Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Bartholomew Badar

10 Non-Fungible Token (NFT) - Used in the Music Industry for Independent Artists without a Music Recording Label

Authors: Bartholomew Badar

Abstract:

An NFT is a digital certificate with rights to own an asset, including various valuable digital goods such as art pieces, music items, collectibles, etc. The market for NFTs started developing in 2017 and has lately seen increased growth as crypto-currencies and the blockchain market continue to gain popularity. This study aims to understand potential uses for NFTs concerning the music industry and record labels. Independent artists struggle to distribute and sell their music without the help of a record label. The NFT marketplace could be a great tool to eliminate this problem. The research objective is to identify possibilities for independent artists to own their music rights and share value with an audience. We see a trend of new-school music artists trying to enter the music NFT market by creating visualizers, beats, cover art, etc. To analyze various existing music NFT assets and determine whether or not independent artists could monetize their music without a record label is the main focus of this scholarly paper.

Keywords: blockchain, crypto-currency, music, artist, NFT

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9 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh

Abstract:

Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots

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8 Evaluating Effects of Health and Physical Maintenance on Academic Competencies of University Teachers in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Badar Habib, Muhammad Shakir, Asif Ali, Muhammad Zia ul Haq

Abstract:

Purpose of the research is to examine the university teachers’ health and physical activities regarding their academic competencies. Major objectives of this piece research were (a) to identify health problems of teachers at university level that affects academic competencies of university teachers and (b) to evaluate educational betterment through physical balance. This research is descriptive in nature and questionnaire was used as source of collecting data. Population of the present research comprises teachers, professors and professionals teaching in the universities of Pakistan. 580 university teachers were selected as a population of the study. Random sampling technique was used to identify recipients. Data was feed and filter in Ms-Excel. In the light of the analysis of the study following findings were drawn out. This study found that the university teachers in Pakistan do not adopt proper physical exercise program. They were less interested to burn their extra calories and face diseases such as cramping, contraction of the muscles, diabetics and stomach diseases. This study recommends that seminars/workshops may be held by University establishment; to develop overall awareness among the teachers.

Keywords: evaluating effects of health and physical maintenance, academic competencies, university teachers, Pakistan

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7 An Ideational Grammatical Metaphor of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe's 'There Was a Country'

Authors: Muhammed-Badar Salihu Jibrin, Chibabi Makedono Darlington

Abstract:

This paper studied Ideational Grammatical Metaphor (IGM) of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe’s There Was a Country. It started with a narrative historical style as a recent genre out of the conventional historical writings. In order to explore the linguistic phenomenon using a particular lexico-grammatical tool of IGM, the theoretical background was examined based on Hallidayan Systemic Functional Linguistics. Furthermore, the study considered the possibility of applying IGM to the Part 4 of Achebe’s historical text with recourse to the concept of congruence in IGM and research questions before formulating a working methodology. The analysis of Achebe’s memoir was, thus, presented in tabular forms to account for the quantitative content analysis with qualitative research technique, as well as the metaphorical and congruent wording through nominalization and process types with samples. The frequencies and percentage were given appropriately with respect to each subheadings of the text. To this end, the findings showed that material and relational types indicated dominance. The discussion and implications were that the findings confirmed earlier study by MAK Halliday and C.I.M.I.M. Matthiessen’s suggestion that IGM should show dominance of material type process. The implication is that IGM can be an effective tool for the analysis of a narrative historical text. In conclusion, it was observed that IGM does not only carry grammatical function but also an ideological role in shaping the historical discourse within the narrative mode between writers and readers.

Keywords: ideational grammatical metaphor, nominalization, narrative history, memoire, dominance

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6 What Determine Corporate Board Diligence: Evidence from Sultanate of Oman

Authors: Badar Khalid Hakim Alshabibi

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the determinants of corporate board diligence in the listed firm in Sultanate of Oman, using four corporate board characteristics, the board size, board independence, board gender diversity, and nationality diversity. Design/methodology/approach: Using a sample comprised of all companies listed in the Muscat Securities Exchange over a ten-year period (2009–2019), the study applies Pooled OLS regression to examine the determinants of corporate board diligence. Findings: Drawing from the agency theory and institutional theory, the results reveal that the number of independent board members had statistical significance, suggesting that board independence can improve corporate board diligence, though board size and nationality diversity were found to have a negative association with corporate board diligence. There is no evidence, however, that board gender diversity improves corporate board diligence. Practical implications: The study provides insights for both the investors and regulatory authorities in developing economies. For the investors to be aware about the corporate board characteristics which enhance board monitoring, and for the regulatory authorities to consider revising the corporate governance codes which enhance the quality of governance practices. Originality/value: The study provides new evidence documenting the determinants of corporate board diligence in a developing country such as the Sultanate of Oman, which has a high potential for growth and attracting foreign investment, as stated in Oman vision 2040. In addition, this paper is the first to examine the association between corporate board diligence and corporate board diversity aspects.

Keywords: board diligence, board monitoring, board composition, board diversity, oman

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5 Effect of Species and Slaughtering Age on Quality Characteristics of Different Meat Cuts of Humped Cattle and Water Buffalo Bulls

Authors: Muhammad Kashif Yar, Muhammad Hayat Jaspal, Muawuz Ijaz, Zafar Hayat, Iftikhar Hussain Badar, Jamal Nasir

Abstract:

Meat quality characteristics such as ultimate pH (pHu), color, cooking loss and shear force of eight wholesale meat cuts of humped cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls at two age groups were evaluated. A total of 48 animals, 24 of each species and within species 12 from each 18 and 26 months age group were slaughtered. After 24h post-slaughter, eight meat cuts, i.e., tenderloin, sirloin, rump, cube roll, round, topside, silverside and blade were cut from the carcass. The pHu of tenderloin (5.65 vs 5.55), sirloin (5.67 vs 5.60), cube roll (5.68 vs 5.62) and blade (5.88 vs 5.72) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The tenderloin showed significantly higher (44.63 vs 42.23) and sirloin showed lower (P<0.05) mean L* value (42.28 vs 44.47) in cattle than buffalo whilst the mean L* value of the only tenderloin was affected by animal age. Species had a significant (P<0.05) effect on mean a*, b*, C, and h values of all meat cuts. The shear force of the majority of meat cuts, within species and age groups, varied considerably. The mean shear values of tenderloin, sirloin, cube roll and blade were higher (P<0.05) in buffalo than cattle. The shear values of rump, round, topside and silverside increased significantly (P<0.05) with animal age. In conclusion, primal cuts of cattle showed better meat quality especially tenderness than buffalo. Furthermore, calves should be raised at least up to 26 months of age to maximize profitability by providing better quality meat.

Keywords: buffalo, cattle, meat color, meat quality, slaughtering age, tenderness

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4 Lightweight and Seamless Distributed Scheme for the Smart Home

Authors: Muhammad Mehran Arshad Khan, Chengliang Wang, Zou Minhui, Danyal Badar Soomro

Abstract:

Security of the smart home in terms of behavior activity pattern recognition is a totally dissimilar and unique issue as compared to the security issues of other scenarios. Sensor devices (low capacity and high capacity) interact and negotiate each other by detecting the daily behavior activity of individuals to execute common tasks. Once a device (e.g., surveillance camera, smart phone and light detection sensor etc.) is compromised, an adversary can then get access to a specific device and can damage daily behavior activity by altering the data and commands. In this scenario, a group of common instruction processes may get involved to generate deadlock. Therefore, an effective suitable security solution is required for smart home architecture. This paper proposes seamless distributed Scheme which fortifies low computational wireless devices for secure communication. Proposed scheme is based on lightweight key-session process to upheld cryptic-link for trajectory by recognizing of individual’s behavior activities pattern. Every device and service provider unit (low capacity sensors (LCS) and high capacity sensors (HCS)) uses an authentication token and originates a secure trajectory connection in network. Analysis of experiments is revealed that proposed scheme strengthens the devices against device seizure attack by recognizing daily behavior activities, minimum utilization memory space of LCS and avoids network from deadlock. Additionally, the results of a comparison with other schemes indicate that scheme manages efficiency in term of computation and communication.

Keywords: authentication, key-session, security, wireless sensors

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3 Survival of Byzantine Heritage in Gerace, Calabria

Authors: Marcus Papandrea

Abstract:

Gerace survives as one of the best examples of unspoiled Byzantine heritage in Calabria and the world due to its strategic location. As the last western province of the Byzantine Empire, Calabria was not subject to the destruction or conversion of sites which took place by the Ottomans in the east or the Arabs in Sicily and North Africa. Situated ten kilometers inland atop a 500m high table mountain, Gerace overlooks the Ionian coast and is a gateway to the rugged and wild mountain interior of the Calabrian peninsula. It is only connected to the outside world by a single windy and crumbling road and, unfortunately, faces serious economic and demographic decline. Largely due to its isolation, Gerace has remained understudied and under-recognized in a country that boasts the most UNESCO sites in the world despite its wealth and high density of Byzantine monuments. In 1995, the Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox church, Bartholomew I, visited Gerace. He re-opened and blessed the ancient Byzantine church San Giovanni Crisostomo, reviving Gerace’s cultural origins and links to Byzantium. This paper examines how these links have persisted over a millennium, starting from the community’s humble origins as a refuge for ascetic monks to becoming the “city of one-hundred churches.” While little is documented or written about Gerace’s early history, this paper employs archaeological findings as well as hagiography to present valuable insight into this area which became known as the “land of the saints.” By characterizingGerace’s early Byzantine society and helping to understand its strong spiritual roots, this paper creates the basis necessary to understand the endurance of its Byzantine legacy and appreciate its important cultural contributions to the Italian Renaissance as a hub of Greek literacy which attracted great humanists from the fourteenth to fifteenth century such as Barlaam of Seminara, Simone Autumano, Bessarion, and AthanasioChalkeolopus.Inbringing together these characters, this paper propels Gerace onto the world stage as an important cultural center in medieval Mediterranean history which facilitated cross cultural interactions between Byzantine Greeks, Sicilian Arabs, Jews, and Normans. From this intersection developed a syncretism which led to modern-day Calabrian identity culture and society and is perhaps most visible in some of Gerace’s last surviving monuments from this time. While emphasizing this unassuming town’s cultural importance and unique Byzantine heritage, this paper also highlights the criteria which Gerace fulfills for being included in the World Heritage List.

Keywords: byzantine rite, greek rite, italo-greek, latinization

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2 Resurgence of Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 during November 2015 - February 2016, Pakistan

Authors: Nazish Badar

Abstract:

Background: To investigate the epidemic resurgent wave of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infections during 2015-16 Influenza season(Nov,15 –Feb,16) we compared epidemiological features of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 associated hospitalizations and deaths during this period in Pakistan. Methods: Respiratory samples were tested using CDC Real-Time RT-PCR protocols. Demographic and epidemiological data was analyzed using SPSS. Risk ratio was calculated between age groups to compare patients that were hospitalized and died due to influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 during this period. Results: A total of 1970 specimens were analyzed; influenza virus was detected in 494(25%) samples, including 458(93%) Influenza type A and 36(7%) influenza type B viruses. Amongst influenza A viruses, 351(77%) A(H1N1) pdm09 and 107(23%) were A/H3N2. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 peaked in January 2016 when 250(54%) of tested patients were positive. The resurgent waves increased hospitalizations due to pdmH1N1 as compared to the rest part of the year. Overall 267(76%) A(H1N1) pdm09 cases were hospitalized. Adults ≥18 years showed the highest relative risk of hospitalization (1.2). Median interval of hospitalization and symptom onset was five days for all age groups. During this period, a total of 34 laboratory-confirmed deaths associated with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were reported out of 1970 cases, the case fatality rate was 1.72%. the male to female ratio was 2:1in reported deaths. The majority of the deaths during that period occurred in adults ≥18 years of age. Overall median age of the death cases was 42.8 years with underlying medical conditions. The median number of days between symptom onset was two days. The diagnosis upon admission in influenza-associated fatal cases was pneumonia (53%). Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 9 (26%), eight out of which (88%) required mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: The present resurgence of pandemic virus cannot be attributed to a single factor. The prolong cold and dry weather, possibility of drift in virus and absence of annual flu vaccination may have played an integrated role in resurfacing of pandemic virus.

Keywords: influenza A (H1N1)pdm 09, resurgence, epidemiology, Pakistan

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1 Evolutionary Analysis of Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm 09 in Post Pandemic Period in Pakistan

Authors: Nazish Badar

Abstract:

In early 2009, Pandemic type A (H1N1) Influenza virus emerged globally. Since then, it has continued circulation causing considerable morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolutionary changes in Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 viruses from 2009-15 and their relevance with the current vaccine viruses. Methods: Respiratory specimens were collected with influenza-like illness and Severe Acute Respiratory Illness. Samples were processed according to CDC protocol. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes was carried out comparing representative isolates from Pakistan viruses. Results: Between Jan2009 - Feb 2016, 1870 (13.2%) samples were positive for influenza A out of 14086. During the pandemic period (2009–10), Influenza A/ H1N1pdm 09 was the dominant strain with 366 (45%) of total influenza positives. In the post-pandemic period (2011–2016), a total of 1066 (59.6%) cases were positive Influenza A/ H1N1pdm 09 with co-circulation of different Influenza A subtypes. Overall, the Pakistan A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses grouped in two genetic clades. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses only ascribed to Clade 7 during the pandemic period whereas viruses belong to clade 7 (2011) and clade 6B (2015) during the post-pandemic years. Amino acid analysis of the HA gene revealed mutations at positions S220T, I338V and P100S specially associated with outbreaks in all the analyzed strains. Sequence analyses of post-pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses showed additional substitutions at antigenic sites; S179N,K180Q (SA), D185N, D239G (CA), S202A (SB) and at receptor binding sites; A13T, S200P when compared with pandemic period. Substitution at Genetic markers; A273T (69%), S200P/T (15%) and D239G (7.6%) associated with severity and E391K (69%) associated with virulence was identified in viruses isolated during 2015. Analysis of NA gene revealed outbreak markers; V106I (23%) among pandemic and N248D (100%) during post-pandemic Pakistan viruses. Additional N-Glycosylation site; HA S179N (23%), NA I23T(7.6%) and N44S (77%) in place of N386K(77%) were only found in post-pandemic viruses. All isolates showed histidine (H) at position 275 in NA indicating sensitivity to neuraminidase inhibitors. Conclusion: This study shows that the Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses from Pakistan clustered into two genetic clades, with co-circulation of some variants. Certain key substitutions in the receptor binding site and few changes indicative of virulence were also detected in post-pandemic strains. Therefore, it is imperative to continue monitoring of the viruses for early identification of potential variants of high virulence or emergence of drug-resistant variants.

Keywords: Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, evolutionary analysis, post pandemic period, Pakistan

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