Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: Doani sidr honey

122 Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Doani Sidr Honey and Madecassoside against Propionibacterium Acnes

Authors: Hana Al-Baghaoi, Kumar Shiva Gubbiyappa, Mayuren Candasamy, Kiruthiga Perumal Vijayaraman


Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands characterized by areas of skin with seborrhea, comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and possibly scarring. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acne. Their colonization and proliferation trigger the host’s inflammatory response leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The usage of honey and natural compounds to treat skin ailments has strong support in the current trend of drug discovery. The present study was carried out evaluate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potential of Doani Sidr honey and its fractions against P. acnes and to screen madecassoside alone and in combination with fractions of honey. The broth dilution method was used to assess the antibacterial activity. Also, ultra structural changes in cell morphology were studied before and after exposure to Sidr honey using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The three non-toxic concentrations of the samples were investigated for suppression of cytokines IL 8 and TNF α by testing the cell supernatants in the co-culture of the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) heat killed P. acnes using enzyme immunoassay kits (ELISA). Results obtained was evaluated by statistical analysis using Graph Pad Prism 5 software. The Doani Sidr honey and polysaccharide fractions were able to inhibit the growth of P. acnes with a noteworthy minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 18% (w/v) and 29% (w/v), respectively. The proximity of MIC and MBC values indicates that Doani Sidr honey had bactericidal effect against P. acnes which is confirmed by TEM analysis. TEM images of P. acnes after treatment with Doani Sidr honey showed completely physical membrane damage and lysis of cells; whereas non honey treated cells (control) did not show any damage. In addition, Doani Sidr honey and its fractions significantly inhibited (> 90%) of secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF α and IL 8 by hPBMCs pretreated with heat-killed P. acnes. However, no significant inhibition was detected for madecassoside at its highest concentration tested. Our results suggested that Doani Sidr honey possesses both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects against P. acnes and can possibly be used as therapeutic agents for acne. Furthermore, polysaccharide fraction derived from Doani Sidr honey showed potent inhibitory effect toward P. acnes. Hence, we hypothesize that fraction prepared from Sidr honey might be contributing to the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, this polysaccharide fraction of Doani Sidr honey needs to be further explored and characterized for various phytochemicals which are contributing to antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

Keywords: Doani sidr honey, Propionibacterium acnes, IL-8, TNF alpha

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121 Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Nigeria

Authors: R. Odoh, M. S. Dauda, E. A. Kamba, N. C. Igwemmar


Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal, and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords: honey, health, mineral profile adulteration, contamination

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120 Comparative Analysis of Some Mineral Profile of Honey Marketed and Consumed in Some of the States in Northern Part of Country, Nigeria

Authors: R. Odoh, M. S. Dauda, E. A. Kamba, N. C. Igwemmar


Honey and honey trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural and urban areas worldwide. In West Africa and other part of the world, honey and honey products holds high socio–cultural, religious, medicinal and traditional values. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance profit, a variety of components are added to the raw, fresh and unprocessed honey, introducing the possibility of heavy metals contaminants. Therefore the honey sold in various places, markets and shops in some states in Northern Nigeria (Benue, Nassarawa and Taraba) including Abuja FCT, in Nigeria was analyzed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn). All the honey samples contain heavy metals. The results ranged from 0.028–0.070, 0.023–0.058, 0.042–0.092, 4.231–8.589, 8.115–14.892, 0.078–0.922, 0.044–0.092, 0.041–0.087 and 18.234–28.654 μg/L for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The mean concentration (μg/L) of the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of the regularly marketed honey is significantly higher than the mean concentration observed in raw, fresh and unprocessed honey. However, continued consumption of honey with high heavy metal content might lead to exposure to chronic heavy metal poisoning.

Keywords: honey, health, mineral profile adulteration, contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
119 Entomological Origin of Honey Discriminated by NMR Chloroform Extracts in Ecuadorian Honey

Authors: P. Vit, J. Uddin, V. Zuccato, F. Maza, E. Schievano


In Ecuador honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Meliponini). We studied honey produced in beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at 298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence. Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera, Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey, 1H NMR, entomological origin, meliponini

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118 Untargeted Small Metabolite Identification from Thermally Treated Tualang Honey

Authors: Lee Suan Chua


This study investigated the effects of thermal treatment on Tualang honey sample in terms of honey colour and heat-induced small metabolites. The heating process was carried out in a temperature controlled water batch at 90 °C for 4 hours. The honey samples were put in cylinder tubes with the dimension of 1 cm diameter and 10 cm length for homogenous heat transfer. The results found that the thermal treatment produced not only hydroxylmethylfurfural, but also other harmful substances such as phthalic anhydride and radiolytic byproducts. The degradation of honey protein was reported due to the detection of free amino acids such as cysteine and phenylalanine in heat-treated honey samples. Sugar dehydration also occurred because fragmented di-galactose was identified based on the presence of characteristic ions in the mass fragmentation pattern. The honey colour was found getting darker as the heating duration was increased up to 4 hours. Approximately, 60 mm PFund of increment was noticed for the honey colour with the colour change rate of 14.8 mm PFund per hour. Based on the principal component analysis, the chemical profile of Tualang honey was significantly altered after 2 hours of heating at 90 °C.

Keywords: honey colour, hydroxylmethylfurfural, thermal treatment, tualang honey

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117 An Internet of Things-Based Weight Monitoring System for Honey

Authors: Zheng-Yan Ruan, Chien-Hao Wang, Hong-Jen Lin, Chien-Peng Huang, Ying-Hao Chen, En-Cheng Yang, Chwan-Lu Tseng, Joe-Air Jiang


Bees play a vital role in pollination. This paper focuses on the weighing process of honey. Honey is usually stored at the comb in a hive. Bee farmers brush bees away from the comb and then collect honey, and the collected honey is weighed afterward. However, such a process brings strong negative influences on bees and even leads to the death of bees. This paper therefore presents an Internet of Things-based weight monitoring system which uses weight sensors to measure the weight of honey and simplifies the whole weighing procedure. To verify the system, the weight measured by the system is compared to the weight of standard weights used for calibration by employing a linear regression model. The R2 of the regression model is 0.9788, which suggests that the weighing system is highly reliable and is able to be applied to obtain actual weight of honey. In the future, the weight data of honey can be used to find the relationship between honey production and different ecological parameters, such as bees’ foraging behavior and weather conditions. It is expected that the findings can serve as critical information for honey production improvement.

Keywords: internet of things, weight, honey, bee

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116 Determination of the Botanical Origin of Honey by the Artificial Neural Network Processing of PARAFAC Scores of Fluorescence Data

Authors: Lea Lenhardt, Ivana Zeković, Tatjana Dramićanin, Miroslav D. Dramićanin


Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for characterization and classification of honey. Excitation emission spectra were obtained for 95 honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, sunflower, linden, meadow, and fake honey) by recording emission from 270 to 640 nm with excitation in the range of 240-500 nm. Fluorescence spectra were described with a six-component PARAFAC model, and PARAFAC scores were further processed with two types of ANN’s (feed-forward network and self-organizing maps) to obtain algorithms for classification of honey on the basis of their botanical origin. Both ANN’s detected fake honey samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords: honey, fluorescence, PARAFAC, artificial neural networks

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115 Honey: A Remedy Rediscovered in the Treatment of Oral Diseases

Authors: Muhammad Mansoor Majeed, Imtiaz Ahmed


For centuries, honey has been used for the management and cure of different diseases for the treatment of wound, ulcers, burns, cough, and sore throat, etc. It has also been proved to decrease inflammation, edema, and exudates in different body tissues. This study is performed to find out the effectiveness of honey in the treatment and prevention of gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and accumulation of plaque. Randomized control trial was performed on two subject groups. Honey provided to one subject group to apply on their gums and tooth and then gargle with water and drink. Frequency of the procedure is thrice a day for a month. Another group was given a placebo. Before and after, readings were taken according to Loe and Silness Plaque and Gingival Index. Initially, the mean plaque index, Gingival index and the percentage of sites which were bleeding in the honey group was 0.910, 0.800 and 58.71% respectively which has reduced to 0.313, 0.296 and 27.6% in 30 ± 3 days whereas the control group did not show signs of improvement. Visible changed has observed in the honey group from 0.910 to 0.313 in mean plaque index, 0.800 to 0.296 in Gingival Index, and the percentage of bleeding sited decreased from 58.71% to 27.6%. No significant changes observed in another group. We can conclude that honey reduces the formation/accumulation of plaque and decreases gingival bleeding as well as it has therapeutic effects.

Keywords: honey, gingivitis, Pakistan, bleeding gums

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114 Authenticity of Ecuadorian Commercial Honeys

Authors: Elisabetta Schievano, Valentina Zuccato, Claudia Finotello, Patricia Vit


Control of honey frauds is needed in Ecuador to protect bee keepers and consumers because simple syrups and new syrups with eucalyptus are sold as genuine honeys. Authenticity of Ecuadorian commercial honeys was tested with a vortex emulsion consisting on one volume of honey:water (1:1) dilution, and two volumes of diethyl ether. This method allows a separation of phases in one minute to discriminate genuine honeys that form three phase and fake honeys that form two phases; 34 of the 42 honeys analyzed from five provinces of Ecuador were genuine. This was confirmed with 1H NMR spectra of honey dilutions in deuterated water with an enhanced aminoacid region with signals for proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Classic quality indicators were also tested with this method (sugars, HMF), indicators of fermentation (ethanol, acetic acid), and residues of citric acid used in the syrup manufacture. One of the honeys gave a false positive for genuine, being an admixture of genuine honey with added syrup, evident for the high sucrose. Sensory analysis was the final confirmation to recognize the honey groups studied here, namely honey produced in combs by Apis mellifera, fake honey, and honey produced in cerumen pots by Geotrigona, Melipona, and Scaptotrigona. This is a valuable contribution to protect honey consumers, and to develop the beekeeping industry in Ecuador.

Keywords: fake, genuine, honey, 1H NMR, Ecuador

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113 Preparation and Analysis of Chitosan-Honey Films for Wound Dressing Application

Authors: L. Sasikala, Bhaarathi Dhurai


Increase in antibiotic resistance bacteria leads to the development of active wound dressings, which absorb any bodily fluid, evaporation of moisture at a certain rate and can be easily removed after healing. Natural materials like chitosan, herbs, and honey have number of active materials present in them to accelerate wound healing and to arrest wound in infections. Hence with the advantages of biomaterials, a film was prepared using chitosan and honey. There are a lot of practical considerations with respect to honey. Honey exerts many beneficial actions on the wound surface only when it remains. The attempts to hold honey on the surface of the wound remain a question because honey becomes a very runny liquid when it comes to body temperature. Hence, this research was focused on development of a new form of wound dressing, by holding honey on the wound surface in different form and also which has a combined effect of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and chitosan. Chitosan-honey film was prepared using casting technique. Films were prepared in different variations; with acetic acid and with lactic acid; with and without honey. In summary, the film produced from 2% chitosan- 1% lactic acid as a solvent, with 10% honey shows optimum inclined values in all the tests, like thickness, folding endurance, weight, water vapor transmission, tensile strength, swelling ratio and antimicrobial activity, with specific reference to wound dressings. The film has water vapor transmission of 1680 g/m²/day, water absorption of 225%, tensile strength of 39.1N/mm² and elongation of 50.3%. There is a notable inhibition zone of 29 mm against S. aureus and 24 mm against E. coli in the case of chitosan-lactic acid-honey film. The film also arrests, microbes transmitting from the outside environment to wound bed, which can be used as an effective wound dressing material.

Keywords: casting technique, chitosan, honey, film, wound dressings

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112 Physicochemical, Heavy Metals Analysis of Some Multi-Floral Algerian Honeys

Authors: Assia Amri, Naima Layachi, Ali Ladjama


The characterization of some Algerian honey was carried out on the basis of their physico-chemical properties: moisture,hydroxy methyl furfural, diastase activity, pH,free, total and lactonic acidity, electrical conductivity, minerals and proline content. Studied samples are found to be low in moisture and therefore safe from fermentation, low in HMF level and high in diastase activity. Additionally the diastase activity and the HMF content are widely recognized parameters indicating the freshness of honey. Phenolic compounds present in honey are classified into two groups - simple phenols and polyphenols. The simple phenols in honey are various phenol acids, but polyphenols are various flavonoids and flavonides. The aim of our work was to determine antioxidant properties of various Algerian honey samples–the total phenol content, total flavonoids content, as well as honey anti radical activity.The quality of honey samples differs on account of various factors such as season, packaging and processing conditions, floral source, geographical origin and storage period. It is important that precautions should be taken to ensure standardization and rationalization of beekeeping techniques, manufacturing procedures and storing processes to improve honey quality.

Keywords: honey, physico-chemical characterization, phenolic coumpound, HMF, diastase activity

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111 Antibacterial Activity of Northern Algerian Honey

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana, Djamila Benaziza


Our study focuses on determining the antibacterial activity of some honeys from northern Algeria. To test this activity, the agar well diffusion methods was employed. The bacterial strains tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeroginosae. The results showed that all the microbes tested were inhibited by all honey used in this study but Those bacteria that appear to be more sensitive to all honey tested are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosae.

Keywords: honey, antibacterial activity, Northern Algeria, Staphylococcus aureus

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110 Histopathological and Biochemical Investigations of Protective Role of Honey in Rats with Experimental Aflatoxicosis

Authors: Turan Yaman, Zabit Yener, Ismail Celik


The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties and protective role of honey, considered a part of traditional medicine, against carcinogen chemical aflatoxin (AF) exposure in rats, which were evaluated by histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring level of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamil transpeptidase (GGT)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)], and lipid peroxidation content in liver, erythrocyte, brain, kidney, heart and lungs. For this purpose, a total of eighteen healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three experimental groups: A (Control), B (AF-treated) and C (AF+honey-treated). While rats in group A were fed with a diet without AF, B, and C groups received 25 µg of AF/rat/day, where C group additionally received 1 mL/kg of honey by gavage for 90 days. At the end of the 90-day experimental period, we found that the honey supplementation decreased the lipid peroxidation and the levels of enzyme associated with liver damage, increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the AF+honey-treated rats. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of honey is further substantiated by showing almost normal histological architecture in AF+honey-treated group, compared to degenerative changes in the liver and kidney of AF-treated rats. Additionally, honey supplementation ameliorated antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation content in other tissues of AF+honey-treated rats. In conclusion, the present study indicates that honey has a hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect in rats with experimental aflatoxicosis due to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: aflatoxicosis, honey, histopathology, malondialdehyde, antioxidant, rat

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109 Physicochemical Studies and Screening of Aflatoxins and Pesticide Residues in Some 'Honey Pastes' Marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rashad Al-Hindi


The study aimed at investigating and screening of some contaminants in some honey-based products. Sixty-nine 'honey paste' samples marketed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were subjected to physicochemical studies and screening of aflatoxins and pesticide residues. The physicochemical parameters studied were mainly: moisture content, total sugars, total ash, total nitrogen, fibres, total acidity as citric acid and pH. These parameters were investigated using standard methods of analysis. Mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues were by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) according to official methods. Results revealed that mean values of the examined criteria were: 15.44±0.36%; 74±4.30%; 0.40±0.062%; 0.22±0.05%; 6.93±1.30%; 2.53±0.161 mmol/kg; 4.10±0.158, respectively. Overall results proved that all tested honey pastes samples were free from mycotoxins (aflatoxins) and pesticide residues. Therefore, we conclude that 'honey pastes' marketed in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia were safe for human consumption.

Keywords: aflatoxins, honey mixtures, pesticide residues, physicochemical

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108 Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Apricots

Authors: Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Sonja Djilas, Vesna Tumbas-Šaponjac, Jelena Vulić, Sladjana Stajčić


Honey, produced by the honeybee, is a natural saturated sugar solution, which is mainly composed of a complex mixture of carbohydrates. Besides this, it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, and different inflammatory processes. Honey is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits (plums, figs, cranberries, apricots etc.). The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried apricot addition to polyphenols and flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Some individual phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral honey (PH), linden honey (LH) and also in their mixtures with dried apricot, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40), were identified and quantified by HPLC. The most dominant phenolic compound was: gallic acid in LH (11.14 mg/100g), LH40 (42.65 mg/100g), PH (7.24 mg/100g) and catehin in PH40 (11.83 mg/100g). The antioxidant activity of PH, LH, PH40 and LH40 was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals (OH) by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Honey samples with 40% dried apricot exhibited better antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The EC50 values, the amount of antioxidant necessary to decrease the initial concentration of OH radicals by 50%, were: EC50PH=3.36 mg/ml, EC50LH=13.36 mg/ml, EC50PH40=2.29 mg/ml, EC50 LH40=7.78 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral honey and linden honey with dried apricots improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: honey, dried apricot, HPLC, hydroxyl radical

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107 Inhibitory Attributes of Saudi Honey Against Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii

Authors: Al-Hindi Rashad, Alotibi Ibrahim


The aim of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of the peroxide components of some locally produced honeys: Toran, Zaitoon (Olive), Shaflah, Saha, Jizan, Rabea Aja, Fakhira, Sedr Aljanoob, Tenhat, Karath and Bareq against two of the drug resistant bacteria; i.e., methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA, ATCC 43330) and Acinetobacter baumannii. Measurement of the antibacterial activity of honey samples by using the agar well diffusion method was adopted as follows: by using turbidity standard McFaraland 0.5, suspensions of bacterial strains MRSA ATCC 43330 and Acinetobacter baumannii were prepared. By the spreading plate method, 100 µl of the suspension was inoculated onto Muller-Hinton agar medium. On the inoculated agar medium, five wells were made using a sterile cork borer (diameter 5 mm).100 µl of honey dilutions (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100%) were used. The study indicated that the highly effective activity was in some local honey samples such as Toran honey against MRSA, and Shafalah honey against MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii which showed bactericidal effects at concentrations 70 % to 100 % as well. The majority of local honey samples recorded bacteriostatic effects on MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii at consternations 50 % and above. In conclusion this investigation indicated that in regard to the majority inhibitory effect on microorganisms, the existing of H2O2 in honey samples together with phenolic content greatly provide a strong antibacterial activities among different types of honey, because in some previous studies the H2O2 content of honey interacts with phenolic content and showed better inhibitory effect than in absent of H2O2.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, honey, hospital acquired, Saudi Arabia

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106 Natural Honey and Effect on the Activity of the Cells

Authors: Abujnah Dukali


Natural honey was assessed in cell culture system for its anticancer activity. Human leukemic cell line HL 60 was treated with honey and cultured for 5 days and cytotoxicity was calculated by MTT assay. Honey showed cytotoxicity with CC50 value of 174.20 µg/ml. Radical modulation activities was assessed by lipid peroxidation assay using egg lecithin. Honey showed antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 159.73 µg/ml. In addition, treatment with HL60 cells also resulted in nuclear DNA fragmentation, as seen in agarose gel electrophoresis. This is a hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis was performed by staining the cells with Annexin V and FACS analysis. Apoptosis is an active, genetically regulated disassembly of the cell form within. Disassembly creates changes in the phospholipid content of the cytoplasmic membrane outer leaflet. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer surface of the cell for phagocytic cell recognition. The human anticoagulant, annexin V, is a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid protein with a high affinity for PS. Annexin V labeled with fluorescein can identify apoptotic cells in the population It is a confirmatory test for apoptosis. Annexin V-positive cells were defined as apoptotic cells. Since honey shows both antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity at almost the same concentration, it can prevent the free radical induced cancer as prophylactic agent and kill the cancer cells by apoptotic process as a chemotherapeutic agent. Everyday intake of honey can prevent the cancer induction.

Keywords: anticancer, cells, DNA, honey

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105 Quality Assessment of New Zealand Manuka Honeys Using Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Deep Learning

Authors: Hien Thi Dieu Truong, Mahmoud Al-Sarayreh, Pullanagari Reddy, Marlon M Reis, Richard Archer


New Zealand mānuka honey is a honeybee product derived mainly from Leptospermum scoparium nectar. The potent antibacterial activity of mānuka honey derives principally from methylglyoxal (MGO), in addition to the hydrogen peroxide and other lesser activities present in all honeys. MGO is formed from dihydroxyacetone (DHA) unique to L. scoparium nectar. Mānuka honey also has an idiosyncratic phenolic profile useful as a chemical maker. Authentic mānuka honey is highly valuable, but almost all honeys are formed from natural mixtures of nectars harvested by a hive over a time period. Once diluted by other nectars, mānuka honey irrevocably loses value. We aimed to apply hyperspectral imaging to honey frames before bulk extraction to minimisedilution of genuine mānuka by other honeys andensure authenticity at the source. This technology is non-destructive and suitable for an industrial setting. Chemometrics usingPartial Least Squares (PLS) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) showed limited efficacy in interpreting chemical footprints due to large non-linear relationships between predictor and predictand in a large sample set, likely due to honey quality variability across geographic regions. Therefore, an advanced modeling approach, one-dimensional convolutional neural networks (1D-CNN), was investigated for analysinghyperspectral data for extraction of biochemical information from honeys. The 1D-CNN model showed superior prediction of honey quality(R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 2.201) to PLS (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 2.607) and SVM (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 2.559). Classification of mono-floral manuka honeys from multi-floral and non-manuka honeys exceeded 90 % accuracy for all models tried. This study reveals the potential of 1D-CNN modeling for evaluating honey authenticity.

Keywords: authenticity, 1D-CNN, mānuka honey, quality

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104 Antioxidant Property of Honey with Dried Cherry

Authors: Jasna M. Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana S. Ćetković, Jelena J. Vulić, Sonja M. Djilas, Vesna T. Tumbas Šaponjac, Sladjana M. Stajčić


Honey serves as a source of natural antioxidants, which are effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune-system decline, cataracts, different inflammatory processes, and also prevent deteriorative oxidation reactions in foods such as enzymatic browning of fruit and vegetables. Honey is a natural saturated sugar solution, but it also contains certain minor constituents, proteins, enzymes, amino and organic acids, lipids, vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and carotenoids. It is consumed in its natural form alone, but also in combination with nuts and various kinds of dried fruits. The aim of this research was to investigate the contribution of dried cherry on phenols (TPh) and flavonoids (Fl) contents and antioxidant activities of honey. Phenolic compounds in Serbian polyfloral (PH), linden (LH) and acacia (AH) honey and also in their mixtures with dried cherry, in 40% mass concentrations (PH40; LH40, AH40), were determined. In comparison to honey, TPh increased 2.25 times for LH40, 2.16 times for AH40 and 1.45 times for PH40, while Fl increased 2.81-fold for PH40, 1.21-fold for LH40 and 1.44-fold for AH40. Antioxidant activity was investigated with two assays, DPPH test and reducing power (RP), and expressed as EC50DPPH and RP0.5 values. The EC50DPPH values were: EC50PH40 = 1.16 mg/ml; EC50LH40= 1.42 mg/ml and EC50AH40= 1.69 mg/ml, while RP0.5 were: RP0.5PH40 = 15.05 mg/ml; RP0.5LH40 = 16.09 mg/ml and P0.5AH40 = 17.60 mg/ml. Our results indicate that supplementation of polyfloral, linden and acacia honey with 40% dried cherry improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, dried cherry, honey, phenolics

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103 Sider Bee Honey: Antitumor Effect in Some Experimental Tumor Cell Lines

Authors: Aliaa M. Issa, Mahmoud N. ElRouby, Sahar A. S. Ahmad, Mahmoud M. El-Merzabani


Sider honey is a type of honey produced by bees feeding on the nectar of Sider tree, Ziziphus spina-christi (L) Desf . Honey is an effective agent for preventing, inhibiting and treating the growth of human and animal cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different dilutions from crude Sider honey and different duration times of exposure on the growth of six tumor cell lines (human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa; human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG-2; human larynx carcinoma cell line, Hep-2; brain tumor cell line, U251) as well as one animal cancerous cell line (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells line, EAC) and one normal cell line, Homo sapiens, human, (WISH) CCL-25. Different concentrations and treatment durations with Sider honey were tested on the growth of several cancer cell lines types. Histopathological changes in the tumor masses, animal survival, apoptosis and necrosis of the used cancer cell lines (using flow cytometry) were evaluated. Sider honey was administers either to the tumor mass itself by intratumoral injection or via drinking water. One-way ANOVA test was used for the analysis of (the means + standard error) of the optical density obtained from the Elisa reader and flow cytometry. The study revealed that different concentrations of Sider honey affected the growth patterns of all the studied cancer cell lines as well as their histopathological changes, and it depended on the cell line nature and the concentration of honey used. It is obvious that the relative animal survival percentage (bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, EAC cells) was proportionally increased with the increase in the used honey concentrations. The study of apoptosis and necrosis using the flow cytometry technique emphasized the viability results. In conclusion, Sider honey was effective as antitumor agent, in the used concentrations.

Keywords: antitumor, honey, sider, tumor cell lines

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102 Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry in Honey Fingerprinting: The Occurrence of 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan and (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one

Authors: Igor Jerkovic


Owing to the attractive sensory properties and low odour thresholds, norisoprenoids (degraded carotenoid-like structures with 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enoic unit) have been identified as aroma contributors in a number of different matrices. C₁₃-Norisoprenoids have been found among volatile organic compounds of various honey types as well as C₉//C₁₀-norisoprenoids or C₁₄/C₁₅-norisoprenoids. Besides degradation of abscisic acid (which produces, e.g., dehydrovomifoliol, vomifoliol, others), the cleavage of the C(9)=C(10) bond of other carotenoid precursors directly generates nonspecific C₁₃-norisoprenoids such as trans-β-damascenone, 3-hydroxy-trans-β-damascone, 3-oxo-α-ionol, 3-oxo-α-ionone, β-ionone found in various honey types. β-Damascenone and β-ionone smelling like honey, exhibit the lowest odour threshold values of all C₁₃-norisoprenoids. The presentation is targeted on two uncommon C₁₃-norisoprenoids in the honey flavor that could be used as specific or nonspecific chemical markers of the botanical origin. Namely, after screening of different honey types, the focus was directed on Centaruea cyanus L. and Allium ursinum L. honey. The samples were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) and the extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). SPME fiber with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) coating was applied for the research of C. cyanus honey headspace and predominant identified compound was 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-2,3,5,6,8,8a-hexahydro-7H-chromen-7-one also known as 2,3,5,6,8,8a-hexahydro-2,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-7H-1-benzo-pyran-7-one). The oxoedulan structure contains epoxide and it is more volatile in comparison with its hydroxylated precursors. This compound has not been found in other honey types and can be considered specific for C. cyanus honey. The dichloromethane extract of A. ursinum honey contained abundant (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one that was previously isolated as dominant substance from the ether extracts of New Zealand thyme honey. Although a wide variety of degraded carotenoid-like substances have been identified from different honey types, this appears to be rare situation where 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan and (E)-4-(r-1',t-2',c-4'-trihydroxy-3',6',6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one have been found that is of great importance for chemical fingerprinting and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis as the major method for the honey classification.

Keywords: 3, 4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan, (E)-4-(r-1', t-2', c-4'-trihydroxy-3', 6', 6'-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one, honey flavour, C₁₃-norisoprenoids

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101 The Effect of High-Pressure Processing on the Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Different Concentration of Manuka Honey and Its Relation with ° Brix

Authors: Noor Akhmazillah Fauzi, Mohammed Mehdi Farid, Filipa V. Silva


The aim of this paper is to investigate if different concentration of Manuka honey (as a model food) has a major influence on the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as the testing microorganism) after subjecting it to HPP. Honey samples with different sugar concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °Brix) were prepared aseptically using sterilized distilled water. No dilution of honey was made for the 80 °Brix sample. For the 0 °Brix sample (control), sterilized distilled water was used. Thermal treatment at 55 °C for 10 min (conventionally applied in honey pasteurisation in industry) was carried out for comparison purpose. S. cerevisiae cell numbers in honey samples were established before and after each HPP and thermal treatment. The number of surviving cells was determined after a proper dilution of the untreated and treated samples by the viable plate count method. S. cerevisiae cells, in different honey concentrations (0 to 80 °Brix), subjected to 600 MPa (at ambient temperature) showed an increasing resistance to inactivation with °Brix. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) between cell reduction and °Brix was found. Cell reduction in high pressure-treated samples varied linearly with °Brix (R2 > 0.9), confirming that the baroprotective effect of the food is due to sugar content. This study has practical implications in establishing efficient process design for commercial manufacturing of high sugar food products and on the potential use of HPP for such products.

Keywords: high pressure processing, honey, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, °Brix

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100 Community Perceptions on Honey Quality in Tobacco Growing Areas in Kigoma Region, Tanzania

Authors: Pilly Kagosi, Cherestino Balama


Beekeeping plays major role in improving biodiversity, increasing household income, and crop production through pollination. Tobacco farming is also the main source of household income for smallholder farmers. In Kigoma, production of Tobacco has increased and is perceived to threaten honey quality. The study explored the perception of the community on quality of honey in tobacco and non tobacco growing areas. The study was conducted in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. District and Villages were purposively sampled based on large numbers of people dealing with beekeeping activities and tobacco farming. Socioeconomic data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and content analysis. The perception of stakeholders on honey quality was analysed using Likert scale. Majority of the respondents agreed that tobacco farming greatly affects honey quality because honey from beehives near tobacco farms test bitter and sometimes irritating, which was associated with nicotine content and agrochemicals applied to tobacco crops. Though they cannot differentiate honey bitterness from agrochemicals and bee fodders. Furthermore, it was revealed that chemicals applied to tobacco and vegetables have negative effect on the bees and honey quality. Respondents believe that setting bee hives near tobacco farms might contaminate honey and therefore affect its quality. Beekeepers are not aware of the nicotine content from other bee fodders like miombo of which do not have any effect on human beings. Actually, tobacco farming does not affect beekeeping activities in issue of quality when farmers follow proper management of tobacco flowers and proper handling of honey. Though, big challenge in tobacco farming is chemically applied to the crops and harvest bee fodders for curing tobacco. The study recommends training to community on proper management of tobacco and proper handling of bee products.

Keywords: community, honey, perceptions, tobacco

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99 Technical Efficiency of Small-Scale Honey Producer in Ethiopia: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

Authors: Kaleb Shiferaw, Berhanu Geberemedhin


Ethiopian farmers have a long tradition of beekeeping and the country has huge potential for honey production. However traditional mode of production still dominates the sub sector which negatively affect the total production and productivity. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the working honey production, however, none of them systematically investigate the extent of technical efficiency of the sub-sector. This paper uses Stochastic Frontier production model to quantifying the extent of technical efficiency and identify exogenous determinant of inefficiency. The result showed that consistent with other studies traditional practice dominate small scale honey production in Ethiopia. The finding also revealed that use of purchased inputs such as bee forage and other supplement is very limited among honey producers indicating that natural bee forage is the primary source of bee forage. The immediate consequence of all these is low production and productivity. The number of hives the household owns, whether the household used improved apiculture technologies, availability of natural forest which is the primary sources of nectar for bees and amount of land owned by the households were found to have a significant influence on the amount of honey produced by beekeeper. Our result further showed that the mean technical efficiency of honey producers is 0.79 implying that, on average honey producer produce 80 percent of the maximum output. The implication is that 20 percent of the potential output is lost due to technical inefficiency. Number of hives owned by a honey produces, distance to district town-a proxy to market access, household wealth, and whether the household head has a leadership role in the PA affect the technical efficiency of honey producers. The finding suggest that policies that aim to expand the use of improved hives is expected to increase the honey production at household level. The result also suggest that investment on rural infrastructure would be instrumental in improving technical efficiency of honey producer.

Keywords: small-scale honey producer, Ethiopia, technical efficiency in apiculture, stochastic frontier analysis

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98 Comparison of Wet and Microwave Digestion Methods for the Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn Determination in Some Honey Samples by ICPOES in Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Altundag, Emel Bina, Esra Altıntıg


The aim of this study is determining amount of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples of honey which are gathered from Sakarya and Istanbul regions. In this study the evaluation of the trace elements in honeys samples are gathered from Sakarya and Istanbul, Turkey. The sample preparation phase is performed via wet decomposition method and microwave digestion system. The accuracy of the method was corrected by the standard reference material, Tea Leaves (INCY-TL-1) and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. The comparison between gathered data and literature values has made and possible resources of the contamination to the samples of honey have handled. The obtained results will be presented in ICCIS 2015: XIII International Conference on Chemical Industry and Science.

Keywords: Wet decomposition, Microwave digestion, Trace element, Honey, ICP-OES

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97 Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Sadepovich Maikanov, Z. Shabanbayevich Adilbekov, R. Husainovna Mustafina, L. Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva


This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.

Keywords: antibiotics, contamination of honey, honey, radionuclides

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96 Effect of Honey on Rate of Healing of Socket after Tooth Extraction in Rabbits

Authors: Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Ashish Shrestha, Mehul Rajesh Jaisani, Gajendra Prasad Rauniar


Background: Honey is the worlds’ oldest known wound dressing. Its wound healing properties are not fully established till today. Concerns about antibiotic resistance, and a renewed interest in natural remedies have prompted the resurgence in the antimicrobial and wound healing properties of Honey. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing in burns, infected wounds and open wounds. None of these reports have documented the effect of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction. Therefore, the present experimental study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction in rabbits. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was conducted in six New Zealand White rabbits. Extraction of first premolar tooth on both sides of the lower jaw was done under anesthesia produced by Ketamine and Xylazine followed by application of honey on one socket (test group) and normal saline (control group) in the opposite socket. The intervention was continued for two more days. On the 7th day, the biopsy was taken from the extraction site, and histopathological examination was done. Student’s t-test was used for comparison between the groups and differences were considered to be statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between control group and test group in terms of fibroblast proliferation (p = 0.0019) and bony trabeculae formation (p=0.0003). Inflammatory cells were also observed in both groups, and it was not significant (p=1.0). Overlying epithelium was hyperplastic in both the groups. Conclusion: The study showed that local application of honey promoted the rapid healing process particularly by increasing fibroblast proliferation and bony trabeculae.

Keywords: honey, extraction wound, Nepal, healing

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95 Approach to Honey Volatiles' Profiling by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Igor Jerkovic


Biodiversity of flora provides many different nectar sources for the bees. Unifloral honeys possess distinctive flavours, mainly derived from their nectar sources (characteristic volatile organic components (VOCs)). Specific or nonspecific VOCs (chemical markers) could be used for unifloral honey characterisation as addition to the melissopalynologycal analysis. The main honey volatiles belong, in general, to three principal categories: terpenes, norisoprenoids, and benzene derivatives. Some of these substances have been described as characteristics of the floral source, and other compounds, like several alcohols, branched aldehydes, and furan derivatives, may be related to the microbial purity of honey processing and storage conditions. Selection of the extraction method for the honey volatiles profiling should consider that heating of the honey produce different artefacts and therefore conventional methods of VOCs isolation (such as hydrodistillation) cannot be applied for the honey. Two-way approach for the isolation of the honey VOCs was applied using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). HS-SPME (with the fibers of different polarity such as polydimethylsiloxane/ divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) or divinylbenzene/carboxene/ polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS)) enabled isolation of high volatile headspace VOCs of the honey samples. Among them, some characteristic or specific compounds can be found such as 3,4-dihydro-3-oxoedulan (in Centaurea cyanus L. honey) or 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, and cis-jasmone (in Citrus unshiu Marc. honey). USE with different solvents (mainly dichloromethane or the mixture pentane : diethyl ether 1 : 2 v/v) enabled isolation of less volatile and semi-volatile VOCs of the honey samples. Characteristic compounds from C. unshiu honey extracts were caffeine, 1H-indole, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, methyl anthranilate, and phenylacetonitrile. Sometimes, the selection of solvent sequence was useful for more complete profiling such as sequence I: pentane → diethyl ether or sequence II: pentane → pentane/diethyl ether (1:2, v/v) → dichloromethane). The extracts with diethyl ether contained hydroquinone and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as the major compounds, while (E)-4-(r-1’,t-2’,c-4’-trihydroxy-2’,6’,6’-trimethylcyclo-hexyl)but-3-en-2-one predominated in dichloromethane extracts of Allium ursinum L. honey. With this two-way approach, it was possible to obtain a more detailed insight into the honey volatile and semi-volatile compounds and to minimize the risks of compound discrimination due to their partial extraction that is of significant importance for the complete honey profiling and identification of the chemical biomarkers that can complement the pollen analysis.

Keywords: honey chemical biomarkers, honey volatile compounds profiling, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE)

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94 Comparative Wound Healing Potential of Mitracarpus villosus Ointment and Honey in Diabetic Albino Rats by Collagen Assessment

Authors: Bawa Inalegwu, Jacob A. Jato, Ovye Akyengo, John Akighir


All humans will experience some type of wound in every lifetime. Most wounds heal quickly with little or no attention but, many people suffer from wounds that are complex and/or persistent therefore posing a burden. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Mitrcarpus villous ointment against honey in diabetic rats. To achieve this, percentage wound closure and collagen assessments were used to express treatment efficacy. Results show that on day 21, rats treated with M. villosus ointment had the highest percentage closure (94.5%) while honey treated and non-treated recorded 90.0% and 83.3% respectively. Similarly, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed on day 21 in the total collagen deposited in wounds of diabetic rats (10.57 ± 0.7) and M. villous ointment treated wounds (11.77 ± 0.4) as compared with the non-treated diabetic rats. M. villosus ointment was efficacious in healing wounds in diabetic rats and heals wound faster than honey and may hold potential for wound healing in diabetes mellitus sufferers. However, the wound healing mechanism of this ointment

Keywords: collagen, diabetic rats, honey, Mitracarpus villosus, ointment, wound healing

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93 Solid Phase Micro-Extraction/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Study of Volatile Compounds from Strawberry Tree and Autumn Heather Honeys

Authors: Marinos Xagoraris, Elisavet Lazarou, Eleftherios Alissandrakis, Christos S. Pappas, Petros A. Tarantilis


Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) and autumn heather (Erica manipuliflora Salisb.) are important beekeeping plants of Greece. Six monofloral honeys (four strawberry tree, two autumn heather) were analyzed by means of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME, 60 min, 60 oC) followed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) for the purpose of assessing the botanical origin. A Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber was employed, and benzophenone was used as internal standard. The volatile compounds with higher concentration (μg/ g of honey expressed as benzophenone) from strawberry tree honey samples, were α-isophorone (2.50-8.12); 3,4,5-trimethyl-phenol (0.20-4.62); 2-hydroxy-isophorone (0.06-0.53); 4-oxoisophorone (0.38-0.46); and β-isophorone (0.02-0.43). Regarding heather honey samples, the most abundant compounds were 1-methoxy-4-propyl-benzene (1.22-1.40); p-anisaldehyde (0.97-1.28); p-anisic acid (0.35-0.58); 2-furaldehyde (0.52-0.57); and benzaldehyde (0.41-0.56). Norisoprenoids are potent floral markers for strawberry-tree honey. β-isophorone is found exclusively in the volatile fraction of this type of honey, while also α-isophorone, 4-oxoisophorone and 2-hydroxy-isophorone could be considered as additional marker compounds. The analysis of autumn heather honey revealed that phenolic compounds are the most abundant and p-anisaldehyde; 1-methoxy-4-propyl-benzene; and p-anisic acid could serve as potent marker compounds. In conclusion, marker compounds for the determination of the botanical origin for these honeys could be identified as several norisoprenoids and phenolic components were found exclusively or in higher concentrations compared to common Greek honey varieties.

Keywords: SPME/GC-MS, volatile compounds, heather honey, strawberry tree honey

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