Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Avram Aruh

2 Poly(propylene fumarate) Copolymers with Phosphonic Acid-based Monomers Designed as Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

Authors: Görkem Cemali̇, Avram Aruh, Gamze Torun Köse, Erde Can ŞAfak

Abstract:

In order to heal bone disorders, the conventional methods which involve the use of autologous and allogenous bone grafts or permanent implants have certain disadvantages such as limited supply, disease transmission, or adverse immune response. A biodegradable material that acts as structural support to the damaged bone area and serves as a scaffold that enhances bone regeneration and guides bone formation is one desirable solution. Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) which is an unsaturated polyester that can be copolymerized with appropriate vinyl monomers to give biodegradable network structures, is a promising candidate polymer to prepare bone tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, hydroxyl-terminated PPF was synthesized and thermally cured with vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and diethyl vinyl phosphonate (VPES) in the presence of radical initiator benzoyl peroxide (BP), with changing co-monomer weight ratios (10-40wt%). In addition, the synthesized PPF was cured with VPES comonomer at body temperature (37oC) in the presence of BP initiator, N, N-Dimethyl para-toluidine catalyst and varying amounts of Beta-tricalcium phosphate (0-20 wt% ß-TCP) as filler via radical polymerization to prepare composite materials that can be used in injectable forms. Thermomechanical properties, compressive properties, hydrophilicity and biodegradability of the PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES copolymers were determined and analyzed with respect to the copolymer composition. Biocompatibility of the resulting polymers and their composites was determined by the MTS assay and osteoblast activity was explored with von kossa, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin activity analysis and the effects of VPA and VPES comonomer composition on these properties were investigated. Thermally cured PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES copolymers with different compositions exhibited compressive modulus and strength values in the wide range of 10–836 MPa and 14–119 MPa, respectively. MTS assay studies showed that the majority of the tested compositions were biocompatible and the overall results indicated that PPF/VPA and PPF/VPES network polymers show significant potential for applications as bone tissue engineering scaffolds where varying PPF and co-monomer ratio provides adjustable and controllable properties of the end product. The body temperature cured PPF/VPES/ß-TCP composites exhibited significantly lower compressive modulus and strength values than the thermal cured PPF/VPES copolymers and were therefore found to be useful as scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: biodegradable, bone tissue, copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate), scaffold

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1 Preliminary Studies on Poloxamer-Based Hydrogels with Oregano Essential Oil as Potential Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Papillomas

Authors: Ana Maria Muț, Georgeta Coneac, Ioana Olariu, Ștefana Avram, Ioana Zinuca Pavel, Ionela Daliana Minda, Lavinia Vlaia, Cristina Adriana Dehelean, Corina Danciu

Abstract:

Oregano essential oil is obtained from different parts of the plant Origanum vulgare (fam. Lamiaceae) and carvacrol and thymol are primary components, widely recognized for their antimicrobial activity, as well as their antiviral and antifungal properties. Poloxamers are triblock copolymers (Pluronic®), formed of three non-ionic blocks with a hydrophobic polyoxypropylene central chain flanked by two polyoxyethylene hydrophilic chains. They are known for their biocompatibility, sensitivity to temperature changes (sol-to-gel transition of aqueous solution with temperature increase), but also for their amphiphilic and surface active nature determining the formation of micelles, useful for solubilization of different hydrophobic compounds such as the terpenes and terpenoids contained in essential oils. Thus, these polymers, listed in European and US Pharmacopoeia and approved by FDA, are widely used as solubilizers and gelling agents for various pharmaceutical preparations, including topical hydrogels. The aim of this study was to investigate the posibility of solubilizing oregano essential oil (OEO) in polymeric micelles using polyoxypropylene (PPO)-polyoxyethylene (PEO)-polyoxypropylene (PPO) triblock polymers to obtain semisolid systems suitable for topical application. A formulation screening was performed, using Pluronic® F-127 in concentration of 20%, Pluronic® L-31, Pluronic® L-61 and Pluronic® L-62 in concentration of 0.5%, 0.8% respectively 1% to obtain the polymeric micelles-based systems. Then, to each selected system, with or without 10% absolute ethanol, 5% or 8% OEO was added. The obtained transparent poloxamer-based hydrogels containing solubilized OEO were further evaluated for pH, rheological characteristics (flow behaviour, viscosity, consistency and spreadability), using consacrated techniques like potentiometric titration, stationary shear flow test, penetrometric method and parallel plate method. Also, in vitro release and permeation of carvacrol from the hydrogels was carried out, using vertical diffusion cells and synthetic hydrophilic membrane and porcine skin respectively. The pH values and rheological features of all tested formulations were in accordance with official requirements for semisolid cutaneous preparations. But, the formulation containing 0.8% Pluronic® L-31, 10% absolute ethanol, 8% OEO and water and the formulation with 1% Pluronic® L-31, 5% OEO and water, produced the highest cumulative amounts of carvacrol released/permeated through the membrane. The present study demonstrated that oregano essential oil can be successfully solubilized in the investigated poloxamer-based hydrogels. These systems can be further investigated as potential topical therapy for cutaneous papillomas.

Keywords: oregano essential oil, carvacrol, poloxamer, topical hydrogels

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