5 wt% NaCl solution for pH 2 at room temperature. Thickness increasing affected the small sp2 clusters in matrix, restricting the velocity transfer and exchange of electrons. The deposited a-C:H films exhibited excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.

Keywords: thickness, mechanical properties, electrochemical corrosion properties, a-C:H film

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16 Novel CFRP Adhesive Joints and Structures for Offshore Application

Authors: M. R. Abusrea, Shiyi Jiang, Dingding Chen, Kazuo Arakawa

Abstract:

Novel wind-lens turbine designs can augment power output. Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is used to form large and complex structures from a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite. Typically, wind-lens turbine structures are fabricated in segments, and then bonded to form the final structure. This paper introduces five new adhesive joints, divided into two groups: One is constructed between dry carbon and CFRP fabrics, and the other is constructed with two dry carbon fibers. All joints and CFRP fabrics were made in our laboratory using VARTM manufacturing techniques. Specimens were prepared for tensile testing to measure joint performance. The results showed that the second group of joints achieved a higher tensile strength than the first group. On the other hand, the tensile fracture behavior of the two groups showed the same pattern of crack originating near the joint ends followed by crack propagation until fracture.

Keywords: adhesive joints, CFRP, VARTM, resin transfer molding

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15 Application of Digital Image Correlation Technique on Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process and Performance Evaluation of the Produced Materials

Authors: Dingding Chen, Kazuo Arakawa, Masakazu Uchino, Changheng Xu

Abstract:

Vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) is a promising manufacture process for making large and complex fiber reinforced composite structures. However, the complexity of the flow of the resin in the infusion stage usually leads to nonuniform property distribution of the produced composite part. In order to control the flow of the resin, the situation of flow should be mastered. For the safety of the usage of the produced composite in practice, the understanding of the property distribution is essential. In this paper, we did some trials on monitoring the resin infusion stage and evaluation for the fiber volume fraction distribution of the VARTM produced composite using the digital image correlation methods. The results show that 3D-DIC is valid on monitoring the resin infusion stage and it is possible to use 2D-DIC to estimate the distribution of the fiber volume fraction on a FRP plate.

Keywords: digital image correlation, VARTM, FRP, fiber volume fraction

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14 Sniff-Camera for Imaging of Ethanol Vapor in Human Body Gases after Drinking

Authors: Toshiyuki Sato, Kenta Iitani, Koji Toma, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

A 2-dimensional imaging system (Sniff-camera) for gaseous ethanol emissions from a human palm skin was constructed and demonstrated. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence (CL) by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. A conversion of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional CL was conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. High sensitivity imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each pixel on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions based on the metabolism of oral alcohol administration. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin.

Keywords: sniff-camera, gas-imaging, ethanol vapor, human body gas

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13 Analyzing the Market Growth in Application Programming Interface Economy Using Time-Evolving Model

Authors: Hiroki Yoshikai, Shin’ichi Arakawa, Tetsuya Takine, Masayuki Murata

Abstract:

Application Programming Interface (API) economy is expected to create new value by converting corporate services such as information processing and data provision into APIs and using these APIs to connect services. Understanding the dynamics of a market of API economy under the strategies of participants is crucial to fully maximize the values of the API economy. To capture the behavior of a market in which the number of participants changes over time, we present a time-evolving market model for a platform in which API providers who provide APIs to service providers participate in addition to service providers and consumers. Then, we use the market model to clarify the role API providers play in expanding market participants and forming ecosystems. The results show that the platform with API providers increased the number of market participants by 67% and decreased the cost of developing services by 25% compared to the platform without API providers. Furthermore, during the expansion phase of the market, it is found that the profits of participants are mostly the same when 70% of the revenue from consumers is distributed to service providers and API providers. It is also found that, when the market is mature, the profits of the service provider and API provider will decrease significantly due to their competition, and the profit of the platform increases.

Keywords: API economy, ecosystem, platform, API providers

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12 Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

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11 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

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10 Heat Forging Analysis Method on Blank Consist of Two Metals

Authors: Takashi Ueda, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Forging parts is used to automobiles. Because they have high strength and it is possible to press them into complicated shape. When it is possible to manufacture hollow forging parts, it leads to reduce weight of the automobiles. But, hollow forging parts are confined to axisymmetrical shape. Hollow forging parts that were pressed to complicated shape are expected. Therefore, we forge a blank that aluminum alloy was inserted in stainless steel. After that, we can provide complex forging parts that are reduced weight, if it is possible to be melted the aluminum alloy away by using different of melting points. It is necessary to establish heat forging analysis method on blank consist of stainless steel and aluminum alloy. Because, this forging is different from conventional forging and this technology is not confirmed. In this study, we compared forging experiment with numerical analysis on the view point of forming load and shape after forming and establish how to set the material temperatures of two metals and material property of stainless steel on the analysis method. Consequently, temperature difference of stainless steel and aluminum alloy was obtained by experiment. We got material property of stainless steel on forging experimental by compression tests. We had compared numerical analysis that was used the temperature difference of two metals and the material property of stainless steel on forging experimental with forging experiment. Forging analysis method on blank consist of two metals was established by result of numerical analysis having agreed with result of forging experiment.

Keywords: forging, lightweight, analysis, hollow

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9 Impact of Nanoparticles in Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity of Phase Change Materials in Thermal Energy Storage and Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics

Authors: Ismaila H. Zarma, Mahmoud Ahmed, Shinichi Ookawara, Hamdi Abo-Ali

Abstract:

Phase change materials (PCM) are an ideal thermal storage medium. They are characterized by a high latent heat, which allows them to store large amounts of energy when the material transitions into different physical states. Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems are widely recognized as the most efficient form of Photovoltaic (PV) for thermal energy which can be stored in Phase Change Materials (PCM). However, PCMs often have a low thermal conductivity which leads to a slow transient response. This makes it difficult to quickly store and access the energy stored within the PCM based systems, so there is need to improve transient responses and increase the thermal conductivity. The present study aims to investigate and analyze the melting and solidification process of phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nanoparticle contained in a container. Heat flux from concentrated photovoltaic is applied in an attempt to analyze the thermal performance and the impact of nanoparticles. The work will be realized by using a two dimensional model which take into account the phase change phenomena based on the principle of enthalpy method. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate heat and flow characteristics by using governing equations, to ascertain the impacts of the nanoparticle loading. The Rayleigh number, sub-cooling as well as the unsteady evolution of the melting front and the velocity and temperature fields were also observed. The predicted results exhibited a good agreement, showing thermal enhancement due to present of nanoparticle which leads to decreasing the melting time.

Keywords: thermal energy storage, phase-change material, nanoparticle, concentrated photovoltaic

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8 Numerical Simulation of Different Configurations for a Combined Gasification/Carbonization Reactors

Authors: Mahmoud Amer, Ibrahim El-Sharkawy, Shinichi Ookawara, Ahmed Elwardany

Abstract:

Gasification and carbonization are two of the most common ways for biomass utilization. Both processes are using part of the waste to be accomplished, either by incomplete combustion or for heating for both gasification and carbonization, respectively. The focus of this paper is to minimize the part of the waste that is used for heating biomass for gasification and carbonization. This will occur by combining both gasifiers and carbonization reactors in a single unit to utilize the heat in the product biogas to heating up the wastes in the carbonization reactors. Three different designs are proposed for the combined gasification/carbonization (CGC) reactor. These include a parallel combination of two gasifiers and carbonized syngas, carbonizer and combustion chamber, and one gasifier, carbonizer, and combustion chamber. They are tested numerically using ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics to ensure homogeneity of temperature distribution inside the carbonization part of the CGC reactor. 2D simulations are performed for the three cases after performing both mesh-size and time-step independent solutions. The carbonization part is common among the three different cases, and the difference among them is how this carbonization reactor is heated. The simulation results showed that the first design could provide only partial homogeneous temperature distribution, not across the whole reactor. This means that the produced carbonized biomass will be reduced as it will only fill a specified height of the reactor. To keep the carbonized product production high, a series combination is proposed. This series configuration resulted in a uniform temperature distribution across the whole reactor as it has only one source for heat with no temperature distribution on any surface of the carbonization section. The simulations provided a satisfactory result that either the first parallel combination of gasifier and carbonization reactor could be used with a reduced carbonized amount or a series configuration to keep the production rate high.

Keywords: numerical simulation, carbonization, gasification, biomass, reactor

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7 Linearly Polarized Single Photon Emission from Nonpolar, Semipolar and Polar Quantum Dots in GaN/InGaN Nanowires

Authors: Snezana Lazic, Zarko Gacevic, Mark Holmes, Ekaterina Chernysheva, Marcus Müller, Peter Veit, Frank Bertram, Juergen Christen, Yasuhiko Arakawa, Enrique Calleja

Abstract:

The study reports how the pencil-like morphology of a homoepitaxially grown GaN nanowire can be exploited for the fabrication of a thin conformal InGaN nanoshell, hosting nonpolar, semipolar and polar single photon sources (SPSs). All three SPS types exhibit narrow emission lines (FWHM~0.35 - 2 meV) and high degrees of linear optical polarization (P > 70%) in the low-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) experiments and are characterized by a pronounced antibunching in the photon correlation measurements (gcorrected(2)(0) < 0.3). The quantum-dot-like exciton localization centers induced by compositional fluctuations within the InGaN nanoshell are identified as the driving mechanism for the single photon emission. As confirmed by the low-temperature transmission electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (TEM-CL) study, the crystal region (i.e. non-polar m-, semi-polar r- and polar c-facets) hosting the single photon emitters strongly affects their emission wavelength, which ranges from ultra-violet for the non-polar to visible for the polar SPSs. The photon emission lifetime is also found to be facet-dependent and varies from sub-nanosecond time scales for the non- and semi-polar SPSs to a few nanoseconds for the polar ones. These differences are mainly attributed to facet-dependent indium content and electric field distribution across the hosting InGaN nanoshell. The hereby reported pencil-like InGaN nanoshell is the first single nanostructure able to host all three types of single photon emitters and is thus a promising building block for tunable quantum light devices integrated into future photonic and optoelectronic circuits.

Keywords: GaN nanowire, InGaN nanoshell, linear polarization, nonpolar, semipolar, polar quantum dots, single-photon sources

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6 Cognitive Function and Coping Behavior in the Elderly: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Ryo Shikimoto, Hidehito Niimura, Hisashi Kida, Kota Suzuki, Yukiko Miyasaka, Masaru Mimura

Abstract:

Introduction: In Japan, the most aged country in the world, it is important to explore predictive factors of cognitive function among the elderly. Coping behavior relieves chronic stress and improves lifestyle, and consequently may reduce the risk of cognitive impairment. One of the most widely investigated frameworks evaluated in previous studies is approach-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between cognitive function and coping strategies among elderly residents in urban areas of Japan. Method: This is a part of the cross-sectional Arakawa geriatric cohort study for 1,099 residents (aged 65 to 86 years; mean [SD] = 72.9 [5.2]). Participants were assessed for cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and diagnosed by psychiatrists in face-to-face interviews. They were then investigated for their each coping behaviors and coping strategies (approach- and avoidance-oriented coping) using stress and coping inventory. A multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between MMSE score and each coping strategy. Results: Of the 1,099 patients, the mean MMSE score of the study participants was 27.2 (SD = 2.7), and the numbers of the diagnosis of normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia were 815 (74.2%), 248 (22.6%), and 14 (1.3%), respectively. Approach-oriented coping score was significantly associated with MMSE score (B [partial regression coefficient] = 0.12, 95% confidence interval = 0.05 to 0.19) after adjusting for confounding factors including age, sex, and education. Avoidance-oriented coping did not show a significant association with MMSE score (B [partial regression coefficient] = -0.02, 95% confidence interval = -0.09 to 0.06). Conclusion: Approach-oriented coping was clearly associated with neurocognitive function in the Japanese population. A future longitudinal trial is warranted to investigate the protective effects of coping behavior on cognitive function.

Keywords: approach-oriented coping, cognitive impairment, coping behavior, dementia

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5 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield stress of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigate that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

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4 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

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3 A Single-Channel BSS-Based Method for Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure under Environmental Variations

Authors: Yanjie Zhu, André Jesus, Irwanda Laory

Abstract:

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), involving data acquisition, data interpretation and decision-making system aim to continuously monitor the structural performance of civil infrastructures under various in-service circumstances. The main value and purpose of SHM is identifying damages through data interpretation system. Research on SHM has been expanded in the last decades and a large volume of data is recorded every day owing to the dramatic development in sensor techniques and certain progress in signal processing techniques. However, efficient and reliable data interpretation for damage detection under environmental variations is still a big challenge. Structural damages might be masked because variations in measured data can be the result of environmental variations. This research reports a novel method based on single-channel Blind Signal Separation (BSS), which extracts environmental effects from measured data directly without any prior knowledge of the structure loading and environmental conditions. Despite the successful application in audio processing and bio-medical research fields, BSS has never been used to detect damage under varying environmental conditions. This proposed method optimizes and combines Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together to separate structural responses due to different loading conditions respectively from a single channel input signal. The ICA is applying on dimension-reduced output of EEMD. Numerical simulation of a truss bridge, inspired from New Joban Line Arakawa Railway Bridge, is used to validate this method. All results demonstrate that the single-channel BSS-based method can recover temperature effects from mixed structural response recorded by a single sensor with a convincing accuracy. This will be the foundation of further research on direct damage detection under varying environment.

Keywords: damage detection, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), environmental variations, independent component analysis (ICA), principal component analysis (PCA), structural health monitoring (SHM)

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2 Shaped Crystal Growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al Alloy Plates by the Micro Pulling down Method

Authors: Kei Kamada, Rikito Murakami, Masahiko Ito, Mototaka Arakawa, Yasuhiro Shoji, Toshiyuki Ueno, Masao Yoshino, Akihiro Yamaji, Shunsuke Kurosawa, Yuui Yokota, Yuji Ohashi, Akira Yoshikawa

Abstract:

Techniques of energy harvesting y have been widely developed in recent years, due to high demand on the power supply for ‘Internet of things’ devices such as wireless sensor nodes. In these applications, conversion technique of mechanical vibration energy into electrical energy using magnetostrictive materials n have been brought to attention. Among the magnetostrictive materials, Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are attractive materials due to the figure of merits such price, mechanical strength, high magnetostrictive constant. Up to now, bulk crystals of these alloys are produced by the Bridgman–Stockbarger method or the Czochralski method. Using these method big bulk crystal up to 2~3 inch diameter can be grown. However, non-uniformity of chemical composition along to the crystal growth direction cannot be avoid, which results in non-uniformity of magnetostriction constant and reduction of the production yield. The micro-pulling down (μ-PD) method has been developed as a shaped crystal growth technique. Our group have reported shaped crystal growth of oxide, fluoride single crystals with different shape such rod, plate tube, thin fiber, etc. Advantages of this method is low segregation due to high growth rate and small diffusion of melt at the solid-liquid interface, and small kerf loss due to near net shape crystal. In this presentation, we report the shaped long plate crystal growth of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys using the μ-PD method. Alloy crystals were grown by the μ-PD method using calcium oxide crucible and induction heating system under the nitrogen atmosphere. The bottom hole of crucibles was 5 x 1mm² size. A <100> oriented iron-based alloy was used as a seed crystal. 5 x 1 x 320 mm³ alloy crystal plates were successfully grown. The results of crystal growth, chemical composition analysis, magnetostrictive properties and a prototype vibration energy harvester are reported. Furthermore, continuous crystal growth using powder supply system will be reported to minimize the chemical composition non-uniformity along the growth direction.

Keywords: crystal growth, micro-pulling-down method, Fe-Ga, Fe-Al

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1 Sugar-Induced Stabilization Effect of Protein Structure

Authors: Mitsuhiro Hirai, Satoshi Ajito, Nobutaka Shimizu, Noriyuki Igarashi, Hiroki Iwase, Shinichi Takata

Abstract:

Sugars and polyols are known to be bioprotectants preventing such as protein denaturation and enzyme deactivation and widely used as a nontoxic additive in various industrial and medical products. The mechanism of their protective actions has been explained by specific bindings between biological components and additives, changes in solvent viscosities, and surface tension and free energy changes upon transfer of those components into additive solutions. On the other hand, some organisms having tolerances against extreme environment produce stress proteins and/or accumulate sugars in cells, which is called cryptobiosis. In particular, trehalose has been drawing attention relevant to cryptobiosis under external stress such as high or low temperature, drying, osmotic pressure, and so on. The function of cryptobiosis by trehalose has been explained relevant to the restriction of the intra-and/or-inter-molecular movement by vitrification or from the replacement of water molecule by trehalose. Previous results suggest that the structure and interaction between sugar and water are a key determinant for understanding cryptobiosis. Recently, we have shown direct evidence that the protein hydration (solvation) and structural stability against chemical and thermal denaturation significantly depend on sugar species and glycerol. Sugar and glycerol molecules tend to be preferentially or weakly excluded from the protein surface and preserved the native protein hydration shell. Due to the protective action of the protein hydration shell by those molecules, the protein structure is stabilized against chemical (guanidinium chloride) and thermal denaturation. The protective action depends on sugar species. To understand the above trend and difference in detail, it is essentially important to clarify the characteristics of solutions containing those additives. In this study, by using wide-angle X-ray scattering technique covering a wide spatial region (~3-120 Å), we have clarified structures of sugar solutions with the concentration from 5% w/w to 65% w/w. The sugars measured in the present study were monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose) and disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose, maltose). Due to observed scattering data with a wide spatial resolution, we have succeeded in obtaining information on the internal structure of individual sugar molecules and on the correlation between them. Every sugar gradually shortened the average inter-molecular distance as the concentration increased. The inter-molecular interaction between sugar molecules was essentially showed an exclusive tendency for every sugar, which appeared as the presence of a repulsive correlation hole. This trend was more weakly seen for trehalose compared to other sugars. The intermolecular distance and spread of individual molecule clearly showed the dependence of sugar species. We will discuss the relation between the characteristic of sugar solution and its protective action of biological materials.

Keywords: hydration, protein, sugar, X-ray scattering

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