Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Mami Sugiura

7 Utility Analysis of API Economy Based on Multi-Sided Platform Markets Model

Authors: Mami Sugiura, Shinichi Arakawa, Masayuki Murata, Satoshi Imai, Toru Katagiri, Motoyoshi Sekiya

Abstract:

API (Application Programming Interface) economy, where many participants join/interact and form the economy, is expected to increase collaboration between information services through API, and thereby, it is expected to increase market value from the service collaborations. In this paper, we introduce API evaluators, which are the activator of API economy by reviewing and/or evaluating APIs, and develop a multi-sided API economy model that formulates interactions among platform provider, API developers, consumers, and API evaluators. By obtaining the equilibrium that maximizes utility of all participants, the impact of API evaluators on the utility of participants in the API economy is revealed. Numerical results show that, with the existence of API evaluators, the number of developers and consumers increase by 1.5% and the utility of platformer increases by 2.3%. We also discuss the strategies of platform provider to maximize its utility under the existence of API evaluators.

Keywords: API economy, multi-sided markets, API evaluator, platform, platform provider

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6 Simulation Data Summarization Based on Spatial Histograms

Authors: Jing Zhao, Yoshiharu Ishikawa, Chuan Xiao, Kento Sugiura

Abstract:

In order to analyze large-scale scientific data, research on data exploration and visualization has gained popularity. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and visualization of scientific simulation data, and define a spatial V-Optimal histogram for data summarization. We propose histogram construction algorithms based on a general binary hierarchical partitioning as well as a more specific one, the l-grid partitioning. For effective data summarization and efficient data visualization in scientific data analysis, we propose an optimal algorithm as well as a heuristic algorithm for histogram construction. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments on the massive evacuation simulation data.

Keywords: simulation data, data summarization, spatial histograms, exploration, visualization

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5 Study of the Chemical Composition of Rye, Millet and Sorghum from Algeria

Authors: Soualem Mami Zoubida, Brixi Nassima, Beghdad Choukri, Belarbi Meriem

Abstract:

Cereals are the most important source of dietary fiber in the Nordic diet. The fiber in cereals is located mainly in the outer layers of the kernel; particularly in the bran. Improved diet can help unlock the door to good health. Whole grains are an important source of nutrients that are in short supply in our diet, including digestible carbohydrates, dietary fiber, trace minerals, and other compounds of interest in disease prevention, including phytoestrogens and antioxidants (1). The objective of this study is to know the composition of whole grain cereals (rye, millet, white, and red sorghum) which a majority pushes in the south of Algeria. This shows that the millet has a high rate of the sugar estimated at 67.6%. The high proportion of proteins has been found in the two varieties of sorghum and rye. The millet presents the great percentage in lipids compared with the others cereals. And at the last, a red sorghum has the highest rate of fiber(2). These nutrients, as well as other components of whole grain cereals, have, in terms of health, an increased effect if they are consumed together.

Keywords: chemical composition, miller, Secale cereal, Sorghum bicolor

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4 A Study on the Small Biped Soft Robot with Two Insect-Like Nails

Authors: Mami Nishida

Abstract:

This paper presented a study on the development and control of a small biped soft robot using shape memory alloys (SMAs). Author proposed a flexible flat plate (FFP) actuators consisting of a thin polyethylene plate and SMAs. This actuator has a nail like an insect. This robot moves from the front to back and from left to right using two nails. The walking robot has two degrees of freedom and is controlled by switching the ON-OFF current signals to the SMA based FFPs. The resulting small biped soft robot weighs a mere 4.7 g (with a height of 67 mm). The small robot realizes biped walking by transferring the elastic potential energy (generated by deflections of the SMA based FFPs) to kinematic energy. Experimental results demonstrated the viability and utility of the small biped soft robot with the proposed SMA-based FFPs and the control strategy to achieve walking behavior.

Keywords: biped soft robot with nails, flexible flat plate (FFP) actuators, ON-OFF control strategy, shape memory alloys (SMA)

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3 An Inspection of Two Layer Model of Agency: An fMRI Study

Authors: Keyvan Kashkouli Nejad, Motoaki Sugiura, Atsushi Sato, Takayuki Nozawa, Hyeonjeong Jeong, Sugiko Hanawa , Yuka Kotozaki, Ryuta Kawashima

Abstract:

The perception of agency/control is altered with presence of discrepancies in the environment or mismatch of predictions (of possible results) and actual results the sense of agency might become altered. Synofzik et al. proposed a two layer model of agency: In the first layer, the Feeling of Agency (FoA) is not directly available to awareness; a slight mismatch in the environment/outcome might cause alterations in FoA, while the agent still feels in control. If the discrepancy passes a threshold, it becomes available to consciousness and alters Judgment of Agency (JoA), which is directly available in the person’s awareness. Most experiments so far only investigate subjects rather conscious JoA, while FoA has been neglected. In this experiment we target FoA by using subliminal discrepancies that can not be consciously detectable by the subjects. Here, we explore whether we can detect this two level model in the subjects behavior and then try to map this in their brain activity. To do this, in a fMRI study, we incorporated both consciously detectable mismatching between action and result and also subliminal discrepancies in the environment. Also, unlike previous experiments where subjective questions from the participants mainly trigger the rather conscious JoA, we also tried to measure the rather implicit FoA by asking participants to rate their performance. We compared behavioral results and also brain activation when there were conscious discrepancies and when there were subliminal discrepancies against trials with no discrepancies and against each other. In line with our expectations, conditions with consciously detectable incongruencies triggered lower JoA ratings than conditions without. Also, conditions with any type of discrepancies had lower FoA ratings compared to conditions without. Additionally, we found out that TPJ and angular gyrus in particular to have a role in coding of JoA and also FoA.

Keywords: agency, fMRI, TPJ, two layer model

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2 Violence and Challenges in the Pamir Hindu Kush: A Study of the Impact of Change on a Central but Unknown Region

Authors: Skander Ben Mami

Abstract:

Despite its particular patterns and historical importance, the remote region of the Pamir Hindu Kush still lacks public recognition, as well as scientific substance, because of the abundance of classical state-centred geopolitical studies, the resilience of (inter)national narratives, and the political utility of the concepts of 'Central Asia' and 'South Asia'. However, this specific region of about 100 million inhabitants and located at the criss-cross of four geopolitical areas (Indian, Iranian, Chinese and Russian) over a territory of half a million square kilometres features a string of patterns that set it apart from the neighbouring areas of the Fergana, the Gansu and Punjab. Moreover, the Pamir Hindu Kush undergoes a series of parallel social and economic transformations that deserve scrutiny for their strong effect on the people’s lifestyle, particularly in three major urban centres (Aksu in China, Bukhara in Uzbekistan and Islamabad in Pakistan) and their immediate rural surroundings. While the involvement of various public and private stakeholders (States, NGOs, civil movements, private firms…) has undeniably resulted in positive elements (economic growth, connectivity, higher school attendance), it has in the same time generated a collection of negative effects (radicalizing, inequalities, pollution, territorial divide) that need to be addressed to strengthen regional and international security. This paper underscores the region’s strategical importance as the major hotbed and engine of insecurity and violence in Asia, notably in the context of Afghanistan’s enduring violence. It introduces the inner structures of the region, the different sources of violence as well as the governments’ responses to address it.

Keywords: geography, security, terrorism, urbanisation

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1 The Effects of Goal Setting and Feedback on Inhibitory Performance

Authors: Mami Miyasaka, Kaichi Yanaoka

Abstract:

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity; symptoms often manifest during childhood. In children with ADHD, the development of inhibitory processes is impaired. Inhibitory control allows people to avoid processing unnecessary stimuli and to behave appropriately in various situations; thus, people with ADHD require interventions to improve inhibitory control. Positive or negative reinforcements (i.e., reward or punishment) help improve the performance of children with such difficulties. However, in order to optimize impact, reward and punishment must be presented immediately following the relevant behavior. In regular elementary school classrooms, such supports are uncommon; hence, an alternative practical intervention method is required. One potential intervention involves setting goals to keep children motivated to perform tasks. This study examined whether goal setting improved inhibitory performances, especially for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms. We also focused on giving feedback on children's task performances. We expected that giving children feedback would help them set reasonable goals and monitor their performance. Feedback can be especially effective for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms because they have difficulty monitoring their own performance, perceiving their errors, and correcting their behavior. Our prediction was that goal setting by itself would be effective for children with mild ADHD-related symptoms, and goal setting based on feedback would be effective for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms. Japanese elementary school children and their parents were the sample for this study. Children performed two kinds of go/no-go tasks, and parents completed a checklist about their children's ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, and the Conners 3rd edition. The go/no-go task is a cognitive task to measure inhibitory performance. Children were asked to press a key on the keyboard when a particular symbol appeared on the screen (go stimulus) and to refrain from doing so when another symbol was displayed (no-go stimulus). Errors obtained in response to a no-go stimulus indicated inhibitory impairment. To examine the effect of goal-setting on inhibitory control, 37 children (Mage = 9.49 ± 0.51) were required to set a performance goal, and 34 children (Mage = 9.44 ± 0.50) were not. Further, to manipulate the presence of feedback, in one go/no-go task, no information about children’s scores was provided; however, scores were revealed for the other type of go/no-go tasks. The results revealed a significant interaction between goal setting and feedback. However, three-way interaction between ADHD-related inattention, feedback, and goal setting was not significant. These results indicated that goal setting was effective for improving the performance of the go/no-go task only with feedback, regardless of ADHD severity. Furthermore, we found an interaction between ADHD-related inattention and feedback, indicating that informing inattentive children of their scores made them unexpectedly more impulsive. Taken together, giving feedback was, unexpectedly, too demanding for children with severe ADHD-related symptoms, but the combination of goal setting with feedback was effective for improving their inhibitory control. We discuss effective interventions for children with ADHD from the perspective of goal setting and feedback. This work was supported by the 14th Hakuho Research Grant for Child Education of the Hakuho Foundation.

Keywords: attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, feedback, goal-setting, go/no-go task, inhibitory control

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